Table 1: The regulation of some vital targets related to lipid metabolism by TCM.

Herb/ingredientsCh absorptionCh transport (LDLR, …)Lipid catabolism (HL, LPL)Ch synthesis (HMG-CoA R)BA synthesis (CYP7A1)OthersReference

Ananas comosus leavesLPL(+)() [35]
Astragalus, Angelica/ferulic acid()[5, 14]
Alpinia officinarum/3-MethylethergalanginPancreatic L()[34]
Artichoke/cynaroside, luteolin()[15]
Cassia protein()[6]
Coptis/berberine(+)LPL(+)()[32, 3638]
Danshen/dihydrotanshinone 1, salvianolic acid, danshensu(+)LDLR(+), CEPT()(−)(+)ABCA4/11(+)[3941]
FTZ(+)HL(+), LPL(+)()(+)[32]
Fenugreek (TEFS) (+)[42]
Fleece-flower root/anthraquinones, Lecithin, ()(+)(+)ACAT() [5]
Garlic MTP()[12]
GinsengLPL(+)[28]
Green tea/catechol, saponin()FAS()[17, 18]
Gynostemma pentaphyllum/gypenoside() [43]
Hawthorn/hawthorn-flavoneACAT()LPL(+)() (+)ACAT(−)[24]
Resin of the guggul tree/guggulsterone() (+)[44]
Hawthorn, ligustrum lucidum/oleanolic acid()ACAT()[11, 51]
Notoginseng/saponinFAS()[16]
Pectin(+)(+)[46]
Pleurotus eryngii()Pancreatic L()[33]
Plantago ovataCEPT()(+)(+)LACT()[48]
PsylliumCEPT(−)(+)(+)ApoB/LCAT() [47]
Red yeast/xuezhikang(+)LPL(+)()[27]
Tribulus terrestris/saponinsHL(+), LPL(+)[31]
Turmeric/curcuminLPL(+)[25, 26]