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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 985151, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/985151
Research Article

Epimedium koreanum Nakai Water Extract Exhibits Antiviral Activity against Porcine Epidermic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

1Korean Medicine (KM)-Based Herbal Drug Research Group, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-811, Republic of Korea
2Optifarm Solution, 48 Songnam-ri, Seonggeo-eup, Seobuk-gu, Cheonan-si 331-834, Chungcheongnam-do, Republic of Korea

Received 18 May 2012; Revised 19 October 2012; Accepted 6 November 2012

Academic Editor: Virginia S. Martino

Copyright © 2012 Won-Kyung Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes diarrhea of pigs age-independently and death of young piglets, resulting in economic loss of porcine industry. We have screened 333 natural oriental herbal medicines to search for new antiviral candidates against PEDV. We found that two herbal extracts, KIOM 198 and KIOM 124, contain significant anti-PED viral effect. KIOM 198 and KIOM 124 were identified as Epimedium koreanum Nakai and Lonicera japonica Thunberg, respectively. The further plaque and CPE inhibition assay in vitro showed that KIOM 198 has much stronger antiviral activity than KIOM 124. Additionally, KIOM 198 exhibited a similar extent of antiviral effect against other subtypes of Corona virus such as sm98 and TGE viruses. Cytotoxicity results showed that KIOM 198 is nontoxic on the cells and suggest that it can be delivered safely for therapy. Furthermore, when we orally administered KIOM 198 to piglets and then infected them with PEDV, the piglets did not show any disease symptoms like diarrhea and biopsy results showed clean intestine, whereas control pigs without KIOM 198 treatment exhibited PED-related severe symptoms. These results imply that KIOM 198 contains strong antiviral activity and has a potential to be developed as an antiviral phytomedicine to treat PEDV-related diseases in pigs.