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Figure 4: SFN treatment preserves the MMP after the exposure to GM in LLC-PK1 cells. MMP was determined by using the JC-1 probe as an indicator of mitochondrial function. Cells were incubated with (SFN and SFN + GM groups) or without (CT and GM groups) 5 μM SFN for 24 h, followed by the addition of 8 mM GM (GM), 5 μM SFN (SFN), 5 μM  mM GM (SFN + GM), or medium (CT) for 1, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. Cells with depolarized mitochondria are depicted by green fluorescence (monomeric JC-1) and cells with polarized mitochondria are depicted by orange/yellow fluorescence (aggregate JC-1). Mitochondrial depolarization is observed at 3 and 6 h in cells in the GM group. This fall in MMP is prevented by the SFN treatment. MMP was recovered in the GM groups on 12 h and 24 h of GM exposure.