Table 1: Comparison of intervention and control group conditions in community-based RCTs of yoga for adults with depression.

Author, dateIntervention group(s) Control group(s)

Woolery et al. (2004) [16]Group class: Iyengar yoga 1 hour twice per week × 5 weeksWait-list control

Sharma et al. (2006) [18]Home practice after initial group training: Sahaja yoga (meditation with specific hand movements) 30 minutes three times per week × 8 weeksPlacebo control: sham meditation control (hands in different positions, sitting with eyes closed) 30 minutes three times per week × 8 weeks

Butler et al. (2008) [17](a) Group class: Hatha yoga + psychoeducation 2 hours per week × 8 weeks + plus 4-hour booster session at week 12; home practice: 30 minutes daily 6 days per week recommended with manual and tapes
(b) Group class: hypnosis + psycho-education 90 minutes per week × 10 weeks plus 4-hour booster at week 12
Active control: psycho-education alone (reading materials—no group sessions)

Krishnamurthy and Telles (2007) [15](a) Group class: yoga 30 minutes per week × 24 weeks
(b) Ayurveda herbal therapies
Wait-list control

Field et al. (2012) [14](a) Group class: yoga 20 minutes per week × 12 weeks
(b) Individual massages 20 minutes per week × 12 weeks (delivered by researchers)
Usual care control

Shahidi et al. (2011) [19]Group Laughter yoga 30 minutes × 10 sessions (a) Active control: group exercise 30 minutes × 10 sessions
(b) Usual care control

The literature review inclusion criteria: community-based, randomized, and controlled studies published in 2000–2012; English; participants with confirmed diagnosis of depression/dysthymia or high levels of depressive symptoms; yoga intervention group. Exclusion criteria: participants who were inpatient/hospital-based; had no clinical or confirmatory diagnosis of depression/dysthymia; nonrandomized and noncontrolled designs; participants were excluded if they reported a psychiatric diagnosis.