Table 1: Summary of randomized clinical studies of medicinal plants or related natural product in fibromyalgia.

Reference/yearPlant/routeSample sizeDuration of studyOutcome measuredClinical assessment instrumentFindings of the studyAdverse effectsJadad score

Casanueva et al., 2012 [15]Capsaicin/topical10812 weeksPain
Fatigue
Anxiety
Depression
VAS
BPI
MPQ
FIQ
FSS
Significant improvement in pain, depression, fatigueTransient burning and pricking 5

Ko et al., 2007 [16]Oil 24/topical133one monthPain
Subjective surveys of pain Measurements of tender point
VAS
FIQ
FDK 10
TePs
Significant improvement in surveys of pain and in measures of tender pointSkin irritation4

Lister, 2002 [17]Coenzyme
Q10 and Ginkgo biloba/oral
2312 weeksQuality of lifeSF-36Significant improvement in quality of lifeLittle or no clinical significance1

Lukaczer et al., 2005 [18]Meta050/oral548 weeksPain
Quality of life Physical function
VAS
FIQ
SF-36
PCS
MCS
Significant improvement in painNo evidence suggested 1

McCarty et al., 1994 [19]Due capsaicin/topical454 weeksPain
Tenderness
Stiffness
FIQ
VAS
TePs
Significant improvement in pain, tenderness, and stiffnessModerate transient stinging or burning3

Rutledge and Jones, 2007 [20]Oil 24/topical4312 weeksPain
Physical performance Exercise volume
Physical function
BPI
GSI
BMI
HGS
FDK
Significant improvement in physical functionNo evidence suggested4

Skrabek et al., 2008 [21]Nabilone/oral 404 weeksPain
Anxiety
VAS
FIQ
Significant improvement in pain and anxietyNo evidence suggested5

Ware et al., 2010 [22]Nabilone/oral2910 weeksSleep disruption Pain
Quality of life Mood
ISI
LSEQ
MPQ
SF-36
FIQ
HADs-D
Significant improvement in quality of sleepDizziness subjects, nausea, dry mouth, drowsiness, constipation
Insomnia
4

BMI: Body Mass Index. BPI: Brief Pain Inventory. FIQ: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Force Dial FDK 40: Standard Pressure Algometry. FSS: Fatigue Severity Scale. GSI: Global Severe Index. HADs-D: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. HGS: Handgrip Strength. ISI: Insomnia Severity Index (ISI); LSEQ: The Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire. MCS: Mental Function Score. MPQ: The McGill Pain Questionnaire. PCS: Physical Function Score. SF-36: Quality of Life-Short-Form 36; TePs: Pressure Algometry Measurements of Tender Point. VAS: Visual Analog Scale. VASs: Visual Analogue Scale.