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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 160592, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/160592
Research Article

Kaurenoic Acid from Aralia continentalis Inhibits Biofilm Formation of Streptococcus mutans

1Jeonju Biomaterials Institute, Jeonju 561-360, Republic of Korea
2Wonkwang Bone Regeneration Research Institute, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
3Department of Pedodontics, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
4Department of Oral Biochemistry, School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea
5Wonkwang Research Institute for Food Industry, Iksan 570-749, Republic of Korea

Received 10 December 2012; Accepted 28 February 2013

Academic Editor: F. R. F. Nascimento

Copyright © 2013 Seung-Il Jeong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We isolated a single chemical compound from A. continentalis and identified it to be kaurenoic acid (KA) and investigated the influence of anticariogenic properties. Inhibitory effects of KA on cariogenic properties such as growth, acid production, biofilm formation, and the adherence of S. mutans were evaluated. Furthermore, real-time PCR analysis was performed to evaluate the influence of KA on the genetic expression of virulence factors. KA significantly inhibited the growth and acid production of S. mutans at 2–4 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL of KA, respectively. Furthermore, the adherence onto S-HAs was inhibited at 3-4 μg/mL of KA and biofilm formation was significantly inhibited when treated with 3 μg/mL KA and completely inhibited at 4 μg/mL. Also, the inhibitory effect of KA on biofilm formation was confirmed by SEM. In confocal laser scanning microscopy, bacterial viability gradually decreased by KA in a dose dependent manner. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expressions of gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, spaP, brpA, relA, and vicR were significantly decreased in S. mutans when it was treated with KA. These results suggest that KA from A. continentalis may be a useful agent for inhibiting the cariogenic properties of S. mutans.