Table 1: Main characteristics of included RCTs.

Study Study designPatient populationTreatment groupControl groupOutcome measures

Yang et al. [16]Parallel 2-arm296 participantsMoxibustion at bilateral BL67; twice daily, 30 min each time, 15 min each side; 7 d course Knee-chest therapy; twice daily, 15 min each time NCPCT

Cardini and Weixin [17] Parallel 2-arm260 participantsMoxibustion at bilateral BL67; first 87 subjects once daily for 1 week, next 43 women twice daily for 7 d; 30 min each time, 15 min each side Observation; once or twice daily for 30 min each time, 15 min each side (i) NCPDE
(ii) NCPCT
(iii) CS
(iv) UO
(v) AS
(vi) PD
(vii) PRM
(viii) IFD

Cardini et al. [18] Parallel 2-arm123 participantsMoxibustion at bilateral BL67; twice daily, 30 min each time, 15 min each side for 1 or 2 wk Observation (i) NCPCT
(ii) PRM
(iii) PA

Do et al. [19] Parallel 2-arm20 participantsMoxibustion at bilateral BL67; twice daily, 20 min each time, 10 min each side for 10 d Usual antenatal care for 10 d (i) NCPDE
(ii) CS
(iii) AS
(iv) PD
(v) PRM

Guittier et al. [20] Parallel 2-arm212 participantsMoxibustion at bilateral BL67; three times weekly; 20 min each time, 10 min each side for 2 wk Expectant management care (i) NCPDE
(ii) CS
(iii) AS
(iv) CBPH

Vas et al. [21]Parallel 3-arm270 participants Moxibustion at BL67; 20 min each time, 2 wk Knee-chest therapy; 20 min each time, 2 wk (i) NCPDE
(ii) CS
(iii) PD

Yang [22]Parallel 2-arm206 participants Moxibustion at bilateral BL67 + knee-chest therapy; 15–20 min, twice daily, 7 d course for 1 wk Knee-chest therapy, 15–20 min each time, twice daily, 7 d course for 1 wk NCPCT

d: day, wk: week, NCPDE: number of cephalic presentations at delivery (excluding external cephalic version), NCPCT: number of cephalic presentations after cessation of treatment, CS: cesarean section, UO: use of oxytocin, AS: Apgar scores <7 at 5 min, PD: preterm delivery, PA: placental abruption, PRM: premature rupture of membranes, IFD: intrauterine fetal death, CBPH: cord blood pH less than 7.1.