- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 262796, 13 pages
The Phytochemical Shikonin Stimulates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) in Skin Wound Healing
Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, 128 Academia Road, Section 2, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan
Received 28 November 2012; Accepted 8 May 2013
Academic Editor: Taiping Fan
Copyright © 2013 Shu-Yi Yin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- K. Touno, J. Tamaoka, Y. Ohashi, and K. Shimomura, “Ethylene induced shikonin biosynthesis in shoot culture of Lithospermum erythrorhizon,” Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 2005.
- F. E. Koehn and G. T. Carter, “The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 206–220, 2005.
- H. Chung, M. Kang, C. Cho et al., “Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-alpha by Lithospermi radix in mouse peritoneal macrophages,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 412–417, 2005.
- X. Chen, L. Yang, J. J. Oppenheim, and O. M. Zack Howard, “Cellular pharmacology studies of shikonin derivatives,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 199–209, 2002.
- M. Hayashi, S. Tsurumi, and H. Fujimura, “Pharmacological activities of Lithospermum root,” Japanese Journal of Pharmcology, vol. 65, pp. 195–196, 1969.
- V. Staniforth, S. Wang, L. Shyur, and N. Yang, “Shikonins, phytocompounds from Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibit the transcriptional activation of human tumor necrosis factor alpha promoter in vivo,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 279, no. 7, pp. 5877–5885, 2004.
- S. Chiu and N. Yang, “Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α through selective blockade of Pre-mRNA splicing by shikonin,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 1640–1645, 2007.
- W. Han, L. Li, S. Qiu et al., “Shikonin circumvents cancer drug resistance by induction of a necroptotic death,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 1641–1649, 2007.
- K. Nakaya and T. Miyasaka, “A shikonin derivative, β-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin, is an ATP-non-competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases,” Anti-Cancer Drugs, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 683–693, 2003.
- S. Li, Ben Cao Gang Mu, vol. 1, 1590.
- B. S. Kaith, N. S. Kaith, and N. S. Chauhan, “Anti-inflammatory effect of Arnebia euchroma root extracts in rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 77–80, 1996.
- I. Sakaguchi, M. Tsujimura, N. Ikeda et al., “Granulomatous tissue formation of shikon and shikonin by air pouch method,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 650–655, 2001.
- E. D. Hay, “An overview of epithelio-mesenchymal transformation,” Acta Anatomica, vol. 154, no. 1, pp. 8–20, 1995.
- R. Levayer and T. Lecuit, “Breaking down EMT,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 757–759, 2008.
- M. Zeisberg and R. Kalluri, “Fibroblasts emerge via epithelial-mesenchymal transition in chronic kidney fibrosis,” Frontiers in Bioscience, vol. 13, no. 18, pp. 6991–6998, 2008.
- H. Acloque, M. S. Adams, K. Fishwick, M. Bronner-Fraser, and M. A. Nieto, “Epithelial-mesenchymal transitions: the importance of changing cell state in development and disease,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1438–1449, 2009.
- G. Moreno-Bueno, H. Peinado, P. Molina et al., “The morphological and molecular features of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,” Nature protocols, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 1591–1613, 2009.
- Y. Katoh and M. Katoh, “Hedgehog signaling, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and miRNA (review),” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 271–275, 2008.
- P. A. Gregory, A. G. Bert, E. L. Paterson et al., “The miR-200 family and miR-205 regulate epithelial to mesenchymal transition by targeting ZEB1 and SIP1,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 593–601, 2008.
- J.-H. Wang, K.-F. Lin, S. A. Benson, et al., “Tissue array transgene expression system for the evaluation of effect of medicinal herbs on wound-healing,” Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 133–134.
- D. J. Lockhart, H. Dong, M. C. Byrne et al., “Expression monitoring by hybridization to high-density oligonucleotide arrays,” Nature Biotechnology, vol. 14, no. 13, pp. 1675–1680, 1996.
- C. Wang, M. Chiao, P. Yen et al., “Modulatory effects of Echinacea purpurea extracts on human dendritic cells: a cell- and gene-based study,” Genomics, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 801–808, 2006.
- C. Wang, V. Staniforth, M. Chiao et al., “Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells,” BMC Genomics, vol. 9, article 479, 2008.
- S. Yin, W. Wang, P. Wang et al., “Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses,” BMC Genomics, vol. 11, no. 1, article 612, 2010.
- V. Ambros, “A hierarchy of regulatory genes controls a larva-to-adult developmental switch in C. elegans,” Cell, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 49–57, 1989.
- V. Ambros, “The functions of animal microRNAs,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7006, pp. 350–355, 2004.
- H. R. Horvitz, P. W. Sternberg, I. S. Greenwald, W. Fixsen, and H. M. Ellis, “Mutations that affect neural cell lineages and cell fates during the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans,” Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 48, part 2, pp. 453–463, 1983.
- L. Song and R. S. Tuan, “MicroRNAs and cell differentiation in mammalian development,” Birth Defects Research C, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 140–149, 2006.
- Y. Li, Q. Zhang, X. Yin et al., “Generation of iPSCs from mouse fibroblasts with a single gene, Oct4, and small molecules,” Cell Research, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 196–204, 2011.
- Y. Zhao, X. Yin, H. Qin et al., “Two supporting factors greatly improve the efficiency of human iPSC generation,” Cell Stem Cell, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 475–479, 2008.
- S. Griffiths-Jones, H. K. Saini, S. van Dongen, and A. J. Enright, “miRBase: tools for microRNA genomics,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 36, no. 1, Database issue, pp. D154–D158, 2008.
- W. Huber, A. von Heydebreck, H. Sültmann, A. Poustka, and M. Vingron, “Variance stabilization applied to microarray data calibration and to the quantification of differential expression,” Bioinformatics, vol. 18, supplement 1, pp. S96–S104, 2002.
- S. Vorwerk, K. Ganter, Y. Cheng, J. Hoheisel, P. F. Stähler, and M. Beier, “Microfluidic-based enzymatic on-chip labeling of miRNAs,” New Biotechnology, vol. 25, no. 2-3, pp. 142–149, 2008.
- C. Yan, W. A. Grimm, W. L. Garner et al., “Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human skin wound healing is induced by tumor necrosis factor-α through bone morphogenic protein-2,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 176, no. 5, pp. 2247–2258, 2010.
- D. G. Greenhalgh, K. H. Sprugel, M. J. Murray, and R. Ross, “PDGF and FGF stimulate wound healing in the genetically diabetic mouse,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 1235–1246, 1990.
- S. Schuierer, L. Tranchevent, U. Dengler, and Y. Moreau, “Large-scale benchmark of Endeavour using MetaCore maps,” Bioinformatics, vol. 26, no. 15, Article ID btq307, pp. 1922–1923, 2010.
- R. W. Carthew and E. J. Sontheimer, “Origins and Mechanisms of miRNAs and siRNAs,” Cell, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 642–655, 2009.
- C. M. Croce and G. A. Calin, “miRNAs, cancer, and stem cell division,” Cell, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 6–7, 2005.
- A. Khvorova, A. Reynolds, and S. D. Jayasena, “Functional siRNAs and miRNAs exhibit strand bias,” Cell, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 209–216, 2003.
- E. J. Sontheimer and R. W. Carthew, “Silence from within: endogenous siRNAs and miRNAs,” Cell, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 9–12, 2005.
- X. Chen, J. Oppenheim, and O. M. Z. Howard, “Shikonin, a component of antiinflammatory Chinese herbal medicine, selectively blocks chemokine binding to CC chemokine receptor-1,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 229–236, 2001.
- T. Hisa, Y. Kimura, K. Takada, F. Suzuki, and M. Takigawa, “Shikonin, an ingredient of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, inhibits angiogenesis in vivo and in vitro,” Anticancer Research, vol. 18, no. 2A, pp. 783–790, 1998.
- S. A. Eming, T. Krieg, and J. M. Davidson, “Inflammation in wound repair: molecular and cellular mechanisms,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 127, no. 3, pp. 514–525, 2007.
- M. Spies, O. Nesic, R. E. Barrow, J. R. Perez-Polo, and D. N. Herndon, “Liposomal IGF-1 gene transfer modulates pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in the burn wound,” Gene Therapy, vol. 8, no. 18, pp. 1409–1415, 2001.
- X. Wang, G. Han, P. Owens, Y. Siddiqui, and A. G. Li, “Role of TGFβ-mediated inflammation in cutaneous wound healing,” Journal of Investigative Dermatology Symposium Proceedings, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 112–117, 2006.
- S. Chiu, S. Tsao, P. Hwang, S. Vanisree, Y. Chen, and N. Yang, “Differential functional genomic effects of anti-inflammatory phytocompounds on immune signaling,” BMC Genomics, vol. 11, no. 1, article 513, 2010.
- M. Zeisberg and E. G. Neilson, “Biomarkers for epithelial-mesenchymal transitions,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1429–1437, 2009.
- R. Kalluri and R. A. Weinberg, “The basics of epithelial-mesenchymal transition,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 6, pp. 1420–1428, 2009.