Table 1: Experimental details of fMRI studies on BOLD responses of de-qi.

StudiesAcupoints usedStimulationSensations evaluatedGrouping

Studies that compared central BOLD responses between de-qi and sharp pain groups

Hui et al., 2000 [54]LI4Manualde-qi, painde-qi group: 11; sharp pain group: 2
Hui et al., 2005 [33]ST36ManualTheir own scalede-qi group: 11; sharp pain group: 4
Hui et al., 2009 [55]LI4, LV3, ST36ManualTheir own scalede-qi group: 37 (scans); sharp pain group: 29 (scans)
Sun et al., 2012 [40]ST36ManualTheir own scalede-qi group: 19; sharp pain group: 19

Studies where no subjects reported sharp pain/excluded subjects who experienced sharp pain from fMRI analysis

Napadow et al., 2005 [34]ST36ElectroTheir own scaleTotal: 13
Jeun et al., 2005 [78]GB34ManualTheir own scaleTotal: 10
Kong et al., 2007 [79]GB37, UB60ElectroSASSTotal: 8
Zhou and Jia, 2008 [66] HT7, ST36, ST40, KI3ElectroTheir own scaleTotal: 26
Fang et al., 2009 [32]LV3, LV2, ST44ManualTheir own scaleTotal: 10
Na et al., 2009 [80]GB34ManualTheir own scaleTotal: 12
Bai et al., 2010 [81]PC6, PC7, GB37ElectroTheir own scaleTotal: 36
Qiu et al., 2010 [82]LI4, LV3, ST36ManualTheir own scaleTotal: 38
Fang et al., 2012 [85]CV4, CV12ElectroTheir own scaleTotal: 17
Sun et al., 2012 [40]ST36ManualTheir own scaleTotal: 52