Table 2: List of differential metabolites in urine after being exposed to essential oil inhalation for 10 days (VAE group) to themselves before being exposed to essential oil inhalation (VBE group).

ClassesMetabolitesVIP1FC2 3

Amino acidsArginine1.803.76
Ornithine1.780.50

Amino acids relatedHomocysteine1.982.05
Betaine2.211.79
5-Oxoproline2.030.61
Tyramine2.580.47

AlcoholsHistidinol1.660.34
Threitol2.770.48
Sorbitol1.980.16

CarbohydratesInositol2.480.53
Sucrose1.970.27
Xylose1.900.61

Organic acidsHippurate1.990.17
Benzoate2.280.34
Methylmalonate1.940.62
Gluconate1.760.70
Ferulate1.650.37
Pipecolinic acid1.620.74
Homovanillate2.340.40
4-Hydroxybenzoate1.750.48
4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid1.990.44
Threonic acid2.520.57
Glycerate2.410.56
Phenol1.800.49
Cis-Aconitic acid1.910.53
Succinate2.160.52

PyrimidineUracil1.990.54

OthersPhosphate2.240.69
Hydroquinone1.740.55

1Variable importance in the projection (VIP) was obtained from PLS-DA model with a threshold of 1.0;
2fold change (FC) was obtained by comparing those metabolites in VAE group to VBE group;
3 values were calculated from Student’s -test;
FC with a value >1 indicates a relatively higher concentration present in VAE group, while a value <1 means a relatively lower concentration as compared to VBE.