- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 364216, 18 pages
Acupuncture for Spinal Cord Injury and Its Complications: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
1School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea
2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea
3Korean Medicine Hospital, Pusan National University, Yangsan 626-870, Republic of Korea
Received 21 October 2012; Accepted 8 December 2012
Academic Editor: Gerhard Litscher
Copyright © 2013 In Heo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- National Center for Injury Prevention, Injury Fact Book, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA, 2006.
- L. Ottomanelli and L. Lind, “Review of critical factors related to employment after spinal cord injury: implications for research and vocational services,” Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 503–531, 2009.
- Z. G. Chen, J. J. Zhang, Z. M. Wong, H. L. Li, and A. L. Zhang, “The clinical study of Governer vessel electroacupuncture treatment on the lower extremity spasticity in patients with spinal cord injury,” Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 6–7, 1995.
- A. M. K. Wong, C. P. Leong, T. Y. Su, S. W. Yu, W. C. Tsai, and C. P. C. Chen, “Clinical trial of acupuncture for patients with spinal cord injuries,” American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2003.
- X. M. Cui, X. M. Pan, X. M. Zhang, H. Z. Deng, and S. Y. Yao, “The rehabilitation function of electroacupuncture treatment in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury,” Journal of Guangdong Medical College, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 170–171, 2004.
- S. Xu, X. Gu, and M. Gu, “Study on effects of electrical acupuncture. Stimulation on activities of daily living in patients with spinal cord injury,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, no. 1, p. 30, 2004.
- L. X. Chen, J. F. Duan, X. R. Zhan, Q. Xie, and Q. H. Long, “Electrical and auricular acupucture for patients with acute spinal cord injury,” Clinical Journal of Rehabilitation Theory and Practice, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 934–935, 2005.
- X. D. Gu, Y. H. Yao, M. Gu, J. M. Fu, Y. Ren, and H. K. Yin, “Clinical study on functional independence measure for patients with spinal cord injury of trauma treated by electroacupuncture,” Acupuncture Research, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 175–178, 2005.
- C. H. Ma, “The effects of combination treatment of electroacupuncture and weight lift walking exercise on the walking function of spinal cord injury patients,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 17, p. 186, 2005.
- G. Sheng, J. Huo, and L. Wang, “Clinical observation on electro-acupuncture treatment in 24 cases of spinal cord injury,” Chinese Journal of Traditional Medical Science and Technology, vol. 16, no. 2, p. 130, 2009.
- Z. G. Huang and B. You, “Acupuncture treatment on 32 cases of urinary retention after spinal cord injury,” Shanghai Journal of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 21, no. 2, p. 31, 2002.
- S. Zhang, “Clinical observation on electro-acupuncture treatment in 45 cases of neurogenic bladder following spinal cord injury,” Zhejiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 43, no. 11, p. 654, 2008.
- L.-Y. Zhou, Z.-G. Yu, J Li, et al., “Therapeutic effects of electro-acupuncture treatment on posterior sacral foramia and sacral hiatus on neurogenic voiding dysfunction,” Journal of Harbin Medical University, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 367–369, 2007.
- P. T. Cheng, M. K. Wong, and P. L. Chang, “A therapeutic trial of acupuncture in neurogenic bladder of spinal cord injured patients—a preliminary report,” Spinal Cord, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 476–480, 1998.
- X. D. Gu, J. M. Fu, and Y. H. Yao, “Clinical observation of electroacupuncture on eight-liao points in 64 bladder dysfunction patients with spinal cord injury,” Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 47–48, 2005.
- Y. Liu, M. Xie, W. Feng, X. Zhou, and L. Zhou, “Case study on the effect of Hua-Tuo-Jia-Ji-Xue acupuncture treatment of patient with bladder dysfunction after spinal cord injury,” Shandong Medical Journal, vol. 49, no. 12, p. 95, 2009.
- T. A. Dyson-Hudson, P. Kadar, M. LaFountaine et al., “Acupuncture for chronic shoulder pain in persons with spinal cord injury: a small-scale clinical trial,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 88, no. 10, pp. 1276–1283, 2007.
- T. A. Dyson-Hudson, S. C. Shiflett, S. C. Kirshblum, J. E. Bowen, and E. L. Druin, “Acupuncture and trager psychophysical integration in the treatment of wheelchair user's shoulder pain in individuals with spinal cord injury,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 82, no. 8, pp. 1038–1046, 2001.
- R. P. Yezierski, “Spinal cord injury pain: spinal and supraspinal mechanisms,” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 95–108, 2009.
- B. S. Bregman, J. V. Coumans, H. N. Dai et al., “Transplants and neurotrophic factors increase regeneration and recovery of function after spinal cord injury,” Progress in Brain Research, vol. 137, pp. 257–273, 2002.
- N. Attal, G. Mazaltarine, B. Perrouin-Verbe, and T. Albert, “Chronic neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury patients. What is the efficacy of pharmacological treatments with a general mode of administration? (oral, transdermal, intravenous),” Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 124–141, 2009.
- C. Norrbrink Budh, J. Kowalski, and T. Lundeberg, “A comprehensive pain management programme comprising educational, cognitive and behavioural interventions for neuropathic pain following spinal cord injury,” Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 172–180, 2006.
- S. R. Silverman, L. A. Schertz, H. K. Yuen, J. D. Lowman, and C. S. Bickel, “Systematic review of the methodological quality and outcome measures utilized in exercise interventions for adults with spinal cord injury,” Spinal Cord, vol. 10, no. 50, pp. 718–727, 2012.
- T. Huston, J. Gassaway, C. Wilson, S. Gordons, J. Koval, and A. Schwebe, “The SCIRehab project: treatment time spent in SCI rehabilitation. Psychology treatment time during inpatient spinal cord injury rehabilitation,” Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 196–204, 2011.
- N. B. Finnerup and T. S. Jensen, “Spinal cord injury pain—mechanisms and treatment,” European Journal of Neurology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 73–82, 2004.
- P. T. Dorsher and P. M. McIntosh, “Acupuncture's effects in treating the sequelae of acute and chronic spinal cord injuries: a review of allopathic and traditional Chinese medicine literature,” Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 428108, 2011.
- N. Robinson, A. Lorenc, W. Ding, J. Jia, M. Bovey, and X. M. Wang, “Exploring practice characteristics and research priorities of practitioners of traditional acupuncture in China and the EU-A survey,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 604–613, 2012.
- V. Wong, D. K. Cheuk, S. Lee, and V. Chu, “Acupuncture for acute management and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 5, article CD007700, 2011.
- X. F. Zhao, Y. Du, P. G. Liu, and S. Wang, “Acupuncture for stroke: evidence of effectiveness, safety, and cost from systematic reviews,” Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 226–233, 2012.
- B. C. Shin, M. S. Lee, J. C. Kong, I. Jang, and J. J. Park, “Acupuncture for spinal cord injury survivors in Chinese literature: a systematic review,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 17, no. 5-6, pp. 316–327, 2009.
- D. D. Cardenas and E. R. Felix, “Pain after spinal cord injury: a review of classification, treatment approaches, and treatment assessment,” PM and R, vol. 1, no. 12, pp. 1077–1090, 2009.
- D. Moher, A. Liberati, J. Tetzlaff, and D. G. Altman, “Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 336–341, 2010.
- J. Higgins and S. Green, “Analysing and presenting results,” in Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 4.2.6 [updated September 2006], pp. 79–165, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 2008.
- C. G. Maher, C. Sherrington, R. D. Herbert, A. M. Moseley, and M. Elkins, “Reliability of the PEDro scale for rating quality of randomized controlled trials,” Physical Therapy, vol. 83, no. 8, pp. 713–721, 2003.
- N. C. Foley, S. K. Bhogal, R. W. Teasell, Y. Bureau, and M. R. Speechley, “Estimates of quality and reliability with the physiotherapy evidence-based database scale to assess the methodology of randomized controlled trials of pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions,” Physical Therapy, vol. 86, no. 6, pp. 817–824, 2006.
- M. Paci, G. Matulli, M. Baccini, L. A. Rinaldi, and S. Baldassi, “Reported quality of randomized controlled trials in neglect rehabilitation,” Neurological Sciences, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 159–163, 2010.
- Y. Zhang, “Relationship between acupuncture and recovery of spinal cord injury,” Journal of Traditional Chinese Orthopedics and Traumatology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 58–59, 2002.
- L. Y. Zhou, J. Li, C. M. Li et al., “Observation on therapeutic effect of electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL 35) on retention of urine induced by spinal cord injury,” Chin Acupunct Moxibustion, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 237–239, 2006.
- W. W. Chen and N. Li, “Acupuncture for the lower extremity spasm induced by spinal injury: random controlled trial of single case,” Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 473–477, 2010.
- X. F. Liu, Z. A. Liao, W. H. Deng, X. L. Guan, and J. Luo, “Effects of drug injection at eight-liao point combined with bladder function training on bladder dysfunction due to spinal cord injury,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 9, no. 25, pp. 142–143, 2005.
- S. T. Xing, D. Wang, X. H. Wen et al., “Clinical research of electroacupuncture combined with acupoint-injection of botulinum toxin A in treating the muscle spasticity by spinal cord injury,” China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 350–353, 2010.
- L. M. Shan, X. J. Wu, and C. M. Yang, “Clinical effects of acupuncture combined with Tuina manipulation for the treatment of paralysis induced by traumatic spinal cord injury,” Zhong Yi Zheng Gu, vol. 11, no. 9, pp. 14–15, 1999.
- C. Yan, “The effect of antispasmodic on the physical functions of cases with spinal paraplegia,” Modern Rehabilitation, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1162–1163, 1999.
- G. H. Zhang and S. F. Sun, “Clinical effects of Yi-qi-huo-Xue-tang plus acupuncture treatment on the 20 patients with spinal cord injury,” Hebei Chinese Medicine, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 21–22, 2004.
- X. Y. Teng, “Clinical effects of acupuncture treatment on the bladder dysfunction,” Journal of Clinical Acupuncture and Moxibustion, vol. 19, no. 4, p. 17, 2003.
- Z. H. Yue, W. L. Liu, and J. M. Jiang, “Acupuncture treatment and functional assessment on the spasticity of extremity,” Chinese Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 177–178, 2002.
- W. Zhang, W. L. Liu, and Y. L. Zhao, “Clinical study of 52 cases of spasmodic paralysis,” Zhong Guo Yi Kan, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 52–53, 1999.
- Z. Liao, “Comparison analysis of cervical disease treatment by acupuncture and maneuver therapy,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 7, no. 6, p. 1049, 2003.
- C. W. Liu, C. H. Chen, Y. F. Huang, and M. H. Huang, “Auricular acupressure as a treatment for neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury,” European Journal of Pain Supplements, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 132, 2010.
- P. Jüni, D. G. Altman, and M. Egger, “Systematic reviews in health care: assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials,” British Medical Journal, vol. 323, no. 7303, pp. 42–46, 2001.
- D. Moher, S. Hopewell, K. F. Schulz, et al., “CONSORT 2010 Explanation and Elaboration: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. e1–e37, 2010.
- A. Vickers, N. Goyal, R. Harland, and R. Rees, “Do certain countries produce only positive results? A systematic review of controlled trials,” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 1998.
- J. L. Tang, S. Y. Zhan, and E. Ernst, “Review of randomised controlled trials of traditional Chinese medicine,” British Medical Journal, vol. 318, no. 7203, pp. 160–161, 1999.
- R. Joober, N. Schmitz, L. Annable, and P. Boksa, “Publication bias: what are the challenges and can they be overcome?” Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 149–152, 2012.
- E. A. Tough, A. R. White, S. H. Richards, B. Lord, and J. L. Campbell, “Developing and validating a sham acupuncture needle,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 118–122, 2009.
- I. Lund and T. Lundeberg, “Are minimal, superficial or sham acupuncture procedures acceptable as inert placebo controls?” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 13–15, 2006.
- I. Lund, J. Näslund, and T. Lundeberg, “Minimal acupuncture is not a valid placebo control in randomised controlled trials of acupuncture: a physiologist's perspective,” Chinese Medicine, vol. 4, article 1, 2009.
- A. D. Furlan, F. Yazdi, A. Tsertsvadze, et al., “A systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and safety of selected complementary and alternative medicine for neck and low-back pain,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 2012, Article ID 953139, 61 pages, 2012.
- M. Heutink, M. W. M. Post, M. M. Wollaars, and F. W. A. Van Asbeck, “Chronic spinal cord injury pain: pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments and treatment effectiveness,” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 433–440, 2011.
- Y. C. Chen, W. L. Qi, and K. M. Kong, “Effect of electro-acupunture on expression changes of nerve growth factor and receptor in rats with acute spinal cord injury,” Chinese Journal of Clinical Rehabilitation, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 129–131, 2006.
- H. Y. Kim, J. Wang, I. Lee, H. K. Kim, K. Chung, and J. M. Chung, “Electroacupuncture suppresses capsaicin-induced secondary hyperalgesia through an endogenous spinal opioid mechanism,” Pain, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 332–340, 2009.
- D. C. Choi, J. Y. Lee, Y. J. Moon, S. W. Kim, T. H. Oh, and T. Y. Yune, “Acupuncture-mediated inhibition of inflammation facilitates significant functional recovery after spinal cord injury,” Neurobiology of Disease, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 272–282, 2010.
- E. Ernst, M. H. Pittler, B. Wider, and K. Boddy, “Acupuncture: its evidence-base is changing,” American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 21–25, 2007.
- A. White, M. Cummings, P. Barlas et al., “Defining an adequate dose of acupuncture using a neurophysiological approach—a narrative review of the literature,” Acupuncture in Medicine, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 111–120, 2008.
- S. D. Pearson, “Placebo-controlled trials, ethics, and the goals of comparative effectiveness research: comment on ‘lack of head-to-head trials and fair control arms’,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 172, no. 3, pp. 244–245, 2012.
- C. M. Witt, E. Manheimer, R. Hammerschlag, et al., “How well do randomized trials inform decision making: systematic review using comparative effectiveness research measures on acupuncture for back pain,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 2, article e32399, 2012.
- H. MacPherson, D. G. Altman, R. Hammerschlag et al., “Revised STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA): Extending the CONSORT statement,” Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 140–155, 2010.