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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 382927, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/382927
Research Article

Antimicrobial Potential and Chemical Characterization of Serbian Liverwort (Porella arboris-vitae): SEM and TEM Observations

1Dipartimento di Scienze degli Alimenti, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Sede di Cesena, Piazza G. Goidanich 60, 47023 Cesena, Italy
2Applied Microbiology laboratory, Centre for Rural Development and Technology, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110 016, India
3Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 16, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia

Received 29 October 2012; Revised 6 December 2012; Accepted 6 December 2012

Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo

Copyright © 2013 Amit Kumar Tyagi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The chemical composition of Porella arboris-vitae extracts was determined by solid phase microextraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME GC-MS), and 66 constituents were identified. The dominant compounds in methanol extract of P. arboris-vitae were β-caryophyllene (14.7%), α-gurjunene (10.9%), α-selinene (10.8%), β-elemene (5.6%), γ-muurolene (4.6%), and allo-aromadendrene (4.3%) and in ethanol extract, β-caryophyllene (11.8%), α-selinene (9.6%), α-gurjunene (9.4%), isopentyl alcohol (8.8%), 2-hexanol (3.7%), β-elemene (3.7%), allo-aromadendrene (3.7%), and γ-muurolene (3.3%) were the major components. In ethyl acetate extract of P. arboris-vitae, undecane (11.3%), β-caryophyllene (8.4%), dodecane (6.4%), α-gurjunene (6%), 2-methyldecane (5.1%), hemimellitene (4.9%), and D-limonene (3.9%) were major components. The antimicrobial activity of different P. arboris-vitae extracts was evaluated against selected food spoilage microorganisms using microbroth dilution method. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) varied from 0.5 to 1.5 mg/mL and 1.25 to 2 mg/mL for yeast and bacterial strains, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations due to the effect of methanolic and ethanolic P. arboris-vitae extracts on S. Enteritidis have also been observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope, respectively. The results provide the evidence of antimicrobial potential of P. arboris-vitae extracts and suggest its potential as natural antimicrobial agents for food preservation.