|Characters||Berberis aristata ||Berberis asiatica ||Berberis chitria ||Berberis lycium |
|Macroscopic||Outer surface of the bark, creamish brown, and the inner surface attached to wood is yellowish brown. Bark 2 mm thick, knotty and brittle.|
Cut surface of the wood is bright yellow.
Fracture hard, odourless and bitter in taste.
Fine longitudinal ridges and flakes are present
| Outer surface creamish brown but inner surface is muddy yellow.|
Bark 2 mm thick, friable separated out immediately from woody part.
Cut surface of the wood lemon yellow.
Fracture very hard, odour phenolic and very bitter in taste
|Outer surface light brown, grooved with transverse marks, bark not easily detachable.|
Bark upto 5 mm thick, split longitudinally.
Cut surface bright yellow.
Fracture hard, odour faintly phenolic and very bitter in taste
|Outer surface grayish brown with shinnings. Bark up to 3 mm thick, brittle, warty and easily detachable.|
Cut surface deep yellow
Fracture hard, odour phenolic and bitter in taste
|Cork cells||Brown, 10–20 layered||Brown, 12–15 layered||Dark brown, 8–10 layered||Dark brown, 8–11 layered|
|Cork Cambium||2 or 3 layered||1 or 2 layered||1 or 2 layered||2 or 3 layered|
|Cortical zone||30–35 layered, outer 4 to 6 layers compressed, devoid of stone cells||18–20 layered||12–20 layered||17–22 layered|
|Sclereids||Solitary or in group of 2 to 10||Rarely solitary but in group of 2 to 12, comparatively more than other three species||2 to 4 in groups||2 to 4 in groups|
|Pericyclic fibres||Mostly solitary but sometimes in groups of 2 to 10|| Interrupted with stone cells||Frequently present comparatively lesser than B. aristata and B. asiatica ||Frequently present comparatively lesser than other three species|
|Vessels||Solitary or in group of 2 or 3||Solitary or in group of 2 or 5||Solitary or in group of 2 or 3||Solitary or in group of 3 or 4|
|Medullary Rays||2 to 4 cells broad||2 to 3 cells broad||2 to 4 cells broad||2 to 5 cells broad|