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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 503521, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/503521
Research Article

6-Shogaol Protects against Oxidized LDL-Induced Endothelial Injruries by Inhibiting Oxidized LDL-Evoked LOX-1 Signaling

1Department of Cardiology, Shanghai East Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, 150 Jimo Road, Shanghai 200120, China
2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Shidong Hospital, Shanghai 200438, China
3Department of Emergency, The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310006, China
4Shanghai Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
5Department of Pathology, Sloan-Kettering Institute, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA

Received 19 November 2012; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editor: Muhammad Nabeel Ghayur

Copyright © 2013 Yun kai Wang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Endothelial dysfunction and oxLDL are believed to be early and critical events in atherogenesis. 6-Shogaol is the major bioactive compound present in Zingiber officinale and possesses the anti-atherosclerotic effect. However, the mechanisms remain poorly understood. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) injuries and its possible molecular mechanisms. Hence, we studied the effects of 6-shogaol on cell apoptosis, cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), NF-κB activation, Bcl-2 expression, and caspase -3, -8, -9 activities. In addition, E-selectin, MCP-1, and ICAM-1 were determined by ELISA. Our study show that oxLDL increased LOX-1 expression, ROS levels, NF-κB, caspases-9 and -3 activation and decreased Bcl-2 expression in HUVECs. These alterations were attenuated by 6-shogaol. Cotreatment with 6-shogaol and siRNA of LOX-1 synergistically reduced oxLDL-induced caspases -9, -3 activities and cell apoptosis. Overexpression of LOX-1 attenuated the protection by 6-shogaol and suppressed the effects of 6-shogaol on oxLDL-induced oxidative stress. In addition, oxLDL enhanced the activation of NF-κB and expression of adhesion molecules. Pretreatment with 6-shogaol, however, exerted significant cytoprotective effects in all events. Our data indicate that 6-shogaol might be a potential natural antiapoptotic agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis.