- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Annual Issues ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 609581, 13 pages
Phyllanthus Suppresses Prostate Cancer Cell, PC-3, Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis through Multiple Signalling Pathways (MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, NFB, and Hypoxia)
1Department of Medical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2Biotechnology Centre, Malaysia Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Malaysia
3Department of Trauma and Emergency Medicine, University Malaya Medical Centre, 46150 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Received 30 January 2013; Revised 25 March 2013; Accepted 25 March 2013
Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo
Copyright © 2013 Yin-Quan Tang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. Jemal, F. Bray, M. M. Center, J. Ferlay, E. Ward, and D. Forman, “Global cancer statistics,” CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 69–90, 2011.
- Y. Seo, B. L. Franc, R. A. Hawkins, K. H. Wong, and B. H. Hasegawa, “Progress in SPECT/CT imaging of prostate cancer,” Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 329–336, 2006.
- R. E. Coleman, “Metastatic bone disease: clinical features, pathophysiology and treatment strategies,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 165–176, 2001.
- P. Garnero, N. Buchs, J. Zekri, R. Rizzoli, R. E. Coleman, and P. D. Delmas, “Markers of bone turnover for the management of patients with bone metastases from prostate cancer,” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 82, no. 4, pp. 858–864, 2000.
- D. Hanahan and R. A. Weinberg, “Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation,” Cell, vol. 144, no. 5, pp. 646–674, 2011.
- K. Anagnostopoulos, I. Tentes, and A. H. Kortsaris, “Cell signaling in cancer,” Journal of Balkan Union of Oncology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 17–22, 2008.
- A. S. Dhillon, S. Hagan, O. Rath, and W. Kolch, “MAP kinase signalling pathways in cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 3279–3290, 2007.
- Y. Q. Tang, I. B. Jaganath, and S. D. Sekaran, “Phyllanthus spp. induces selective growth inhibition of PC-3 and MeWo human cancer cells through modulation of cell cycle and induction of apoptosis,” PloS ONE, vol. 5, no. 9, Article ID e12644, 2010.
- A. S. Oh, L. A. Lorant, J. N. Holloway, D. L. Miller, F. G. Kern, and D. El-Ashry, “Hyperactivation of MAPK induces loss of ERα expression in breast cancer cells,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 1344–1359, 2001.
- L. Barault, N. Veyrie, V. Jooste et al., “Mutations in the RAS-MAPK, PI(3)K (phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase) signaling network correlate with poor survival in a population-based series of colon cancers,” International Journal of Cancer, vol. 122, no. 10, pp. 2255–2259, 2008.
- L. A. Fecher, R. K. Amaravadi, and K. T. Flaherty, “The MAPK pathway in melanoma,” Current Opinion in Oncology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 183–189, 2008.
- K. H. Chen, M. S. Weng, and J. K. Lin, “Tangeretin suppresses IL-1β-induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression through inhibition of p38 MAPK, JNK, and AKT activation in human lung carcinoma cells,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 215–227, 2007.
- P. Polakis, “The many ways of Wnt in cancer,” Current Opinion in Genetics and Development, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 45–51, 2007.
- K. S. Ahn, G. Sethi, and B. B. Aggarwal, “Nuclear factor- B: from clone to clinic,” Current Molecular Medicine, vol. 7, no. 7, pp. 619–637, 2007.
- P. K. Majumder and W. R. Sellers, “Akt-regulated pathways in prostate cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 24, no. 50, pp. 7465–7474, 2005.
- J. E. Ziello, I. S. Jovin, and Y. Huang, “Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 regulatory pathway and its potential for therapeutic intervention in malignancy and ischemia,” Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 51–60, 2007.
- W. Y. Lam, K. T. Leung, P. T. W. Law et al., “Antiviral effect of Phyllanthus nanus ethanolic extract against hepatitis B virus (HBV) by expression microarray analysis,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 795–812, 2006.
- G. Del Barrio and F. Parra, “Evaluation of the antiviral activity of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus orbicularis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 72, no. 1-2, pp. 317–322, 2000.
- J. H. Doughari and D. Sunday, “Antibacterial activity of Phyllanthus muellerianus,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 400–405, 2008.
- B. Ahmed, T. A. Al-Howiriny, and R. Mathew, “Antihepatotoxic activity of Phyllanthus fraternus,” Pharmazie, vol. 57, no. 12, pp. 855–856, 2002.
- S. T. Huang, J. H. S. Pang, and R. C. Yang, “Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms,” Chang Gung Medical Journal, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 477–487, 2010.
- M. Shoeb, “Anticancer agents from medicinal plants,” Bangladesh Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 35–41, 2006.
- H. H. Ho, C. S. Chang, W. C. Ho, S. Y. Liao, C. H. Wu, and C. J. Wang, “Anti-metastasis effects of gallic acid on gastric cancer cells involves inhibition of NF-κB activity and downregulation of PI3K/AKT/small GTPase signals,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 48, no. 8-9, pp. 2508–2516, 2010.
- S. T. Huang, R. C. Yang, and J. H. S. Pang, “Aqueous extract of Phyllanthus urinaria induces apoptosis in human cancer cells,” The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 175–183, 2004.
- J. Sun and R. H. Liu, “Cranberry phytochemical extracts induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MCF-7 breast cancer cells,” Cancer letters, vol. 241, no. 1, pp. 124–134, 2006.
- J. C. Reed, “Dysregulation of apoptosis in cancer,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 17, no. 9, pp. 2941–2953, 1999.
- P. J. Roberts and C. J. Der, “Targeting the Raf-MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade for the treatment of cancer,” Oncogene, vol. 26, no. 22, pp. 3291–3310, 2007.
- B. T. Hennessy, D. L. Smith, P. T. Ram, Y. Lu, and G. B. Mills, “Exploiting the PI3K/AKT pathway for cancer drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 12, pp. 988–1004, 2005.
- J. A. Crowell, V. E. Steele, and J. R. Fay, “Targeting the AKT protein kinase for cancer chemoprevention,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 2139–2148, 2007.
- J. Á. F. Vara, E. Casado, J. de Castro, P. Cejas, C. Belda-Iniesta, and M. González-Barón, “P13K/Akt signalling pathway and cancer,” Cancer Treatment Reviews, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 193–204, 2004.
- L. P. Kane, V. S. Shapiro, D. Stokoe, and A. Weiss, “Induction of NF-κB by the Akt/PKB kinase,” Current Biology, vol. 9, no. 11, pp. 601–604, 1999.
- P. Polakis, “Wnt signaling and cancer,” Genes and Development, vol. 14, no. 15, pp. 1837–1851, 2000.
- M. Asada, T. Yamada, H. Ichijo et al., “Apoptosis inhibitory activity of cytoplasmic p21(Cip1/WAF1) in monocytic differentiation,” EMBO Journal, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 1223–1234, 1999.
- A. R. Farina, L. Cappabianca, G. DeSantis et al., “Thioredoxin stimulates MMP-9 expression, de-regulates the MMP-9/TIMP-1 equilibrium and promotes MMP-9 dependent invasion in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells,” FEBS Letters, vol. 585, no. 20, pp. 3328–3336, 2011.
- L. Levine, J. A. Lucci, B. Pazdrak et al., “Bombesin stimulates nuclear factor κB activation and expression of proangiogenic factors in prostate cancer cells,” Cancer Research, vol. 63, no. 13, pp. 3495–3502, 2003.
- B. B. Aggarwal, “Nuclear factor-κB: the enemy within,” Cancer Cell, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 203–208, 2004.
- M. G. V. Heiden, L. C. Cantley, and C. B. Thompson, “Understanding the warburg effect: the metabolic requirements of cell proliferation,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5930, pp. 1029–1033, 2009.
- H. Lu, R. A. Forbes, and A. Verma, “Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 activation by aerobic glycolysis implicates the Warburg effect in carcinogenesis,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 26, pp. 23111–23115, 2002.
- E. Poon, A. L. Harris, and M. Ashcroft, “Targeting the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway in cancer,” Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine, vol. 11, no. 1, article e26, 2009.
- G. Kar, A. Gursoy, and O. Keskin, “Human cancer protein-protein interaction network: a structural perspective,” PLoS Computational Biology, vol. 5, no. 12, Article ID e1000601, 2009.
- R. J. Paccione, H. Miyazaki, V. Patel et al., “Keratin down-regulation in vimentin-positive cancer cells is reversible by vimentin RNA interference, which inhibits growth and motility,” Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 2894–2903, 2008.
- A. Satelli and S. Li, “Vimentin in cancer and its potential as a molecular target for cancer therapy,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 68, no. 18, pp. 3033–3046, 2011.
- K. D. Tew, “Glutathione-associated enzymes in anticancer drug resistance,” Cancer Research, vol. 54, no. 16, pp. 4313–4320, 1994.
- J. D. Hayes, J. U. Flanagan, and I. R. Jowsey, “Glutathione transferases,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 45, pp. 51–88, 2005.
- M. Michael and M. M. Doherty, “Tumoral drug metabolism: overview and its implications for cancer therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 205–229, 2005.
- D. C. Wallace, “Mitochondrial diseases in man and mouse,” Science, vol. 283, no. 5407, pp. 1482–1488, 1999.
- S. Hiller, R. G. Garces, T. J. Malia, V. Y. Orekhov, M. Colombini, and G. Wagner, “Solution structure of the integral human membrane protein VDAC-1 in detergent micelles,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5893, pp. 1206–1210, 2008.
- H. Yamagata, S. Shimizu, Y. Nishida, Y. Watanabe, W. J. Craigen, and Y. Tsujimoto, “Requirement of voltage-dependent anion channel 2 for pro-apoptotic activity of Bax,” Oncogene, vol. 28, no. 40, pp. 3563–3572, 2009.
- A. D. Chacko, F. Liberante, I. Paul, D. B. Longley, and D. A. Fennell, “Voltage dependent anion channel-1 regulates death receptor mediated apoptosis by enabling cleavage of caspase-8,” BMC Cancer, vol. 10, no. 1, article 380, 2010.
- D. Yabe, T. Nakamura, N. Kanazawa, K. Tashiro, and T. Honjo, “Calumenin, a Ca2+-binding protein retained in the endoplasmic reticulum with a novel carboxyl-terminal sequence, HDEF,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 272, no. 29, pp. 18232–18239, 1997.
- S. Arnaudeau, M. Frieden, K. Nakamura, C. Castelbou, M. Michalak, and N. Demaurex, “Calreticulin differentially modulates calcium uptake and release in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 277, no. 48, pp. 46696–46705, 2002.
- A. S. Sreedhar and P. Csermely, “Heat shock proteins in the regulation of apoptosis: new strategies in tumor therapy—a comprehensive review,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 227–257, 2004.
- H. Zhou, Y. Zhang, Y. Fu, L. Chan, and A. S. Lee, “Novel mechanism of anti-apoptotic function of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78): endocrine resistance factor in breast cancer, through release of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) from BCL-2-interacting killer (BIK),” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 286, no. 29, pp. 25687–25696, 2011.