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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 619207, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/619207
Review Article

Regulation of DDAH1 as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Treating Cardiovascular Diseases

1Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
2Cardiovascular Division and Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA

Received 13 April 2013; Accepted 29 May 2013

Academic Editor: Keji Chen

Copyright © 2013 Xiaoyu Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor that blocks nitric oxide production, while congestive heart failure is associated with increased plasma and tissue ADMA content. Increased plasma ADMA is a strong and independent predictor of all-cause mortality in the community and the strongest predictor of mortality in patients after myocardial infarction. Recent studies demonstrated that dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) is the critical enzyme for ADMA degradation and thereby plays an important role in maintaining cardiovascular nitric oxide bioavailability. Interestingly, activation of the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) through the bile acid ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) or synthetic FXR agonists, such as GW4064, can increase DDAH1 expression. Thus, modulating DDAH1 activity through FXR receptor agonists such as UDCA could be a therapeutic target for treating reduced nitric oxide bioavailability in congestive heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases.