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Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 623639, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/623639
Research Article

Therapeutic Effects of Water Soluble Danshen Extracts on Atherosclerosis

1Severance Hospital Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral & Cardiovascular Diseases, Severance Hospital, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
2Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
3Division of Neurology, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
4Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea
5eGene, Inc., Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, Republic of Korea
6Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-752, Republic of Korea

Received 14 September 2012; Revised 9 December 2012; Accepted 24 December 2012

Academic Editor: Keji Chen

Copyright © 2013 Yoon Hee Cho et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Danshen is a traditional Chinese medicine with many beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms responsible for the antiatherogenic effect of water soluble Danshen extracts (DEs). Rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with DE. To evaluate the effects of DE in vivo, carotid balloon injury and tail vein thrombosis were induced in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and iliac artery stent was induced in New Zealand white rabbits. The inhibitory action of DE on platelet aggregation was confirmed with an impedance aggregometer. DE inhibited the production of reactive oxygen species, and the migration and proliferation of platelet-derived growth factor-BB stimulated VSMCs. Furthermore, DE prevented inflammation and apoptosis in HUVECs. Both effects of DE were reconfirmed in both rat models. DE treatment attenuated platelet aggregation in both in vivo and ex vivo conditions. Pretreatment with DE prevented tail vein thrombosis, which is normally induced by κ-carrageenan injection. Lastly, DE-treated rabbits showed decreased in-stent restenosis of stented iliac arteries. These results suggest that water soluble DE modulates key atherogenic events in VSMCs, endothelial cells, and platelets in both in vitro and in vivo conditions.