Table 1: Acute effects of WES on plasma glucose, insulin, and GLP-1 in mice1.

Group VehicleWES

Plasma glucose (mg/dL)
 0 min
 30 min ***
 30 min–0 min ***,##
Plasma insulin (ng/mL)
 0 min
 30 min **
 30 min–0 min # *
Plasma GLP-1 (pM)
 0 min
 30 min ***
 30 min–0 min ***,###

High-fat-diet-fed mice were fasted for 6 hr and blood samples collected at 0 min. Vehicle (430 mg/kg BW glucose, equal to glucose concentration in WES) or WES (5000 mg/kg BW) were orally administered and blood samples collected again after 30 minutes. Data were mean ± SD of two separate experiments with for each group in each experiment. * , ** and *** denote significant differences compared to vehicle-treated mice analyzed by Student’s t test with RCBD to adjust for the differences between separate experiments. # , ## , and ### denote significant differences between before and 30 min after treatment in the same group analyzed by paired test.