Figure 3: Effects of capsaicin on apoptosis in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. PANC-1 and SW1990 cells were treated with various concentrations of capsaicin (0, 150, 200, and 250 μmol/L for PANC-1 cells; 0, 100, 150, and 200 μmol/L for SW1990 cells) for 24 h and subsequently stained with Annexin V-FITC/PI followed by flow cytometry. (a) Representative dot plots illustrating apoptotic status in PANC-1 and SW1990 cells. Cells in the lower left quadrant (Annexin V-FITC-/PI-) are viable, those in the lower right quadrant (Annexin V-FITC+/PI-) are early apoptotic, and those in the upper right quadrants (Annexin V-FITC+/PI+) are late apoptotic. (b) and (c) Apoptotic cells (lower right quadrant and upper right quadrants) in PANC-1 (b) and SW1990 (c) cells. Data obtained from three separate experiments are expressed as mean ± SD and analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s test, and compared with DMSO-treated cells.