Table 1: Characteristics of the included studies.

ReferencePatients
(N, diagnosis, age, gender)
Cointerventions Intervention groups
(N, contents, program length, frequency, duration)
Follow-up time pointsOutcome measuresResults
TreatmentControlShort-term Long-term

(1) Pain
(2) Quality of life (disease specific, generic)
(3) Sleep quality
(4) Fatigue
(5) Depression
(6) Safety

Astin et al., 2003 [33]128 patients with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
years
Gender:
63/1 f/m (Qigong)
64/0 f/m (education)
Not reportedQigong
( )
(mindfulness meditation and Qigong)
8 weeks
once weekly
150 minutes each
(90 min mindfulness meditation,
60 min Qigong)
Education
( )
(education and support group)
8 weeks
once weekly
150 minutes each
8 weeks
24 weeks
(1) Pain intensity (Tender point tenderness)
(2) Quality of life (FIQ)
(5) Depression (BDI)
(1) Sign. improvement in Qigong
(2) Sign. improvement in Qigong and Education
(5) Sign. improvement in Qigong and education
(1) Sign. improvement in Qigong.
(2) Sign. improvement in Qigong and education
(5) Sign. improvement in Qigong and education

Haak and Scott, 2008 [34]57 female patients with fibromyalgia (diagnosis unclear)
Mean age:
years
Gender:
female only
MedicationQigong
( )
(He Hua Qigong-Lotus method)
7 weeks
9 sessions
11.5 hours in total
+ home practice
twice weekly
20 min each
+2 sessions of external Qigong from Qigong master
Usual care
( )


7 weeks
End of intervention (not specified)
4 months (combined group, all patients had received the intervention)
(1) Pain intensity (VNS)
(2) Quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF)
(3) Sleep quality (VNS)
(5) Depression (BDI)
(1) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(2) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(3) No sign. group difference
(5) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(1) Sign. improvement compared to baseline
(2) Sign. improvement compared to baseline
(3) No change
(5) Sign. improvement compared to baseline

Liu et al., 2012 [35]14 patients with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
55.7 years (Qigong)
57.7 years (Sham Qigong)
Gender:
female only
Medication
(stable dosage,
for pain, sleep, or
mild depression)
Qigong
( )
(Liu Zi Jue Qigong—“six healing sounds” Qigong:
standing, sitting, supine postures, breathing exercises, quiet chanting, meditation)
2 initial sessions
45–60 min each
+ 6 weeks
once weekly
45–60 min each
+ home practice
twice daily
15–20 min each
Sham Qigong
( )
(matched standing, sitting, supine postures)



2 initial sessions
45–60 min each
+ 6 weeks
once weekly
45–60 min each
+ home practice
twice daily
15–20 min each
End of intervention (not specified)(1) Pain intensity (SMPQ)
(2) Quality of life (FIQ)
(3) Sleep quality (PSQI)
(4) Fatigue (MFI)
(1) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(2) No sign. group difference
(3) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(4) Sign. differences favoring Qigong

Lynch et al., 2012 [36]100 patients with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
52 years
Gender:
50/3 f/m (Qigong)
46/1 f/m (usual care)
Not reportedQigong
( )
(Chaoqi Fanhuan Qigong)
3 consecutive days
+8 weeks
once weekly
60 min each
+6 months
home practice
daily
45–60 min each
Usual care
( )
6 months(1) Pain intensity (NRS)
(2) Quality of life (FIQ, SF-36)
(3) Sleep quality (PSQI)
(6) Adverse events
(1) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(2) FIQ: Sign. differences favoring Qigong
SF-36: Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(3) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(6) 2 adverse events (shoulder pain, plantar fasciitis)
(1) Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(2) FIQ: Sign. differences favoring Qigong
SF-36: Sign. differences favoring Qigong
(3) Sign. differences favoring Qigong

Maddali Bongi et al., 2012 [37]30 patients with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
0 (Qigong)
(Rességuier Method)
Gender:
not reported
Not reportedQigong
( )
(static and dynamic exercises, breathing exercises, self-massage)
3 weeks
twice weekly
45 min each
+4 weeks
once weekly
45 min each
Rességuier Method
( )
(training of awareness and control of bodily perceptions)
3 weeks
twice weekly
60 min each
+4 weeks
once weekly
60 min each
+home practise
once daily
30 min each
7 weeks(1) Pain (NRS)
(2) Quality of life (FIQ, SF-36)
(3) Sleep quality (NRS)
(5) Depression (HADS)
(6) Adverse events
(1) Sign. improvement in Qigong and Rességuier method
(2) FIQ: Sign. in Qigong and Rességuier method
SF-36: Sign. in Qigong and Rességuier method
(3) No sign. change
(5) Sign. improvement in Qigong
(6) No adverse events

Mannerkorpi and Arndorw, 2004 [39]36 female patients with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
years
Gender:
female only
Medication (analgesics, antidepressants, sedatives)Qigong
( )
(body awareness therapy and Qigong)
3 months
once weekly
90 min each
(incl. 20 min Qigong)
Usual care
( )
End of intervention (not specified)(2) Quality of life (FIQ)(4) No sign. group difference

Stephens et al., 2008 [38]30 children (8–18 years) with fibromyalgia according to the ACR criteria
Mean age:
years (Qigong)
years (Exercise)
Gender:
12/4 f/m (Qigong)
10/4 f/m (education)
Not reported Qigong
( )
(postures, relaxation)


12 weeks
three times weekly
35 min each
Exercise
( )
(Aerobic exercise: cardiodance, boxing movements, stretching)
12 weeks
three times weekly
50 min each
End of intervention (not specified)(1) Pain intensity (PedsQL)
(2) Quality of life (C-HAQ, QOML)
(4) Fatigue (PedsQL)
(5) Depression (CDI)
(6) Adverse events
(1) No sign. group difference
(2) C-HAQ: sign. differences favoring exercise
QOML: sign. differences favoring exercise
(4) Sign. differences favoring exercise
(5) No sign. group difference
(6) No adverse events

Abbreviations: ACR: American College of Rheumatology; BDI: Beck Depression Inventory; CDI: Childhood Depression Inventory; C-HAQ: Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire; f: female; FIQ: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire; HADS: Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; m: male; MFI: Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory; NRS: Numerical Rating Scale; PedsQL: Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory; PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; QOML: Quality of My Life; SF-36: Short Form 36 Health Survey; Sign.: significant; SMPQ: Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire; VNS: Visual Numerical Scale; WHOQOL-BREF: World Health Organization Quality of Life BREF.