- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 646728, 8 pages
Ginsenoside Rh2 Downregulates LPS-Induced NF-κB Activation through Inhibition of TAK1 Phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 Murine Macrophage
Key Laboratory of Natural Resource of Changbai Mountain and Functional Molecules, College of Pharmacy, Yanbian University, Ministry of Education, Yanji, Jilin 133002, China
Received 25 July 2012; Revised 27 December 2012; Accepted 27 December 2012
Academic Editor: Vincenzo De Feo
Copyright © 2013 Li-Hua Lian et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. J. Ulevitch and P. S. Tobias, “Receptor-dependent mechanisms of cell stimulation by bacterial endotoxin,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 13, pp. 437–457, 1995.
- S. T. Qureshi, L. Larivière, G. Leveque et al., “Endotoxin-tolerant mice have mutations in toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4),” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 189, no. 4, pp. 615–625, 1999.
- Q. Jiang, S. Akashi, K. Miyake, and H. R. Petty, “Cutting edge: lipopolysaccharide induces physical proximity between CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) prior to nuclear translocation of NF-κB,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 165, no. 7, pp. 3541–3544, 2000.
- H. Frobøse, S. G. Rønn, P. E. Heding et al., “Suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 inhibits interleukin-1 signaling by targeting the TRAF-6/TAK1 complex,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 1587–1596, 2006.
- S. Frede, C. Stockmann, P. Freitag, and J. Fandrey, “Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces HIF-1 activation in human monocytes via p44/42 MAPK and NF-κB,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 396, no. 3, pp. 517–527, 2006.
- C. Peyssonnaux and R. S. Johnson, “An unexpected role for hypoxic response: oxygenation and inflammation,” Cell Cycle, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 168–171, 2004.
- S. F. Chu and J. T. Zhang, “New achievements in ginseng research and its future prospects,” Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 403–408, 2009.
- J. H. Su, J. H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Improving enzymatic production of ginsenoside Rh2 from Rg3 by using nonionic surfactant,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 1116–1123, 2010.
- B. Li, J. Zhao, C. Z. Wang et al., “Ginsenoside Rh2 induces apoptosis and paraptosis-like cell death in colorectal cancer cells through activation of p53,” Cancer Letters, vol. 301, no. 2, pp. 185–192, 2011.
- Y. M. Ham, J. H. Lim, H. K. Na et al., “Ginsenoside-Rh2-induced mitochondrial depolarization and apoptosis are associated with reactive oxygen species- and Ca2+-mediated c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 activation in HeLa cells,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 319, no. 3, pp. 1276–1285, 2006.
- J. I. Oh, K. H. Chun, S. H. Joo, Y. T. Oh, and S. K. Lee, “Caspase-3-dependent protein kinase C delta activity is required for the progression of Ginsenoside-Rh2-induced apoptosis in SK-HEP-1 cells,” Cancer Letters, vol. 230, no. 2, pp. 228–238, 2005.
- S. Choi, T. W. Kim, and S. V. Singh, “Ginsenoside Rh2-mediated G1 phase cell cycle arrest in human breast cancer cells is caused by p15 Ink4B and p27 Kip1 -dependent Inhibition of Cyclin-dependent Kinases,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 2280–2288, 2009.
- J. T. Hwang, S. H. Kim, M. S. Lee et al., “Anti-obesity effects of ginsenoside Rh2 are associated with the activation of AMPK signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 364, no. 4, pp. 1002–1008, 2007.
- J. S. Park, E. M. Park, D. H. Kim et al., “Anti-inflammatory mechanism of ginseng saponins in activated microglia,” Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol. 209, no. 1-2, pp. 40–49, 2009.
- K. Choi, M. Kim, J. Ryu, and C. Choi, “Ginsenosides compound K and Rh2 inhibit tumor necrosis factor-α-induced activation of the NF-κB and JNK pathways in human astroglial cells,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 421, no. 1, pp. 37–41, 2007.
- A. Marchant, J. Duchow, J. P. Delville, and M. Goldman, “Lipopolysaccharide induces up-regulation of CD14 molecule on monocytes in human whole blood,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1663–1665, 1992.
- K. Matsuura, T. Ishida, M. Setoguchi, Y. Higuchi, S. Akizuki, and S. Yamamoto, “Upregulation of mouse CD14 expression in Kupffer cells by lipopolysaccharide,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 179, no. 5, pp. 1671–1676, 1994.
- W.-Y. Bi, B.-D. Fu, H.-Q. Shen et al., “Sulfated derivative of 20(S)-Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibits inflammatory cytokines through MAPKs and NF-kappa B pathways in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 macrophages,” Inflammation, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1659–1668, 2012.
- K.-W. Lee, S. Y. Jung, S.-M. Choi, and E. J. Yang, “Effects of ginsenoside Re on LPS-induced inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 12, article 196, 2012.
- C. F. Wu, X. L. Bi, J. Y. Yang et al., “Differential effects of ginsenosides on NO and TNF-α production by LPS-activated N9 microglia,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 313–320, 2007.
- E. K. Park, Y. W. Shin, H. U. Lee et al., “Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and compound K on NO and prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses of RAW264.7 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 652–656, 2005.
- E. A. Bae, M. J. Han, M. K. Choo, S. Y. Park, and D. H. Kim, “Metabolism of 20(S)- and 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 by human intestinal bacteria and its relation to in vitro biological activities,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2002.
- Y.-M. Shin, H.-J. Jung, W.-Y. Choi, and C.-J. Lim, “Antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activities of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 in cultured mammalian cell lines,” Molecular Biology Reports, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 269–279, 2013.
- T. T. Hien, N. D. Kim, H. S. Kim, and K. W. Kang, “Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α-induced expression of cell adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells,” Pharmazie, vol. 65, no. 9, pp. 699–701, 2010.
- E. K. Park, M. K. Choo, J. K. Oh, J. H. Ryu, and D. H. Kim, “Ginsenoside Rh2 reduces ischemic brain injury in rats,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 433–436, 2004.
- E. A. Bae, E. J. Kim, J. S. Park, H. S. Kim, J. H. Ryu, and D. H. Kim, “Ginsenosides Rg3 and Rh2 inhibit the activation of AP-1 and protein kinase A pathway in lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells,” Planta Medica, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 627–633, 2006.
- K. Yamaguchi, K. Shirakabe, H. Shibuya et al., “Identification of a member of the MAPKKK family as a potential Mediator of TGF-β signal transduction,” Science, vol. 270, no. 5244, pp. 2008–2011, 1995.
- H. S. Choi, D. I. Cho, H. K. Choi, S. Y. Im, S. Y. Ryu, and K. M. Kim, “Molecular mechanisms of inhibitory activities of tanshinones on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide generation in RAW 264.7 cells,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1233–1237, 2004.
- T. Van Der Bruggen, S. Nijenhuis, E. Van Raaij, J. Verhoef, and B. S. Van Asbeck, “Lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha production by human monocytes involves the Raf-1/MEK1-MEK2/ERK1-ERK2 pathway,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 3824–3829, 1999.
- K. Andersson and R. Sundler, “Signalling to translational activation of tumour necrosis factor-α expression in human THP-1 cells,” Cytokine, vol. 12, no. 12, pp. 1784–1787, 2000.
- K. A. Fitzgerald, D. C. Rowe, and D. T. Golenbock, “Endotoxin recognition and signal transduction by the TLR4/MD-2 complex,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 1361–1367, 2004.
- S. M. Kerfoot and P. Kubes, “Local coordination verses systemic disregulation: complexities in leukocyte recruitment revealed by local and systemic activation of TLR4 in vivo,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 77, no. 6, pp. 862–867, 2005.
- C. P. Bracken, M. L. Whitelaw, and D. J. Peet, “The hypoxia-inducible factors: key transcriptional regulators of hypoxic responses,” Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 1376–1393, 2003.
- T. Cramer and R. S. Johnson, “A novel role for the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF-1alpha: critical regulation of inflammatory cell function,” Cell Cycle, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 192–193, 2003.
- A. P. . Hollander, K. P. Corke, A. J. Freemont, et al., “Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha by macrophages in the rheumatoid synovium: implications for targeting of therapeutic genes to the inflamed joint,” Arthritis and Rheumatism, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 1540–1544, 2001.