Table 2: Chinese herbal medicine plus biomedical treatment versus biomedical treatment alone for treating myocardial infarction: random-effect meta-analysis.

Events No. of studiesNo. of events/total no.Combined effectTest for heterogeneityAdjusted combined effect (trim and fill)
CHM + BM groupBM groupRR (95% CI)RRR (%) (95% CI) value# statistic value* (%)RR (95% CI)RRR
(95% CI)
value#

Fatal events
 All-cause mortality44308/5107521/51120.63
(0.55–0.72)
37%
(28%–45%)
<0.00137.470.7090.00.71
(0.60–0.84)
29%
(16%–40%)
<0.001
 Mortality of cardiac origin10142/2820227/27960.61
(0.48–0.78)
39% (22%–52%)<0.00111.660.23322.80.68
(0.54–0.85)
32%
(15%–46%)
0.001
 Fatal myocardial reinfarction620/266037/26870.46
(0.19–1.12)
54% (12%–81%)0.0867.980.15737.3
 Fatal cardiac arrhythmia34/1625/1600.71
(0.16–3.22)
29%
(84%–222%)
0.6622.210.3319.6
 Fatal heart failure58/41018/4440.48
(0.21–1.09)
52%
(9%–79%)
0.0780.061.0000.0
 Fatal cardiogenic shock437/33058/3320.72
(0.55–0.95)
28%
(5%–45%)
0.0192.420.4900.0
 Sudden cardiac death961/277581/27950.76
(0.55–1.06)
24%
(6%–45%)
0.1043.130.9260.0
Nonfatal events
 Undifferentiated total heart events11209/2762407/27610.52
(0.44–0.60)
48%
(40%–56%)
<0.0018.990.5330.00.52
(0.44–0.62)
48%
(38%–56%)
<0.001
 Myocardial reinfarction23103/2377215/23430.48
(0.39–0.61)
52% (39%–61%)<0.0019.950.9870.00.53
(0.43–0.66)
47%
(34%–57%)
<0.001
 Cardiac arrhythmia30398/1730640/16960.59
(0.48–0.73)
41% (27%–52%)<0.001121.940.00076.20.72
(0.58–0.89)
28%
(11%–42%)
0.003
 Heart failure28249/1825496/18350.52
(0.42–0.64)
48%
(36%–58%)
<0.00151.860.00347.90.60
(0.50–0.72)
40%
(28%–50%)
<0.001
 Cardiac rupture32/1227/1340.44
(0.11–1.67)
56%
(67%–89%)
0.2240.600.7400.0
 Cardiogenic shock1463/1015110/10300.63
(0.47–0.85)
37%
(15%–53%)
0.00210.650.6400.00.75
(0.57–0.98)
25%
(2%–43%)
0.036
 Angina24177/1047297/10010.47
(0.39–0.56)
53%
(44%–61%)
<0.00122.200.5080.00.58
(0.48–0.69)
42%
(31%–52%)
<0.001
Adverse events
 Undifferentiated total events243/243439/24361.16
(0.59–2.27)
16%
(41%–127%)
0.6642.190.13854.4
 Bleeding981/70681/7450.97
(0.73–1.28)
3%
(27%-28%)
0.8164.890.7690.0

#Test for overall effect; *chi-square test for heterogeneity.
BM: biomedical treatment; CHM: Chinese herbal medicine treatment; RR: relative risk; RRR: relative risk reduction; 95% CI: 95% confidence interval.