Table 4: Propolis of different geographic regions and their principal plants’ sources of chemical compounds (from Bankova, 2005).

Geographic originPlant sourceReferences

BulgariaPopulus nigra, P. italic [16, 50, 63]
AlbaniaPopulus nigra [63]
BulgariaPopulus tremula [16]
MongoliaPopulus suaveolens [16, 63]
USA (mainland)Populus fremontii [16]
USA (Hawaiian islands)Plumeria acuminate, Plumeria acutifolia [16]
United KingdomPopulus euramericana [16]
HungaryBetula, Populus, Pinus, Prunus, and Acacia spp.; Aesculus hypocastane [16]
PolandBetula, Alnus spp.[16]
Equatorial regionsDelchampia spp.[16]
Equatorial regionsClusia spp.[16, 64]
AustraliaXanthorrhoea [2]
North temperate zonePoplar, birch, elm, alder, beech, conifer, and horse chestnut[2]
Europe, North America, nontropic regions of Asia (poplar propolis)Populus spp. of section Aigeiros, most often P. nigra L.[1, 34, 65]
Russia (birch propolis) Betula verrucosa Ehrh.[66]
Brazil (green-alecrim-propolis)Baccharis spp. Predominantly B. dracunculifolia DC.[14, 67]
Cuba, VenezuelaClusia minor   [16, 6870]
Clusia spp.
South Brazil (type 3), Argentine, and UruguayPopulus alba [71]
Brazil (type 6 from northeastern Brazil)Hyptis divaricate [14]
Brazil (type 13 from northeastern Brazil)Dalbergia ecastaphyllum [17, 42]