Table 6: Chemical constituents of propolis that possess known pharmacological activities.

Chemical compoundsActivitiesReferences

AcacetinAnti-inflammatory[72]
ApigeninAnti-inflammatory[72]
Artepillin CAntimicrobial
Antitumor activity
Antioxidative
[23, 41, 7375]
Caffeic acid phenethyl esterAntitumor activity
Anti-inflammatory
[76, 77]
ChrysinAnti-inflammatory[72]
Caffeic acidAntibacterial
Antifungal
Antiviral
Anti-inflammatory
[72, 7880]
Cinnamic acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
Dicaffeoylquinic acid derivativesHepatoprotective[81]
Ferulic acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
GalanginAnti-inflammatory[72]
Gallic acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
Moronic acidAnti-HIV[9]
Isoferulic acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
PinostrobinLocal anesthesia[82]
Protocatechuic acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
PinocembrinAntibacterial
Antifungal
Antimold
Local anesthesia
[79, 80, 82, 83]
PropofolAntioxidative[7]
ρ-Coumaric acidAntibacterial[74]
m-Coumaric acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
o-Coumaric acidAnti-inflammatory[72]
QuercetinAnti-inflammatory
Antiviral
Antihistamine
Ulcer healing
Capillary strengthening
[41, 78]
Volatile constituents
(phenols, esters, terpenoids, etc.)
Antibacterial[64]
2,2-Dimethyl-6-carboxyethyl-2H-1-benzopyranAntimicrobial[81]
3-[3,4-Dihydroxy-5-prenylphenyl]-2-(E)-propenoic acidAntioxidative[84]