About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 715650, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/715650
Research Article

Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions

1Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Avenida Universitária com 1a Avenida, Quadra 62, 2 Andar, Sala 36, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil
2Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Avenida Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50 Xerém, Duque de Caxias, 25250-020 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus II-Samambaia, Saída para Nerópolis (Km 13), Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO, Brazil

Received 1 October 2012; Revised 15 December 2012; Accepted 23 December 2012

Academic Editor: Mohd Roslan Sulaiman

Copyright © 2013 Rodrigo Borges et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. N. R. Farnsworth, O. Akerele, A. S. Bingel, D. D. Soejarto, and Z. Guo, “Medicinal plants in therapy,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 965–981, 1985. View at Scopus
  2. C. M. O. Simões, E. P. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, J. C. P. Mello, L. A. Mentz, and P. R. Petrovick, Farmacognosia: Da Planta ao Medicamento, UFGRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003.
  3. J. B. Calixto, A. Beirith, J. Ferreira, A. R. S. Santos, V. Cechinel Filho, and R. A. Yunes, “Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 401–418, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. F. E. Koehn and G. T. Carter, “The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 206–220, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. M. K. Rates, “Plants as source of drugs,” Toxicon, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. M. J. Kato, “Global phytochemistry: the Brazilian approach,” Phytochemistry, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 621–623, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. A. V. Carvalho, P. M. Galdino, M. V. M. Nascimento et al., “Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of grandisin extracted from Virola surinamensis,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. Menichini, F. Conforti, D. Rigano, C. Formisano, F. Piozzi, and F. Senatore, “Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and antitumour activities of four Teucrium essential oils from Greece,” Food Chemistry, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 679–686, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. W. B. Ortêncio, Medicina Popular do Centro-Oeste, Theasaurus, Brasília, Brazil, 1997.
  10. A. K. Jäger, A. Hutchings, and J. van Staden, “Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. Uemura and Y. Hirata, “The structure of kansuinine A, a new multi-oxygenated diterpene,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 16, no. 21, pp. 1697–1700, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. T. S. Wu, Y. M. Lin, M. Haruna et al., “Antitumor agents, 119. Kansuiphorins A and B, two novel antileukemic diterpene esters from Euphorbia kansui,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 823–829, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. R. S. Santos, V. Cechinel Filho, R. A. Yunes, and J. B. Calixto, “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus,” General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1499–1506, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. D. Mehare and B. C. Hatapakki, “Antiinflammatory activity of bark of Bridelia retusa Spreng,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 410–411, 2003. View at Scopus
  15. H. M. Manga, D. Brkic, D. E. P. Marie, and J. Quetin-Leclercq, “In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 92, no. 2-3, pp. 209–214, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Bani, S. Singh, G. B. Singh, and S. K. Banerjee, “Antiinflammatory actions of Euphorbia splendens extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 76–78, 1999.
  17. P. H. Ferri, “Química de produtos naturais: métodos gerais,” in Plantas Medicinais: Arte e Ciencia. Um Guia de Estudo Interdisciplinar, L. C. Di Stasi, Ed., pp. 129–156, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil, 1996.
  18. R. Koster, M. Anderson, and E. J. Debeer, “Acetic acid analgesic screening,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 18, pp. 412–420, 1959.
  19. D. Dubuisson and S. G. Dennis, “The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats,” Pain, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 161–174, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. E. D'Amour and J. Smith, “A method for determining loss of pain sensation,” Journal of Pharmacolçogy and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 1941.
  21. M. L. Ferrándiz and M. J. Alcaraz, “Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids,” Agents and Actions, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 283–288, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Tubaro, P. Dri, G. Delbello, C. Zilli, and R. Della Logia, “The croton oil ear test revisited,” Agents and Actions, vol. 17, no. 3-4, pp. 347–349, 1986. View at Scopus
  23. G. A. Bentley, S. H. Newton, and J. Starr, “Studies on the antinociceptive action of α-agonist drugs and their interactions with opioid mechanisms,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 125–134, 1983. View at Scopus
  24. H. O. Collier, L. C. Dinneen, C. A. Johnson, and C. Schneider, “The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 295–310, 1968. View at Scopus
  25. R. I. Taber, D. D. Greenhouse, and S. Irwin, “Inhibition of phenylquinone-induced writhing by narcotic antagonists,” Nature, vol. 204, no. 4954, pp. 189–190, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. H. Blumberg, P. S. Wolf, and H. B. Dayton, “Use of writhing test for evaluating analgesic activity of narcotic antagonists,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 763–766, 1965.
  27. G. F. Blane, “Blockade of bradykinin-induced nociception in the rat as a test for analgesic drugs with particular reference to morphine antagonists,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 367–373, 1967. View at Scopus
  28. E. Siegmund, R. Cadmus, and G. Lu, “A method for evaluating both non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 729–731, 1957.
  29. E. Siegmund, R. Cadmus, and G. Lu, “Screening of analgesics including aspirin-type compound based upon the antagonism of chemically induced writhing in mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 184–186, 1957.
  30. T. T. Chau, “Analgesic testing in animals models,” in Pharmacological Methods in the Control of Inflammation, J. Y. Chang and A. J. Lewis, Eds., pp. 195–212, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  31. L. C. Hendershot and J. Forsaith, “Antagonism of the frequency of phenylquinone-induced writhing in the mouse by weak analgesics and nonanalgesics,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 237–240, 1959.
  32. H. I. Chernov, D. E. Wilson, W. F. Fowler, and A. J. Plummer, “Non-specificity of the mouse writhing test,” Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 171–178, 1967.
  33. J. Pearl, M. D. Aceto, and L. S. Harris, “Prevention of writhing and other effects of narcotics and narcotic antagonists in mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 217–230, 1968. View at Scopus
  34. J. J. Loux, S. Smith, and H. Salem, “Comparative analgetic testing of various compounds in mice using writhing techniques,” Arzneimittelforschung, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1644–1647, 1978.
  35. S. M. K. Rates and H. M. T. Barros, “Modelos animais para a avaliação da dor: métodos para triagem de novos analgésicos,” Revista Brasileira de Farmácia, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 31–44, 1994.
  36. M. Shibata, T. Ohkubo, H. Takahashi, and R. Inoki, “Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response,” Pain, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 347–352, 1989. View at Scopus
  37. A. Tjølsen, O. G. Berge, S. Hunskaar, J. H. Rosland, and K. Hole, “The formalin test: an evaluation of the method,” Pain, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. A. Tjølsen and K. Hole, “Animals models of analgesia,” in Pharmacology of Pain, A. H. Dickenson and J. M. Besson, Eds., pp. 1–20, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
  39. S. Hunskaar, O. B. Fasmer, and K. Hole, “Formalin test in mice, a useful technique for evaluating mild analgesics,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. C. W. Murray, F. Porreca, and A. Cowan, “Methodological refinements to the mouse paw formalin test. An animal model of tonic pain,” Journal of Pharmacological Methods, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 175–186, 1988. View at Scopus
  41. S. Hunskaar and K. Hole, “The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain,” Pain, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 103–114, 1987. View at Scopus
  42. J. H. Rosland, “The formalin test in mice: the influence of ambient temperature,” Pain, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 211–216, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. C. R. Correa and J. B. Calixto, “Evidence for participation of B1 and B2 kinin receptors in formalin-induced nociceptive response in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 193–198, 1993. View at Scopus
  44. L. Seguin, S. Le Marouille-Girardon, and M. J. Millan, “Antinociceptive profiles of non-peptidergic neurokinin1 and neurokinin2 receptor antagonists: a comparison to other classes of antinociceptive agent,” Pain, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 325–343, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. R. S. Santos and J. B. Calixto, “Further evidence for the involvement of tachykinin receptor subtypes in formalin, and capsaicin models of pain in mice,” Neuropeptides, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 381–389, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. G. Heapy, A. Jamieson, and N. J. W. Russel, “Afferent C-fiber and A-delta activity in models of inflammation,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 90, no. 1, article 164, 1987.
  47. A. O. Oluyomi, S. L. Hart, and T. W. Smith, “Differential antinociceptive effects of morphine and methylmorphine in the formalin test,” Pain, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 415–418, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. C. Stein, “Peripheral mechanisms of opioid analgesia,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 182–191, 1993. View at Scopus
  49. G. Woolfe and A. D. MacDonald, “The evaluation of the analgesic action of pethidine hydrochloride (demerol),” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 300–307, 1944.
  50. T. L. Yaksh and T. A. Rudy, “Studies on the direct spinal action of narcotics in the production of analgesia in the rat,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 411–428, 1977. View at Scopus
  51. T. W. Smith, P. Buchan, D. N. Parsons, and S. Wilkinson, “Peripheral antinociceptive effects of N-methyl morphine,” Life Sciences, vol. 31, no. 12-13, pp. 1205–1208, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. T. W. Smith, R. L. Follenfant, and S. H. Ferreira, “Antinociceptive models displaying peripheral opioid activity,” International Journal of Tissue Reactions, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1985. View at Scopus
  53. M. Di Rosa, J. P. Giroud, and D. A. Willoughby, “Studies on the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 1971. View at Scopus
  54. J. Damas, V. Bourdon, G. Remacle-Volon, and A. Adam, “Kinins and peritoneal exudates induced by carrageenin and zymosan in rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 418–422, 1990. View at Scopus
  55. M. A. V. Di Vaio and A. C. Freitas, “Inflamação, tratamento e avanços recentes na terapia de doenças inflamatórias,” Revista de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 37–67, 2001.
  56. R. Vinegar, J. F. Truax, and J. L. Selph, “Some quantitative temporal characteristics of carrageenin induced pleurisy in the rat,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 711–714, 1973. View at Scopus
  57. G. A. Higgs, K. E. Eakins, K. G. Mugridge, S. Moncada, and J. R. Vane, “The effects of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs on leukocyte migration in carrageenin-induced inflammation,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 1980. View at Scopus
  58. T. Mikami and K. Miyasaka, “Effects of several anti-inflammatory drugs on the various parameters involved in the inflammatory respones in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 95, no. 1-2, pp. 1–12, 1983. View at Scopus
  59. P. M. Brooks and R. O. Day, “Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs—differences and similarities,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 24, pp. 1716–1725, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  60. K. F. Swingle, M. J. Reiter, and D. H. Schwartzmiller, “Comparison of croton oil and cantharidin induced inflammations of the mouse ear and their modification by topically applied drugs,” Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, vol. 254, no. 1, pp. 168–176, 1981. View at Scopus
  61. V. Puigneró, A. Turull, and J. Queralt, “Arachidonic acid (AA) and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) exert systemic effects when applied topically in the mouse,” Inflammation, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 307–314, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. J. Lapa, C. Souccar, M. T. R. Lima-Landman, M. S. A. Castro, and T. C. M. Lima, Métodos de Avaliação da Atividade Farmacológica de Plantas Medicinais, Lagoa, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003.