- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 715650, 9 pages
Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of the Ethanolic Extract from Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiaceae) Leaves and Its Fractions
1Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Avenida Universitária com 1a Avenida, Quadra 62, 2 Andar, Sala 36, 74605-220 Goiânia, GO, Brazil
2Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia (INMETRO), Avenida Nossa Senhora das Graças, 50 Xerém, Duque de Caxias, 25250-020 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
3Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Goiás, Campus II-Samambaia, Saída para Nerópolis (Km 13), Caixa Postal 131, 74001-970 Goiânia, GO, Brazil
Received 1 October 2012; Revised 15 December 2012; Accepted 23 December 2012
Academic Editor: Mohd Roslan Sulaiman
Copyright © 2013 Rodrigo Borges et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- N. R. Farnsworth, O. Akerele, A. S. Bingel, D. D. Soejarto, and Z. Guo, “Medicinal plants in therapy,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 965–981, 1985.
- C. M. O. Simões, E. P. Schenkel, G. Gosmann, J. C. P. Mello, L. A. Mentz, and P. R. Petrovick, Farmacognosia: Da Planta ao Medicamento, UFGRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003.
- J. B. Calixto, A. Beirith, J. Ferreira, A. R. S. Santos, V. Cechinel Filho, and R. A. Yunes, “Naturally occurring antinociceptive substances from plants,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 401–418, 2000.
- F. E. Koehn and G. T. Carter, “The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery,” Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 206–220, 2005.
- S. M. K. Rates, “Plants as source of drugs,” Toxicon, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 603–613, 2001.
- M. J. Kato, “Global phytochemistry: the Brazilian approach,” Phytochemistry, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 621–623, 2001.
- A. A. V. Carvalho, P. M. Galdino, M. V. M. Nascimento et al., “Antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities of grandisin extracted from Virola surinamensis,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 113–118, 2010.
- F. Menichini, F. Conforti, D. Rigano, C. Formisano, F. Piozzi, and F. Senatore, “Phytochemical composition, anti-inflammatory and antitumour activities of four Teucrium essential oils from Greece,” Food Chemistry, vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 679–686, 2009.
- W. B. Ortêncio, Medicina Popular do Centro-Oeste, Theasaurus, Brasília, Brazil, 1997.
- A. K. Jäger, A. Hutchings, and J. van Staden, “Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 95–100, 1996.
- D. Uemura and Y. Hirata, “The structure of kansuinine A, a new multi-oxygenated diterpene,” Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 16, no. 21, pp. 1697–1700, 1975.
- T. S. Wu, Y. M. Lin, M. Haruna et al., “Antitumor agents, 119. Kansuiphorins A and B, two novel antileukemic diterpene esters from Euphorbia kansui,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 823–829, 1991.
- A. R. S. Santos, V. Cechinel Filho, R. A. Yunes, and J. B. Calixto, “Analysis of the mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive effect of the extracts of plants from the genus Phyllanthus,” General Pharmacology: The Vascular System, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1499–1506, 1995.
- I. D. Mehare and B. C. Hatapakki, “Antiinflammatory activity of bark of Bridelia retusa Spreng,” Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 410–411, 2003.
- H. M. Manga, D. Brkic, D. E. P. Marie, and J. Quetin-Leclercq, “In vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Alchornea cordifolia (Schumach. & Thonn.) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae),” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 92, no. 2-3, pp. 209–214, 2004.
- S. Bani, S. Singh, G. B. Singh, and S. K. Banerjee, “Antiinflammatory actions of Euphorbia splendens extract,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 76–78, 1999.
- P. H. Ferri, “Química de produtos naturais: métodos gerais,” in Plantas Medicinais: Arte e Ciencia. Um Guia de Estudo Interdisciplinar, L. C. Di Stasi, Ed., pp. 129–156, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Brazil, 1996.
- R. Koster, M. Anderson, and E. J. Debeer, “Acetic acid analgesic screening,” Federation Proceedings, vol. 18, pp. 412–420, 1959.
- D. Dubuisson and S. G. Dennis, “The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats,” Pain, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 161–174, 1977.
- F. E. D'Amour and J. Smith, “A method for determining loss of pain sensation,” Journal of Pharmacolçogy and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 74–79, 1941.
- M. L. Ferrándiz and M. J. Alcaraz, “Anti-inflammatory activity and inhibition of arachidonic acid metabolism by flavonoids,” Agents and Actions, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 283–288, 1991.
- A. Tubaro, P. Dri, G. Delbello, C. Zilli, and R. Della Logia, “The croton oil ear test revisited,” Agents and Actions, vol. 17, no. 3-4, pp. 347–349, 1986.
- G. A. Bentley, S. H. Newton, and J. Starr, “Studies on the antinociceptive action of α-agonist drugs and their interactions with opioid mechanisms,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 79, no. 1, pp. 125–134, 1983.
- H. O. Collier, L. C. Dinneen, C. A. Johnson, and C. Schneider, “The abdominal constriction response and its suppression by analgesic drugs in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology and Chemotherapy, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 295–310, 1968.
- R. I. Taber, D. D. Greenhouse, and S. Irwin, “Inhibition of phenylquinone-induced writhing by narcotic antagonists,” Nature, vol. 204, no. 4954, pp. 189–190, 1964.
- H. Blumberg, P. S. Wolf, and H. B. Dayton, “Use of writhing test for evaluating analgesic activity of narcotic antagonists,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 763–766, 1965.
- G. F. Blane, “Blockade of bradykinin-induced nociception in the rat as a test for analgesic drugs with particular reference to morphine antagonists,” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 367–373, 1967.
- E. Siegmund, R. Cadmus, and G. Lu, “A method for evaluating both non-narcotic and narcotic analgesics,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 729–731, 1957.
- E. Siegmund, R. Cadmus, and G. Lu, “Screening of analgesics including aspirin-type compound based upon the antagonism of chemically induced writhing in mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 184–186, 1957.
- T. T. Chau, “Analgesic testing in animals models,” in Pharmacological Methods in the Control of Inflammation, J. Y. Chang and A. J. Lewis, Eds., pp. 195–212, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
- L. C. Hendershot and J. Forsaith, “Antagonism of the frequency of phenylquinone-induced writhing in the mouse by weak analgesics and nonanalgesics,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 237–240, 1959.
- H. I. Chernov, D. E. Wilson, W. F. Fowler, and A. J. Plummer, “Non-specificity of the mouse writhing test,” Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, vol. 167, no. 1, pp. 171–178, 1967.
- J. Pearl, M. D. Aceto, and L. S. Harris, “Prevention of writhing and other effects of narcotics and narcotic antagonists in mice,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 217–230, 1968.
- J. J. Loux, S. Smith, and H. Salem, “Comparative analgetic testing of various compounds in mice using writhing techniques,” Arzneimittelforschung, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 1644–1647, 1978.
- S. M. K. Rates and H. M. T. Barros, “Modelos animais para a avaliação da dor: métodos para triagem de novos analgésicos,” Revista Brasileira de Farmácia, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 31–44, 1994.
- M. Shibata, T. Ohkubo, H. Takahashi, and R. Inoki, “Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response,” Pain, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 347–352, 1989.
- A. Tjølsen, O. G. Berge, S. Hunskaar, J. H. Rosland, and K. Hole, “The formalin test: an evaluation of the method,” Pain, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 5–17, 1992.
- A. Tjølsen and K. Hole, “Animals models of analgesia,” in Pharmacology of Pain, A. H. Dickenson and J. M. Besson, Eds., pp. 1–20, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1997.
- S. Hunskaar, O. B. Fasmer, and K. Hole, “Formalin test in mice, a useful technique for evaluating mild analgesics,” Journal of Neuroscience Methods, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 69–76, 1985.
- C. W. Murray, F. Porreca, and A. Cowan, “Methodological refinements to the mouse paw formalin test. An animal model of tonic pain,” Journal of Pharmacological Methods, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 175–186, 1988.
- S. Hunskaar and K. Hole, “The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain,” Pain, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 103–114, 1987.
- J. H. Rosland, “The formalin test in mice: the influence of ambient temperature,” Pain, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 211–216, 1991.
- C. R. Correa and J. B. Calixto, “Evidence for participation of B1 and B2 kinin receptors in formalin-induced nociceptive response in the mouse,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 193–198, 1993.
- L. Seguin, S. Le Marouille-Girardon, and M. J. Millan, “Antinociceptive profiles of non-peptidergic neurokinin1 and neurokinin2 receptor antagonists: a comparison to other classes of antinociceptive agent,” Pain, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 325–343, 1995.
- A. R. S. Santos and J. B. Calixto, “Further evidence for the involvement of tachykinin receptor subtypes in formalin, and capsaicin models of pain in mice,” Neuropeptides, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 381–389, 1997.
- C. G. Heapy, A. Jamieson, and N. J. W. Russel, “Afferent C-fiber and A-delta activity in models of inflammation,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 90, no. 1, article 164, 1987.
- A. O. Oluyomi, S. L. Hart, and T. W. Smith, “Differential antinociceptive effects of morphine and methylmorphine in the formalin test,” Pain, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 415–418, 1992.
- C. Stein, “Peripheral mechanisms of opioid analgesia,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 182–191, 1993.
- G. Woolfe and A. D. MacDonald, “The evaluation of the analgesic action of pethidine hydrochloride (demerol),” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 300–307, 1944.
- T. L. Yaksh and T. A. Rudy, “Studies on the direct spinal action of narcotics in the production of analgesia in the rat,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 411–428, 1977.
- T. W. Smith, P. Buchan, D. N. Parsons, and S. Wilkinson, “Peripheral antinociceptive effects of N-methyl morphine,” Life Sciences, vol. 31, no. 12-13, pp. 1205–1208, 1982.
- T. W. Smith, R. L. Follenfant, and S. H. Ferreira, “Antinociceptive models displaying peripheral opioid activity,” International Journal of Tissue Reactions, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 1985.
- M. Di Rosa, J. P. Giroud, and D. A. Willoughby, “Studies on the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine,” Journal of Pathology, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 15–29, 1971.
- J. Damas, V. Bourdon, G. Remacle-Volon, and A. Adam, “Kinins and peritoneal exudates induced by carrageenin and zymosan in rats,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 418–422, 1990.
- M. A. V. Di Vaio and A. C. Freitas, “Inflamação, tratamento e avanços recentes na terapia de doenças inflamatórias,” Revista de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 37–67, 2001.
- R. Vinegar, J. F. Truax, and J. L. Selph, “Some quantitative temporal characteristics of carrageenin induced pleurisy in the rat,” Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, vol. 143, no. 3, pp. 711–714, 1973.
- G. A. Higgs, K. E. Eakins, K. G. Mugridge, S. Moncada, and J. R. Vane, “The effects of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs on leukocyte migration in carrageenin-induced inflammation,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 1980.
- T. Mikami and K. Miyasaka, “Effects of several anti-inflammatory drugs on the various parameters involved in the inflammatory respones in rat carrageenin-induced pleurisy,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 95, no. 1-2, pp. 1–12, 1983.
- P. M. Brooks and R. O. Day, “Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs—differences and similarities,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 24, pp. 1716–1725, 1991.
- K. F. Swingle, M. J. Reiter, and D. H. Schwartzmiller, “Comparison of croton oil and cantharidin induced inflammations of the mouse ear and their modification by topically applied drugs,” Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, vol. 254, no. 1, pp. 168–176, 1981.
- V. Puigneró, A. Turull, and J. Queralt, “Arachidonic acid (AA) and tetradecanoylphorbol acetate (TPA) exert systemic effects when applied topically in the mouse,” Inflammation, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 307–314, 1998.
- A. J. Lapa, C. Souccar, M. T. R. Lima-Landman, M. S. A. Castro, and T. C. M. Lima, Métodos de Avaliação da Atividade Farmacológica de Plantas Medicinais, Lagoa, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 2003.