Figure 2: Effects of glucosylceramide on the memory deficit aged mice through Y-maze test. One hour after the administration of glucosylceramide (50 mg/kg) or saline alone, memory impairment was tested. Mice were gently placed in the maze. Mice were initially placed within one arm, and the sequence (i.e., ABCAB, etc.) and number of arm entries were recorded manually for each mouse over 8-minute period. The percentage of alternations was defined according to the following equation: %alternation = [(number of alternations)/(total arm entries − 2)] × 100. The number of arm entries served as an indicator of locomotor activity. Results are expressed as means ± S.E.M. in each group. # in comparison with young, * in comparison with saline group ( mice in each group).