Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Oils and Essential Oils from Seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium against Foodborne Viral Surrogates Thu, 18 Dec 2014 10:12:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/135797/ Human noroviruses are the most frequent cause of foodborne viral disease and are responsible for the vast majority of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. However, no specific therapies are available for the efficient control or prevention of foodborne viral disease. Here, we determined the antiviral activities of oils from seeds of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (ZSO) against foodborne viral surrogates, feline calicivirus-F9 (FCV-F9), and murine norovirus-1 (MNV-1), using plaque assay. Time-of-addition experiments were designed to determine the antiviral mechanism of action of ZSO against the surrogates. Maximal antiviral effect was observed upon pretreatment of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 with ZSO, which comprised oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and linolenic acid as the major fatty acids. FCV-F9 was more sensitive to ZSO than MNV-1, and the 50% effective concentration of ZSO against pretreatment of FCV-F9 was 0.0007%. However, essential oils from Z. schinifolium (ZSE), which comprised 42% estragole, showed no inhibitory effects against FCV-F9 and MNV-1. These results suggest that the inhibitory activities of ZSO were exerted by direct interaction of FCV-F9 or MNV-1 virion with ZSO, which may be a food material candidate for control of foodborne viral disease. Mi Oh and Mi Sook Chung Copyright © 2014 Mi Oh and Mi Sook Chung. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetic Comparative Study of Gastrodin and Rhynchophylline after Oral Administration of Different Prescriptions of Yizhi Tablets in Rats by an HPLC-ESI/MS Method Thu, 18 Dec 2014 09:49:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/167253/ Pharmacokinetic characters of rhynchophylline (RIN), gastrodin (GAS), and gastrodigenin (p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol, HBA) were investigated after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi: Yizhi tablets or effective parts of tianma (total saponins from Gastrodiae, EPT) and gouteng (rhynchophylla alkaloids, EPG). At different predetermined time points after administration, the concentrations of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rat plasma were determined by an HPLC-ESI/MS method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were investigated. The results showed that the pharmacokinetic parameters and and () were dramatically different after oral administration of different prescriptions of Yizhi. The data indicated that the pharmacokinetic processes of GAS, HBA, and RIN in rats would interact with each other or be affected by other components in Yizhi. The rationality of the compatibility of Uncaria and Gastrodia elata as a classic “herb pair” has been verified from the pharmacokinetic viewpoint. Zhaohui Ge, Yuanyuan Xie, Qionglin Liang, Yiming Wang, and Guoan Luo Copyright © 2014 Zhaohui Ge et al. All rights reserved. Use of Angong Niuhuang in Treating Central Nervous System Diseases and Related Research Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/346918/ In Chinese medicine-based therapeutics, Angong Niuhuang pill (ANP) is one of the three most effective formulas for febrile diseases, and it is also used to treat other diseases. This paper reviews current knowledge regarding the clinical and pharmacological effects of ANP for treating different central nervous system (CNS) diseases to confirm its validity and efficacy. These diseases are like centric fever, coma, stroke, and viral encephalitis. This review reveals that various diseases could be treated using the same agent, which is one of the most important principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). According to the “Same Treatment for Different Diseases” principle, ANP might be efficacious in other CNS diseases. Yu Guo, Shaohua Yan, Lipeng Xu, Gexin Zhu, Xiaotong Yu, and Xiaolin Tong Copyright © 2014 Yu Guo et al. All rights reserved. Coptis chinensis and Myrobalan (Terminalia chebula) Can Synergistically Inhibit Inflammatory Response In Vitro and In Vivo Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/510157/ Objectives. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Coptis chinensis plus myrobalan (CM) in vitro and in vivo. Methods. The inflammation in mouse peritoneal macrophages was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animal models were established by using ear swelling and paw edema of mouse induced by xylene and formaldehyde, respectively. In vitro, cytotoxicity, the phagocytosis of macrophages, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in cell supernatant were detected. In vivo, swelling rate and edema inhibitory rate of ear and paw were observed using CM-treated mice. Results. At 150–18.75 μg·mL−1, CM had no cytotoxicity and could significantly promote the growth and the phagocytosis of macrophages and inhibit the overproduction of NO, iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages induced by LPS. In vivo, pretreatment with CM, the ear swelling, and paw edema of mice could be significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the antiedema effect of CM at high dose was better than dexamethasone. Conclusion. Our results demonstrated that Coptis chinensis and myrobalan possessed synergistically anti-inflammatory activities in vitro and in vivo, which indicated that CM had therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-mediated diseases. Enhui Cui, Xiaoyan Zhi, Ying Chen, Yuanyuan Gao, Yunpeng Fan, Weimin Zhang, Wuren Ma, Weifeng Hou, Chao Guo, and Xiaoping Song Copyright © 2014 Enhui Cui et al. All rights reserved. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine Thu, 18 Dec 2014 00:11:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/890842/ Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman M. Al-Elaiwi, Md Tanwir Athar, Mohammad Tariq, Ahmed Al Eid, and Saeed M. Al-Asmary Copyright © 2014 Abdulrahman K. Al-Asmari et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Assessment and Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of Endophytic Fungi Extracts Isolated from Costus spiralis (Jacq.) Roscoe (Costaceae) Wed, 17 Dec 2014 07:35:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/190543/ Costus spiralis (Costaceae) is a species native to the Amazon region and is used in traditional medicine. The endophytic fungi used in this study were obtained from leaves of this plant. 13 strains were selected to obtain hydroethanolic extracts and were submitted to hydroalcoholic extraction and evaluated for antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), and all of the fungi had positive results. The antimicrobial action of crude extracts had a good range of activities. All extracts had inhibitory activities against the yeasts of Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis, with 125 to 500 μg/mL MIC. Eight extracts had antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis (MIC from 62.4 to 125 μg/mL), 5 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC from 125 to 500 μg/mL), 2 against Salmonella enterica (MIC from 125 to 62.5 μg/mL), and 2 against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC from 500 to 125 μg/mL). The presence of secondary metabolites, including coumarins, was observed during chemical evaluation by thin layer chromatography. Total phenol content was estimated, and a strong positive correlation to antioxidant activity was observed, according to its Pearson coefficient. This is the first report of the bioactive potential of endophytic fungi isolated from the Costaceae family in Brazilian ecosystems. Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio, Sérgio Donizeti Ascêncio, Aline Aires Aguiar, Adriana Fiorini, and Raphael Sanzio Pimenta Copyright © 2014 Poliana Guerino Marson Ascêncio et al. All rights reserved. Mulberry Extracts Alleviate Aβ25–35-Induced Injury and Change the Gene Expression Profile in PC12 Cells Wed, 17 Dec 2014 00:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/150617/ Mulberry, which contained high amounts of anthocyanins, has been used in traditional Chinese medicine. Mulberry fruit extracts (ME) have demonstrated the antioxidant activity and neuroprotection. The study was to investigate the neuroprotective efficacy of ME against β-amyloid 25–35- (Aβ25–35-) induced PC12 cells injury. Cells preincubated with or without ME (200 μg/mL) for 24 h were treated with Aβ25–35 (20 μmol/L) for another 24 h. Cell viability was assessed by MTT, gene expression profiles were examined by cDNA microarrays, and RT-PCR were used to confirm the results of microarray assays. ME pretreatment was found to neutralize the cytotoxicity and prevent Aβ25–35-induced cells injury. Analyses of gene expression profile revealed that genes involving cell adhesion, peptidase activity, cytokine activity, ion binding activity, and angiogenesis regulation were significantly modulated by ME pretreatment. Among those genes, Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4 were enriched in the “Alzheimer’s disease-reference pathway” and downregulated after ME intervention. RT-PCR results showed that ME preincubation could significantly inhibit Aβ25–35 increased mRNA levels of these three genes. Overall, ME pretreatment could substantially alleviate PC12 cells injury and downregulate expression of AD-related genes, such as Apaf1, Bace2, and Plcb4. This study has a great nutrigenomics interest and brings new and important light in the field of AD intervention. Nan Song, Hongpeng Yang, Wei Pang, Zhiwei Qie, Hao Lu, Long Tan, Haiqiang Li, Shoudan Sun, Fuzhi Lian, Chuan Qin, and Yugang Jiang Copyright © 2014 Nan Song et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect on β-Hexosaminidase Release from RBL-2H3 Cells of Extracts and Some Pure Constituents of Benchalokawichian, a Thai Herbal Remedy, Used for Allergic Disorders Tue, 16 Dec 2014 08:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/828760/ Introduction. Benchalokawichian (BCW), a Thai traditional herbal formulation, has long been used as antipyretic and to treat skin disorders. It comprises roots from five herbs: Ficus racemosa, Capparis micracantha, Clerodendrum petasites, Harrisonia perforata, and Tiliacora triandra. This polyherbal remedy has recently been included in the Thailand National List of Essential Medicines (Herbal Products list). Methodology. A Bioassay-guided fractionation technique was used to evaluate antiallergy activities of crude extracts, and those obtained by the multistep column chromatography isolation of pure compounds. Inhibitory effect on the release of β-hexosaminidase from RBL-2H3 cells was used to determine antiallergic activity. Results. Two pure compounds from BCW formulation showed higher antiallergic activity than crude or semipure extracts. Pectolinarigenin showed the highest antiallergic activity, followed by O-methylalloptaeroxylin, with IC50 values of 6.3 μg/mL and 14.16 μg/mL, respectively. Moreover, the highest activities of pure compounds were significantly higher than chlorpheniramine (16.2 μg/mL). Conclusions. This study provides some support for the use of BCW in reducing itching and treatment of other skin allergic disorders. The two isolated constituents exhibited high antiallergic activity and it is necessary to determine their mechanism of action. Further phytochemical and safety studies of pure compounds are required before development of these as antiallergy commercial remedies. Thana Juckmeta, Pakakrong Thongdeeying, and Arunporn Itharat Copyright © 2014 Thana Juckmeta et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory Effect of a Hot-Water Extract of Leaves of Japanese Big-Leaf Magnolia (Magnolia obovata) on Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Mouse Pups Mon, 15 Dec 2014 09:13:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/365831/ The leaf of Japanese big-leaf magnolia (Magnolia obovata Thunb.) has long been used as a natural packaging material for traditional foods in Japan. However, many of the physiological functions of the leaves against oral infection and resultant illness remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a hot-water extract of the leaves of Magnolia obovata on diarrhea induced by rotavirus (RV), a major cause of acute diarrhea. RV strain SA11 was mixed with the M. obovata leaf extract and inoculated orally to neonatal BALB/c mouse pups. Simultaneous inoculation of SA11 with the extract significantly decreased the incidence of diarrhea. In addition, the extract significantly inhibited cytopathic effects and mRNA expression of viral proteins in SA11-infected MA104 cells. Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin and rutin, were strongly suggested to be major anti-RV agents in the extract by serial solvent extraction and reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS analysis. Our results suggest that the hot-water extract of M. obovata leaves can be used as a medicine or food additive to prevent and ameliorate RV-induced diarrhea in individuals that may have difficulty in benefitting from the RV vaccines. Takeshi Kawahara, Takuma Tomono, Yasunori Hamauzu, Katsumi Tanaka, and Hisako Yasui Copyright © 2014 Takeshi Kawahara et al. All rights reserved. KCHO-1, a Novel Antineuroinflammatory Agent, Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neuroinflammatory Responses through Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mouse BV2 Microglia Cells Thu, 11 Dec 2014 10:28:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/357154/ The brain is vulnerable to oxidative stress and inflammation that can occur as a result of aging or neurodegenerative diseases. Our work has sought to identify natural products that regulate heme oxygenase (HO)-1 and to determine their mechanism of action in neurodegenerative diseases. KCHO-1 is a novel herbal therapeutic containing 30% ethanol (EtOH) extracts from nine plants. In this study, we investigated the antineuroinflammatory effects of KCHO-1 in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated mouse BV2 microglia. KCHO-1 inhibited the protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), iNOS-derived nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase- (COX-) 2, and COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. It also reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and IL-6 production. This effect was correlated with the suppression of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B-α (IκB-α) phosphorylation and degradation and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation and DNA binding. Additionally, KCHO-1 upregulated HO-1 expression by promoting nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in mouse BV2 microglia. Tin protoporphyrin (SnPP), an HO activity inhibitor, was used to verify the inhibitory effects of KCHO-1 on proinflammatory mediators and proteins associated with HO-1 expression. Our data suggest that KCHO-1 has therapeutic potential in neurodegenerative diseases caused by neuroinflammation. Dong-Sung Lee, Wonmin Ko, Chi-Su Yoon, Dong-Cheol Kim, Jinju Yun, Jun-Kyung Lee, Ki-Young Jun, Ilhong Son, Dong-Woung Kim, Bong-Keun Song, Seulah Choi, Jun-Hyeog Jang, Hyuncheol Oh, Sungchul Kim, and Youn-Chul Kim Copyright © 2014 Dong-Sung Lee et al. All rights reserved. Mechanisms Underlying the Antinociceptive, Antiedematogenic, and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Main Flavonoid from Kalanchoe pinnata Thu, 11 Dec 2014 09:59:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/429256/ Kalanchoe pinnata (KP) is popularly used for treating inflammatory diseases. This study investigated the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory potential of the subcutaneous administration of KP flower aqueous extract (KPFE), its ethyl acetate (EtOAcF) and butanol (BuOHF) fractions, and the main KP flavonoid [quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl () α-L-rhamnopyranoside] (KPFV) in mice, as well as its possible mechanisms of action. KPFE (30–300 mg/kg) and KPFV (1–10 mg/kg) inhibited the acetic acid-induced writhing (ID50 = 164.8 and 9.4 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE (300 mg/kg), EtOAcF (12 mg/kg), BuOHF (15 mg/kg), or KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced leukocyte migration on carrageenan-induced pleurisy (ID50 = 2.0 mg/kg for KPFV). KPFE (3–30 mg/kg) and KPFV (0.3–3.0 mg/kg) reduced the croton oil-induced ear edema (ID50 = 4.3 and 0.76 mg/kg, resp.). KPFE and KPFV reduced the TNF-α concentration in the pleural exudates on carrageenan-induced pleurisy test. Moreover, KPFV inhibited COX-1 (IC50 = 22.1 μg/mL) and COX-2 (IC50 > 50 μg/mL). The selectivity index (COX-/COX-) was <0.44. These results indicate that KPFE and KPFV produced antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-inflammatory activities through COX inhibition and TNF-α reduction, revealing that the main flavonoid in KP flowers and leaves plays an important role in the ethnomedicinal use of the plant. Raquel Teixeira Ferreira, Marcela Araújo Soares Coutinho, David do Carmo Malvar, Elson Alves Costa, Iziara Ferreira Florentino, Sônia Soares Costa, and Frederico Argollo Vanderlinde Copyright © 2014 Raquel Teixeira Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Cytotoxic Activities against Breast Cancer Cells of Local Justicia gendarussa Crude Extracts Thu, 11 Dec 2014 06:35:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/732980/ Justicia gendarussa methanolic leaf extracts from five different locations in the Southern region of Peninsular Malaysia and two flavonoids, kaempferol and naringenin, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Kaempferol and naringenin were two flavonoids detected in leaf extracts using gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The results indicated that highest concentrations of kaempferol and naringenin were detected in leaves extracted from Mersing with 1591.80 mg/kg and 444.35 mg/kg, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between kaempferol and naringenin concentrations in all leaf extracts analysed with the Pearson method. The effects of kaempferol and naringenin from leaf extracts were examined on breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468) using MTT assay. Leaf extract from Mersing showed high cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 23 μg/mL and 40 μg/mL, respectively, compared to other leaf extracts. Kaempferol possessed high cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 values of 23 μg/mL and 34 μg/mL, respectively. These findings suggest that the presence of kaempferol in Mersing leaf extract contributed to high cytotoxicity of both MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cancer cell lines. Zahidah Ayob, Siti Pauliena Mohd Bohari, Azman Abd Samad, and Shajarahtunnur Jamil Copyright © 2014 Zahidah Ayob et al. All rights reserved. Trend and Pattern of Herb and Supplement Use in the United States: Results from the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys Wed, 10 Dec 2014 13:45:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/872320/ Background. In 1990s, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including use of herbs and supplements, gained popularity in the United States. However, more recent surveys suggest that demand for herbs and supplements has stabilized. Objective. This study examined the prevalence, patterns, and changes in herb and supplement use among the US adults, using the 2002, 2007, and 2012 National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS). Methods. Weighted population estimates were derived from three complementary and alternative medicine supplements to the NHIS. Prevalence rates for herb and supplement use were compared, using Wald chi-square tests to measure changes between years. Results. An estimated 40.6 million US adults reported herb and supplement use in 2012. However, the rate of herb and supplement use dropped from 18.9% in 2002 to 17.9% in 2007 and 2012 (). This decline in use was more pronounced among women, racial or ethnic minorities, and adults with low incomes. Conclusion. Herb and supplements use remains common in the USA, but adult use rates are on the decline. It is still important for health care providers to ask patients about herb and supplement use. Chung-Hsuen Wu, Chi-Chuan Wang, Meng-Ting Tsai, Wan-Ting Huang, and Jae Kennedy Copyright © 2014 Chung-Hsuen Wu et al. All rights reserved. Antioxidant and Antiadipogenic Activities of Galkeun-Tang, a Traditional Korean Herbal Formula Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:57:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/763494/ Galkeun-tang (GKT; Galgen-tang in Chinese and Kakkon-to in Japanese), a traditional herbal formula, has been used for treatment of the common cold. Here, we report in vitro antioxidant and antiadipogenic effects of GKT. GKT increased the activities of scavenging 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. GKT also significantly reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) generation during low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and the electrophoretic mobility of oxidized LDL, indicating inhibitory effects of GKT on Cu2+-mediated oxidation of LDL. Regarding antiadipogenic activity, GKT treatment significantly suppressed lipid accumulation, triglyceride production, and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Consistent with this, GKT significantly reduced the secretion of leptin, a major adipokine, in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Overall, our findings suggest that GKT has the potential for antioxidative and antiadipogenic properties. Soo-Jin Jeong, Sae-Rom Yoo, Ohn-Soon Kim, Chang-Seob Seo, and Hyeun-Kyoo Shin Copyright © 2014 Soo-Jin Jeong et al. All rights reserved. Use of Auricular Acupressure to Improve the Quality of Life in Diabetic Patients with Chronic Kidney Diseases: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:11:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/343608/ Background. Diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) suffer from low quality of life (QOL). We aim to assess the effectiveness of auricular acupressure for QOL improvement in these patients. Materials and Methods. Sixty-two participants were randomly assigned to an auricular or a control arm in a randomized controlled trial. Participants in the auricular arm were instructed to perform auricular acupressure 3–5 times per day for 3 months, when they were receiving conventional treatments. Participants in the control arm received conventional treatments only. The primary outcome was the summarized score of Kidney Disease and Quality of Life Short-Form (KDQOL-SF) at 3 months after randomization. The secondary outcomes included the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results. The summarized KDQOL differed significantly between the acupressure (76.6, 95% CI, 72.2 to 81.0) and the control group (61.8, 95% CI, 57.7 to 65.9). Similar results were found in the SF-36 scores. HbA1c and eGFR were not found to be significantly different between the arms and neither were the adverse events. Conclusion. Auricular acupressure was well tolerated in diabetic patients with chronic kidney diseases receiving hemodialysis. Future research is needed to confirm these results. Shaoqing Wang, Zhaohui Chen, Ping Fu, Li Zang, Li Wang, Xi Zhai, Fang Gao, Aijing Huang, and Yao Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shaoqing Wang et al. All rights reserved. Molecular Mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule, a Complex Chinese Medicine, on Thalassemia Patients Suffering from Hemolysis and Anemia of Erythrocytes Wed, 10 Dec 2014 00:11:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/213782/ The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic biological mechanism of Yisui Shengxue Granule (YSSXG), a complex Chinese medicine, on the hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient with thalassemia disease. Sixteen patients with thalassemia (8 cases of α-thalassemia and 8 cases of β-thalassemia) disease were collected and treated with YSSXG for 3 months. The improvements of blood parameter demonstrated that YSSXG had a positive clinical effect on patients with thalassemia disease. For patients with α-thalassemia disease, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated the relative mRNA expression level of α-globin to β-globin and downregulated DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b mRNA compared with pretreatment. Western blotting showed that YSSXG downregulated the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. For patients with β-thalassemia disease, the relative expression level of Aγ-globin to α-globin had an increasing trend and the level of BCL11A mRNA expression obviously increased. For all patients, RT-PCR showed that YSSXG upregulated mRNA expression of SPTA1 and SPTB. Activities of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased and MDA obviously reduced on erythrocyte and blood serum after YSSXG treatment. TEM showed that YSSXG decreased the content of inclusion bodies. Activities of Na+K+-ATPtase and T-ATPtase of erythrocyte increased significantly after YSSXG treatment. This study provides the basis for mechanisms of YSSXG on thalassemia suffering with hemolysis and anemia of erythrocytes from patient. Na-Li Chu, Zhi-kui Wu, Xin-Hua Zhang, Su-Ping Fang, Wen-Juan Wang, and Yan-Ling Cheng Copyright © 2014 Na-Li Chu et al. All rights reserved. Safety and Tolerability of Essential Oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume Leaves with Action on Oral Candidosis and Its Effect on the Physical Properties of the Acrylic Resin Tue, 09 Dec 2014 12:09:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/325670/ The anti-Candida activity of essential oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume, as well as its effect on the roughness and hardness of the acrylic resin used in dental prostheses, was assessed. The safety and tolerability of the test product were assessed through a phase I clinical trial involving users of removable dentures. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined against twelve Candida strains. Acrylic resin specimens were exposed to artificial saliva (GI), C. zeylanicum (GII), and nystatin (GIII) for 15 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey posttest (%). For the phase I clinical trial, 15 healthy patients used solution of C. zeylanicum at MIC (15 days, 3 times a day) and were submitted to clinical and mycological examinations. C. zeylanicum showed anti-Candida activity, with MIC = 625.0 µg/mL being equivalent to MFC. Nystatin caused greater increase in roughness and decreased the hardness of the material (), with no significant differences between GI and GII. As regards the clinical trial, no adverse clinical signs were observed after intervention. The substance tested had a satisfactory level of safety and tolerability, supporting new advances involving the clinical use of essential oil from C. zeylanicum. Julyana de Araújo Oliveira, Ingrid Carla Guedes da Silva, Leonardo Antunes Trindade, Edeltrudes Oliveira Lima, Hugo Lemes Carlo, Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti, and Ricardo Dias de Castro Copyright © 2014 Julyana de Araújo Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients Tue, 09 Dec 2014 09:47:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/465471/ Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (–0.89); inspection signs (–0.95); listening/smelling signs (–0.88); and inquiry signs (–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. Ju Ah Lee, Mi Mi Ko, Byoung-Kab Kang, Terje Alraek, Stephen Birch, and Myeong Soo Lee Copyright © 2014 Ju Ah Lee et al. All rights reserved. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine Tue, 09 Dec 2014 08:02:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/329563/ Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam’s acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. Taehyung Lee, Won-Mo Jung, In-Seon Lee, Ye-Seul Lee, Hyejung Lee, Hi-Joon Park, Namil Kim, and Younbyoung Chae Copyright © 2014 Taehyung Lee et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Integrated Cognitive Therapy on Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Patterns in Stroke Patients with Cognitive Dysfunction: A Resting-State fMRI Study Mon, 08 Dec 2014 11:44:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/962304/ Objective. This study aimed to identify abnormal hippocampal functional connectivity (FC) following ischemic stroke using resting-state fMRI. We also explored whether abnormal hippocampal FC could be modulated by integrated cognitive therapy and tested whether these alterations were associated with cognitive performance. Methods. 18 right-handed cognitively impaired ischemic stroke patients and 18 healty control (HC) subjects were included in this study. Stroke subjects were scanned at baseline and after integrated cognitive therapy, while HCs were only scanned at baseline, to identify regions that show significant correlations with the seed region. Behavioral and cognitive assessments were obtained before each scan. Results. During the resting state, we found abnormal hippocampal FC associated with temporal regions, insular cortex, cerebellum, and prefrontal cortex in stroke patients compared to HCs. After integrated cognitive therapy, however, the stroke group showed increased hippocampal FC mainly located in the prefrontal gyrus and the default mode network (DMN). Altered hippocampal FC was associated with cognitive improvement. Conclusion. Resting-state fMRI may provide novel insight into the study of functional networks in the brain after stroke. Furthermore, altered hippocampal FC may be a compensatory mechanism for cognitive recovery after ischemic stroke. Shanli Yang, Cai Jiang, Haicheng Ye, Jing Tao, Jia Huang, Yanling Gao, Zhicheng Lin, and Lidian Chen Copyright © 2014 Shanli Yang et al. All rights reserved. Ethyl Acetate Extract from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. Suppresses Synovial Inflammation in Adjuvant Arthritis Rats through Apoptosis Induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T Cells Mon, 08 Dec 2014 09:58:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/460136/ Celastrus aculeatus Merr. has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in clinic. However, the main active fraction of this plant is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the suppressive effect of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) from Celastrus aculeatus Merr. on synovial inflammation in adjuvant arthritis (AA) rats induced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra (Mtb) and to explore the underlying mechanisms. SD rats immunized with heat-killed Mtb were fed with EAE and observed for erythema, swelling, and induration of each paw. The pathologic changes in joint synovium were tested by hematoxylin-eosin staining. Apoptosis induction of synoviocytes was tested immunohistochemically. Apoptosis of peripheral lymphocytes and the level of regulatory T cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. After treatment with EAE, the joint inflammation in rats with AA was alleviated. Both apoptotic ratios of synoviocytes and peripheral lymphocytes and the ratio of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ to CD4 regulatory T cells were significantly increased. In summary, we first demonstrated that EAE of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. can inhibit synovial inflammation in AA rats through apoptosis induction of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T cells. Our study provides a rationale for the application of Celastrus aculeatus Merr. to treat RA. Shu-tong Bai, Pei-hong Chen, Yu-yao Chen, Xiao-chun Lin, Jun-shan Liu, and Li Tong Copyright © 2014 Shu-tong Bai et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for Refractory Epilepsy: Role of Thalamus Sun, 07 Dec 2014 09:48:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/950631/ Neurostimulation procedures like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) and deep brain stimulation have been used to treat refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. While holding promise, they are invasive interventions with serious complications and adverse effects. Moreover, their efficacies are modest with less seizure free. Acupuncture is a simple, safe, and effective traditional healing modality for a wide range of diseases including pain and epilepsy. Thalamus takes critical role in sensory transmission and is highly involved in epilepsy genesis particularly the absence epilepsy. Considering thalamus serves as a convergent structure for both acupuncture and VNS and the thalamic neuronal activities can be modulated by acupuncture, we propose that acupuncture could be a promising therapy or at least a screening tool to select suitable candidates for those invasive modalities in the management of refractory epilepsy. Shuping Chen, Shubin Wang, Peijing Rong, Junling Liu, Hongqi Zhang, and Jianliang Zhang Copyright © 2014 Shuping Chen et al. All rights reserved. Circulating MicroRNA Profiles Differ between Qi-Stagnation and Qi-Deficiency in Coronary Heart Disease Patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome Thu, 04 Dec 2014 09:44:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/926962/ We compared the circulating microRNA profiles of Qi-stagnation (QSB) and Qi-deficiency (QDB) in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with blood stasis syndrome. Twenty-nine CHD patients were divided into QSB group and QDB group. The analysis was carried out through comparing their circulating microRNA profiles and the following bioinformatics analysis. The number of differential miRNAs in QDB group was much more than that in QSB group. Functional annotations of the differentially expressed miRNAs target genes in the QSB group and QDB group were, respectively, related to regulation of cellular component organization, regulation of glucose metabolic process, and so forth and protein kinase cascade, phosphate metabolic process, and so forth. KEGG pathway analysis showed that the process Qi-deficiency was associated with phagocytosis including endocytosis and mTOR signaling pathway. Specifically, pathway of cell adhesion molecules played the crucial role in the pathological process of Qi-stagnation, with a unique upregulation except for pathways associated with cancer signal. MicroRNA-gene-net analysis indicated that let-7c, miR-4487, miR-619, miR-8075, miR-6735, and miR-32-5p and miR-17-5p, miR-130a, and miR 320 family had the most important and extensive regulatory function for Qi-stagnation syndromes and Qi-deficiency syndromes, respectively. Differentially expressed miRNAs and concerned pathways suggest different molecular mechanisms that may mediate the pathological process of QSB and QDB syndromes. Jincai Hou, Jun Wang, Chengren Lin, Jianhua Fu, Jianxun Ren, Lei Li, Hao Guo, Xiao Han, and Jianxun Liu Copyright © 2014 Jincai Hou et al. All rights reserved. Tetrahydrobiopterin Improves Endothelial Function in Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review Thu, 04 Dec 2014 07:57:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/850312/ Background. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is reduced during the early stage of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, and diabetic vasculopathy, and even throughout the entire progression of atherosclerosis. Methods. A literature search was performed using electronic databases (up to January 31, 2014), including MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), using an established strategy. Results. Fourteen articles were selected with a total of 370 patients. Ten of the fourteen studies showed a significant improvement in the endothelial dysfunction of various cardiovascular disease groups with BH4 supplementation compared with the control groups or placebos. Three studies showed no positive outcome, and one study showed that low-dose BH4 had no effect but that high-dose BH4 did have a significantly different result. Conclusions. This review concludes that supplementation with BH4 and/or augmentation of the endogenous levels of BH4 will be a novel approach to improve the endothelial dysfunction observed in various cardiovascular diseases. BH4 might be considered to be a new therapeutic agent to prevent the initiation and progression of cardiovascular disease. Qiongying Wang, Mina Yang, Han Xu, and Jing Yu Copyright © 2014 Qiongying Wang et al. All rights reserved. Applications of Data Mining Methods in the Integrative Medical Studies of Coronary Heart Disease: Progress and Prospect Wed, 03 Dec 2014 06:41:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/791841/ A large amount of studies show that real-world study has strong external validity than the traditional randomized controlled trials and can evaluate the effect of interventions in a real clinical setting, which open up a new path for researches of integrative medicine in coronary heart disease. However, clinical data of integrative medicine in coronary heart disease are large in amount and complex in data types, making exploring the appropriate methodology a hot topic. Data mining techniques are to analyze and dig out useful information and knowledge from the mass data to guide people’s practices. The present review provides insights for the main features of data mining and their applications of integrative medical studies in coronary heart disease, aiming to analyze the progress and prospect in this field. Yan Feng, Yixin Wang, Fang Guo, and Hao Xu Copyright © 2014 Yan Feng et al. All rights reserved. A Pilot Study on Effects of Acupuncture and Moxibustion by Hyperspectral Imaging Technique Wed, 03 Dec 2014 00:10:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/135212/ This study was to observe the effects of acupuncture and moxibustion on spectrum features of acupoint using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) technique. HSI of the Neiguan (PC6) in the acupuncture groups, moxibustion groups, and control groups was scanned by the hyperspectral imager to analyze the spectrum features and the variations within the wavelength of 400–1000 nm and explore the relationship between the spectral characteristics and effects of acupuncture and moxibustion. The light absorption intensity was slightly reduced within the wave band of 540–590 nm after acupuncture. The absorption intensity of PC6 before moxibustion was significantly higher than that after moxibustion, and the maximum reduction was found at the wavelength of 580 nm with 20.5% reduction, . There was no significant change of the spectrum of palm and PC6 and the spectrum curves of the acupoint were basically identical in control group. The light absorption intensity of PC6 of human body was weakened after Acu-mox. Specific wavelengths were all exhibited at 580 nm and the effect of moxibustion was more significant. HSI technique can be used to measure the spectral characteristics of the acupoint areas. This first time research would be significant and beneficial for study on the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion. Dong Zhang, Yin-long Li, Shu-you Wang, Xiao-dong Bai, Xiao-jing Song, and Shun-yue Li Copyright © 2014 Dong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Acupuncture Knife on Inflammatory Factors and Pain in Third Lumbar Vertebrae Transverse Process Syndrome Model Rats Tue, 02 Dec 2014 10:39:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/892406/ The aim of this paper was to explore the long-term effects and pain relief mechanism of acupuncture knife on third lumbar vertebrae (L3) transverse process syndrome. Forty SD rats were randomized into control, model, electroacupuncture (EA), and acupuncture knife (AK) group. Except control rats, other rats were subjected to an operation to emulate L3 transverse process syndrome. Fourteen days after the operation, EA and AK rats were given electroacupuncture and acupuncture knife treatments, respectively. Fifty-six days after the operation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure substance P (SP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in peripheral blood. The tail flick test was used to observe pain threshold. We found that rats with the simulation operation had significantly higher levels of SP, 5-HT, IL-1, IL-10, TNF-α, and TGF-β, while the AK rats had lower levels. In addition, the pain threshold of AK rats was similar to that of control rats. AK pretreatment could alleviate pain through modulating inflammatory response. Jia Ni Yu, Chang Qing Guo, Bo Hu, Nai Gang Liu, Hong Mei Sun, Hong Xu, Hai Xia Wu, Yan Guo, Chu Xi Liang, Zhan Xia Chen, and Xiao Hong Li Copyright © 2014 Jia Ni Yu et al. All rights reserved. Specificity Study on Concentration of Monoamine Transmitters at Acupoint and Effect of Acupuncture on Its Distribution Tue, 02 Dec 2014 06:58:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/704507/ To investigate the distribution of monoamine transmitters at acupoints and effect of acupuncture on it. Take this experiment by means of microdialysis. Twenty rabbits were randomly assigned to two groups (Group A: acupuncture Guanyuan (RN4), Group B: acupuncture nonacupoint which is besides Guanyuan (RN4) 1 cm). Before and after acupuncture was taken, tissue fluids both at Zhongwan (RN12) which is on the same meridian as Guanyuan and at a nonacupoint 1 cm away from Zhongwan were collected through microdialysis, respectively. The collected samples were analyzed to determine concentrations of monoamine transmitters. Epinephrine and 5-HT were detected. An unknown substance was found. Its concentration at acupoint was significantly higher than that at nonacupoint and decreased after acupuncture. Its significant specificity at acupoints suggests that it may play an important role in meridian’s activity. Ting Luo and Yi Guo Copyright © 2014 Ting Luo and Yi Guo. All rights reserved. Investigation of the Lower Resistance Meridian: Speculation on the Pathophysiological Functions of Acupuncture Meridians Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/107571/ It was pointed out in the two earlier papers of the present author that the meridians are in fact zones in the loose connective tissue containing richer interstitial fluid and thus are lower-resistance passages for diffusion of meridian-signal carriers or mediators. Moreover, a hypothesis, which incorporates the wide variety of functions of the loose connective tissue, the circulatory system, and the nervous system into the meridian function, has been proposed and in the hypothesis the mast cell plays some key roles. In the present paper, considering also the latest knowledge on cell migration along with some existing experimental results, it is further pointed out that meridians ought to be lower-resistance passages for chemotactic migration of cells and mast cells can indeed migrate longitudinally along meridians. Finally, the present paper points out that if we add the last two points to the hypothesis and keep in mind that mast cells have been known very recently to be versatile regulators of inflammation, tissue remodeling, host defense, and homeostasis, the rich pathophysiological functions of the meridian pointed out by the traditional Chinese medicine can be understood quite naturally. Weisheng Yang Copyright © 2014 Weisheng Yang. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Mechanism of Tanshinone IIA for Atherosclerosis Tue, 02 Dec 2014 00:10:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/267976/ Tanshinone IIA (Tan II A) is widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases as an active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. It has been demonstrated to have pleiotropic effects for atherosclerosis. From the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanism perspective, this paper reviewed major progresses of Tan IIA in antiatherosclerosis research, including immune cells, antigens, cytokines, and cell signaling pathways. Zhuo Chen and Hao Xu Copyright © 2014 Zhuo Chen and Hao Xu. All rights reserved.