Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Hematopoietic Effects of Paeoniflorin and Albiflorin on Radiotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression Mice Thu, 26 May 2016 08:24:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5789381/ Paeonia lactiflora root (baishao in Chinese) is a commonly used herb in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Paeoniflorin (PF) and albiflorin (AF) are two major active constituents of P. lactiflora. In this paper, we aimed to investigate the hematopoietic effects of PF and AF on myelosuppression mice induced by radiotherapy and to explore the underlying mechanism. The finding indicated that PF and AF significantly increased the numbers of white blood cells (WBC) and reversed the atrophy of thymus. Furthermore, PF and AF increased the levels of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) and reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum and increased the level of colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in plasma. Lastly, PF and AF not only enhanced the mRNA levels of GM-CSF and G-CSF in the spleens, but also increased the protein levels of G-CSF and GM-CSF in bone marrow. Our results suggest that PF and AF may promote the recovery of bone marrow hemopoietic function in a myelosuppressed mouse model. Yingli Zhu, Linyuan Wang, Zhihui Yang, Jingxia Wang, Wei Li, Jianyu Zhou, and Jianjun Zhang Copyright © 2016 Yingli Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Cardioprotective Effect of Electroacupuncture Pretreatment on Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Antiapoptotic Signaling Wed, 25 May 2016 13:38:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4609784/ Objectives. Our previous study has used RNA-seq technology to show that apoptotic molecules were involved in the myocardial protection of electroacupuncture pretreatment (EAP) on the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) animal model. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate how EAP protects myocardium against myocardial I/R injury through antiapoptotic mechanism. Methods. By using rats with myocardial I/R, we ligated the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 minutes followed by 4 hr of reperfusion after EAP at the Neiguan (PC6) acupoint for 12 days; we employed arrhythmia scores, serum myocardial enzymes, and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) to evaluate the cardioprotective effect. Heart tissues were harvested for western blot analyses for the expressions of pro- and antiapoptotic signaling molecules. Results. Our preliminary findings showed that EAP increased the survival of the animals along with declined arrhythmia scores and decreased CK, LDH, CK-Mb, and cTnT levels. Further analyses with the heart tissues detected reduced myocardial fiber damage, decreased number of apoptotic cells and the protein expressions of Cyt c and cleaved caspase 3, and the elevated level of Endo G and AIF after EAP intervention. At the same time, the protein expressions of antiapoptotic molecules, including Xiap, BclxL, and Bcl2, were obviously increased. Conclusions. The present study suggested that EAP protected the myocardium from I/R injury at least partially through the activation of endogenous antiapoptotic signaling. Sheng-feng Lu, Yan Huang, Ning Wang, Wei-xing Shen, Shu-ping Fu, Qian Li, Mei-ling Yu, Wan-xin Liu, Xia Chen, Xin-yue Jing, and Bing-mei Zhu Copyright © 2016 Sheng-feng Lu et al. All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Metabolic Syndrome via TCM Pattern Differentiation: Tongue Diagnosis for Predictor Wed, 25 May 2016 11:30:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1971295/ Metabolic syndrome is a morbid condition, which is manifested by central obesity, abnormal glucose tolerance, lipodystrophy, and hypertension. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) clarifies that obesity is classified as phlegm-dampness. It is often accompanied with qi stagnation and blood stasis. One hundred and two overweight adults, who did not receive lipid-lowering drugs, were enrolled for analysis. The exclusion criteria were adults having malignancy disease, DM, and renal disease or who were pregnant or lactating. The study was divided into two groups: metabolic syndrome group (MetS) and nonmetabolic syndrome group (nMetS). The modern tongue analysis and heart rate variability devices for data analysis and Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) for appetite evaluation were used. Obesity patients with metabolic syndrome obviously have lower CNAQ score. The 6 items of CNAQ between two groups have significant difference in variation (). The nMetS average was above 28 scores (96%) and the MetS was all in 17–28 scores. The tongue appearance showed that MetS group have white coating different from the nMetS group with white and yellow coating (). However the HRV is not different from nMetS group significantly. Our results try to explore the relationship between the TCM pattern, nutrition appetite, and heart rate variability in metabolic syndrome patients. Tsung-Chieh Lee, Lun-Chien Lo, and Fang-Chen Wu Copyright © 2016 Tsung-Chieh Lee et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Induces the Proliferation and Differentiation of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Rats with Traumatic Brain Injury Wed, 25 May 2016 11:23:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2047412/ Purpose. To investigate whether acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells (NSCs) in a rat model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods. 104 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into normal, model, and acupuncture groups. Each group was subdivided into three-day (3 d), seven-day (7 d), and fourteen-day (14 d) groups. The rat TBI model was established using Feeney’s freefall epidural impact method. The rats in the acupuncture group were treated at acupoints (Baihui, Shuigou, Fengfu, Yamen, and bilateral Hegu). The normal and model groups did not receive acupuncture. The establishment of the rat TBI model and the therapeutic effect of acupuncture were assessed using neurobehavioral scoring and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The proliferation and differentiation of NSCs in TBI rats were analyzed using immunofluorescence microscopy. Results. The levels of nestin-expressing cells and bromodeoxyuridine/glial fibrillary acidic protein- (BrdU/GFAP-) and BrdU/S100 calcium-binding protein B-positive and BrdU/microtubule-associated protein 2- and BrdU/galactocerebrosidase-positive cells were more significantly increased at various time points in the acupuncture group than in the model group (), except for a decreased level of BrdU/GFAP-positive cells at 7 d and 14 d. Conclusion. Acupuncture induced the proliferation and differentiation of NSCs, thereby promoting neural repair in the TBI rats. Shuting Jiang, Weihao Chen, Yimin Zhang, Yujuan Zhang, Ailian Chen, Qiufu Dai, Shujun Lin, and Hanyu Lin Copyright © 2016 Shuting Jiang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Catnip Charcoal on the In Vivo Pharmacokinetics of the Main Alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis Wed, 25 May 2016 06:35:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3532159/ This study aims to explore the effect of catnip Nepeta cataria (CNC) charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of the main alkaloids of Rhizoma Coptidis in vivo. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups and given oral administration of an aqueous extract of Rhizoma Coptidis (RCAE), RCAE plus CNC, RCAE plus activated carbon (AC), or distilled water, respectively. Plasma samples were collected after administration. The concentrations of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The pharmacokinetics data were calculated using pharmacokinetic DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine increased, while the AUC of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the rabbits that received RCAE plus CNC. Meanwhile, the AUC of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine decreased in the group given RCAE plus AC. The difference of main pharmacokinetics parameters among the four groups was significant (). This study showed that CNC improved the bioavailability of berberine in comparison to AC and prolonged its release in comparison to RCAE alone. However, it decreased the bioavailability of coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. In comparison, AC uniformly declined the bioavailability of berberine, coptisine, palmatine, and epiberberine. Yanfei He, Siyu Chen, Hai Yu, Long Zhu, Yayun Liu, Chunyang Han, and Cuiyan Liu Copyright © 2016 Yanfei He et al. All rights reserved. Hataedock Treatment Has Preventive Therapeutic Effects in Atopic Dermatitis-Induced NC/Nga Mice under High-Fat Diet Conditions Tue, 24 May 2016 14:15:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1739760/ This study investigated the preventive therapeutic effects of Hataedock (HTD) treatment on inflammatory regulation and skin protection in AD-induced NC/Nga mice under high-fat diet conditions. Before inducing AD, the extract of Coptidis Rhizoma and Glycyrrhiza uralensis was administered orally to the 3-week-old mice. After that, AD-like skin lesions were induced by applying DNFB. All groups except the control group were fed a high-fat diet freely. We identified the effects of HTD on morphological changes, cytokine release and the induction of apoptosis through histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and TUNEL assay. HTD downregulated the levels of IL-4 and PKC but increased the levels of LXR. HTD also suppressed the mast cell degranulation and release of MMP-9, Substance P. The levels of TNF-α, p-IκB, iNOS, and COX-2 were also decreased. The upregulation of inflammatory cell’s apoptosis is confirmed by our results as increase of apoptotic body and cleaved caspase-3 and decrease of Bcl-2. HTD also reduced edema, angiogenesis, and skin lesion inflammation. Our results indicate HTD suppresses various inflammatory response on AD-induced mice with obesity through the regulation of Th2 differentiation and the protection of lipid barrier. Therefore, HTD could be used as an alternative and preventive therapeutic approach in the management of AD. Ho-Yeol Cha, Sang-hyun Ahn, Jin-Hong Cheon, In-Sik Park, Jin-Tack Kim, and Kibong Kim Copyright © 2016 Ho-Yeol Cha et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Ferulic Acid, an Angelica sinensis-Derived Polyphenol, Slows the Progression of Membranous Nephropathy in a Mouse Model” Tue, 24 May 2016 11:53:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7315875/ Chao-Wen Cheng, Wen-Liang Chang, Li-Cheng Chang, Chia-Chao Wu, Yuh-Feng Lin, and Jin-Shuen Chen Copyright © 2016 Chao-Wen Cheng et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “The Effect of Acupuncture on the Motor Function and White Matter Microstructure in Ischemic Stroke Patients” Tue, 24 May 2016 11:43:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4259430/ Yongxin Li, Ya Wang, Heye Zhang, Ping Wu, and Wenhua Huang Copyright © 2016 Yongxin Li et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Guchang Capsule on Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Mice Tue, 24 May 2016 11:19:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3150651/ Guchang capsule (GC) is a Chinese materia medica standardized product extracted from 15 Chinese traditional medical herbs and it has been clinically used in the treatment of intestinal disease. In this study, in order to extend the research of GC in intestinal disease, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects of GC on dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced murine experimental colitis and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. GC treatment attenuated DSS-induced body weight loss and reduced the mortality. Moreover, GC treatment prevented DSS-induced colonic pathological damage; meanwhile it inhibited proinflammatory cytokines production in colon tissues. In vitro, GC significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines production via inhibiting the activation of NF-κB in macrophage cells, and the expressions of several long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) which were reported in regulating NF-κB signaling pathway were obviously affected by adding GC into culture medium. In conclusion, our data suggested that administration of GC exhibits therapeutic effects on DSS-induced colitis partially through regulating the expression of NF-κB related lncRNAs in infiltrating immune cells. Baoshan Liu, Tong Liu, Xiaohong Wang, Xin Zheng, Hong Wang, and Lin Ma Copyright © 2016 Baoshan Liu et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for the Treatment of Oculomotor Paralysis: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial Tue, 24 May 2016 08:16:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/3961450/ This study consisted of a single centre randomised controlled trial with two parallel arms: an acupuncture group () with 27 affected eyes and a sham group () with 23 affected eyes. Participants in the acupuncture group received acupuncture treatment once daily, three times weekly for four weeks. Participants assigned to the control group received sham acupuncture, the same protocol as that used for the acupuncture group but without insertion of needles into the skin. The primary outcome measure was the cervical range of motion (CROM) score. Secondary outcome measures were the palpebral fissure size, response rate, and adverse events. All 40 participants completed the study. In the comparison of acupuncture and sham acupuncture, a significant difference was observed between acupuncture and sham acupuncture in CROM score ( and , resp.) () and palpebral fissure size ( and , resp.) (). Response rate was also significantly different in the acupuncture group (). No adverse events were reported in both groups in this study. In summary, it was demonstrated that acupuncture had a feasibility positive effect on oculomotor paralysis. Jia-Qi Bi, Wei Li, Qi Yang, Bao-lin Li, Qing-Gang Meng, and Yu-fu Liu Copyright © 2016 Jia-Qi Bi et al. All rights reserved. Steamed and Fermented Ethanolic Extract from Codonopsis lanceolata Attenuates Amyloid-β-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice Mon, 23 May 2016 07:49:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1473801/ Codonopsis lanceolata (C. lanceolata) is a traditional medicinal plant used for the treatment of certain inflammatory diseases such as asthma, tonsillitis, and pharyngitis. We evaluated whether steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFC) extract improves amyloid-β- (Aβ-) induced learning and memory impairment in mice. The Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests were used to evaluate the effect of SFC extract. Moreover, we investigated acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic AMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the hippocampus of mice to determine a possible mechanism for the cognitive-enhancing effect. Saponin compounds in SFC were identified by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). SFC extract ameliorated amyloid-β-induced memory impairment in the Morris water maze and passive avoidance tests. SFC extract inhibited AChE activity and also significantly increased the level of CREB phosphorylation, BDNF expression, and ERK activation in hippocampal tissue of amyloid-β-treated mice. Lancemasides A, B, C, D, E, and G and foetidissimoside A compounds present in SFC were determined by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. These results indicate that SFC extract improves Aβ-induced memory deficits and that AChE inhibition and CREB/BDNF/ERK expression is important for the effect of the SFC extract. In addition, lancemaside A specifically may be responsible for efficacious effect of SFC. Jin Bae Weon, Min Rye Eom, Youn Sik Jung, Eun-Hye Hong, Hyun-Jeong Ko, Hyeon Yong Lee, Dong-Sik Park, and Choong Je Ma Copyright © 2016 Jin Bae Weon et al. All rights reserved. Volatiles from Subtropical Convolvulaceae That Interfere with Bacterial Cell-to-Cell Communication as Potential Antipathogenic Drugs Sun, 22 May 2016 12:03:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7890260/ Increasing chronic bacterial infections create an urgent need for new antimicrobial agents or strategies for their control. Targeting virulence is one of the alternative approaches to find new medicines to treat persistent infections due to bacteria with biofilm-phenotype which are more resistant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts having an extreme capacity for evading the host defences. A bioguided study of sixteen extracts from flowers and leaves of four subtropical Convolvulaceae species provided evidence of the occurrence of antipathogenic natural products active against Gram positive and negative bacteria. Particularly, volatile metabolites from Merremia dissecta creeper, a food and medicinal plant, were able to interfere with the Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing system by a strong decrease of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) biosynthesis (63–75%), which attenuated the virulence factor expression like biofilm (55%) and elastase activity (up to 27%), key factors that enable the colonization and dissemination of the infection in the host. Control of the P. aeruginosa biofilm and the QS process by phytochemicals, such as (+) spathulenol, isolated from a bioactive extract of M. dissecta leaves would be a good strategy for the development of new and effective antipathogenic drugs. María C. Luciardi, María V. Pérez Hernández, Nora Muruaga, Alicia Bardón, Mario E. Arena, and Elena Cartagena Copyright © 2016 María C. Luciardi et al. All rights reserved. Ultrastructural Changes and Death of Leishmania infantum Promastigotes Induced by Morinda citrifolia Linn. Fruit (Noni) Juice Treatment Sun, 22 May 2016 07:40:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5063540/ The search for new treatments against leishmaniasis has increased due to high frequency of drug resistance registered in endemics areas, side effects, and complications caused by coinfection with HIV. Morinda citrifolia Linn., commonly known as Noni, has a rich chemical composition and various therapeutic effects have been described in the literature. Studies have shown the leishmanicidal activity of M. citrifolia; however, its action on the parasite has not yet been elucidated. In this work, we analyzed leishmanicidal activity and ultrastructural changes in Leishmania infantum promastigotes caused by M. citrifolia fruit juice treatment. M. citrifolia fruit extract showed a yield of 6.31% and high performance liquid chromatography identified phenolic and aromatic compounds as the major constituents. IC50 values were 260.5 µg/mL for promastigotes and 201.3 µg/mL for intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum treated with M. citrifolia. Cytotoxicity assay with J774.G8 macrophages showed that M. citrifolia fruit juice was not toxic up to 2 mg/mL. Transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic vacuolization, lipid inclusion, increased exocytosis activity, and autophagosome-like vesicles in L. infantum promastigotes treated with M. citrifolia fruit juice. M. citrifolia fruit juice was active against L. infantum in the in vitro model used here causing ultrastructural changes and has a future potential for treatment against leishmaniasis. Fernando Almeida-Souza, Noemi Nosomi Taniwaki, Ana Cláudia Fernandes Amaral, Celeste da Silva Freitas de Souza, Kátia da Silva Calabrese, and Ana Lúcia Abreu-Silva Copyright © 2016 Fernando Almeida-Souza et al. All rights reserved. Preliminary Screening of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities and Establishment of an Efficient Callus Induction in Curculigo latifolia Dryand (Lemba) Thu, 19 May 2016 17:13:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6429652/ Leaf, seed, and tuber explants of C. latifolia were inoculated on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of BAP and IBA, alone or in combinations, to achieve in vitro plant regeneration. Subsequently, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were determined from in vitro and in vivo plant developed. No response was observed from seed culture on MS media with various concentrations of PGRs. The highest percentage of callus was observed on tuber explants (94%) and leaf explants (89%) when cultured on MS media supplemented with IBA in combination with BAP. A maximum of 88% shoots per tuber explant, with a mean number of shoots (), were obtained on MS medium supplemented with combinations of BAP and IBA (2.5 mg L−1). The best root induction (92%) and mean number () from tuber explants were recorded on 2.5 mg L−1 IBA alone supplemented to MS medium. The higher antioxidant content (80%) was observed from in vivo tuber. However, tuber part from the intact plant showed higher inhibition zone in antibacterial activity compared to other in vitro and in vivo tested parts. Reza Farzinebrahimi, Rosna Mat Taha, Kamaludin A. Rashid, Bakrudeen Ali Ahmed, Mahmoud Danaee, and Shahril Efzueni Rozali Copyright © 2016 Reza Farzinebrahimi et al. All rights reserved. ESP-102, a Combined Herbal Extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, Changes Synaptic Plasticity and Attenuates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Rat Hippocampus Tissue Thu, 19 May 2016 14:08:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8793095/ ESP-102, an extract from Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis, and Schisandra chinensis, has been used as herbal medicine and dietary supplement in Korea. Despite the numerous bioactivities in vitro and in vivo studies, its effects on neuronal networks remain elusive. To address the neuronal effect, we examined synaptic plasticity in organotypic hippocampal slice culture with multielectrode array. Our results showed an increase in excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP), indicating the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP), in the presence of ESP-102. In addition, the neuroprotective effect of ESP-102 was also tested by application of scopolamine to the hippocampal slice. Interestingly, ESP-102 competitively antagonized the preventative LTP effect induced by scopolamine. The scopolamine-induced reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and GluR-2 expression was also rescued by ESP-102. In terms of mode of action, ESP-102 appears to act on the presynaptic region independent of AMPA/NMDA receptors. Based on these findings, ESP-102 can be suggested as a novel herbal ingredient with memory enhancing as well as neuroprotective effects. Hyun-Bum Kim, Eun-Sang Hwang, Ga-Young Choi, Seok Lee, Tae-Suk Park, Cheol-Won Lee, Eun-Suk Lee, Young-Choong Kim, Sang Seong Kim, Sung-Ok Lee, and Ji-Ho Park Copyright © 2016 Hyun-Bum Kim et al. All rights reserved. Involvement of 5-HT1A Receptors in the Anxiolytic-Like Effects of Quercitrin and Evidence of the Involvement of the Monoaminergic System Thu, 19 May 2016 07:51:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6530364/ Quercitrin is a well-known flavonoid that is contained in Flos Albiziae, which has been used for the treatment of anxiety. The present study investigated the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in experimental models of anxiety. Compared with the control group, repeated treatment with quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for seven days significantly increased the percentage of entries into and time spent on the open arms of the elevated plus maze. In the light/dark box test, quercitrin exerted an anxiolytic-like effect at 5 and 10 mg/kg. In the marble-burying test, quercitrin (5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) also exerted an anxiolytic-like effect. Furthermore, quercitrin did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity. The anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin in the elevated plus maze and light/dark box test were blocked by the serotonin-1A (5-hydroxytryptamine-1A (5-H)) receptor antagonist WAY-100635 (3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) but not by the γ-aminobutyric acid-A (GAB) receptor antagonist flumazenil (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.). The levels of brain monoamines (5-HT and dopamine) and their metabolites (5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid) were decreased after quercitrin treatment. These data suggest that the anxiolytic-like effects of quercitrin might be mediated by 5-H receptors but not by benzodiazepine site of GAB receptors. The results of the neurochemical studies suggest that these effects are mediated by modulation of the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters. Jian Li, Qian-tong Liu, Yi Chen, Jie Liu, Jin-li Shi, Yong Liu, and Jian-you Guo Copyright © 2016 Jian Li et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Decreases NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and Increases miR-146a Expression in Chronic Atrophic Gastritis Rats Wed, 18 May 2016 13:25:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9404629/ Acupuncture has been used to treat chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for centuries. In this study, we evaluated the effect of acupuncture at Zusanli (ST36), Zhongwan (CV12), and Pishu (BL20) acupoints on weight changes of rats, histological changes of gastric glands, and expressions changes of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, microRNA- (miR-) 155, miR-21, and miR-146a in CAG rats induced by N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) combined with irregular diet. Consequently, we found that acupuncture treatment elevated body weight of rats significantly when compared to the model group. By observing histological changes, we found that the acupuncture group showed better improvement of gastric mucosa injury than the model group. Our results also demonstrated upregulation of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 in gastric tissue of CAG rats and a positive correlation between miR-155 and miR-21. Relatively, expression of miR-146a was downregulated and negative correlation relationships between miR-146a and miR-155/miR-21 in CAG rats were observed. Additionally, expressions of NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 were downregulated and miR-146a was upregulated after acupuncture treatment. Taken together, our data imply that acupuncture can downregulate NF-κB p65, miR-155, and miR-21 and upregulate miR-146a expression in CAG rats. NF-κB p65, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-146a may play important roles in therapeutic effect of acupuncture in treating CAG. Jialing Zhang, Kangbai Huang, Guoxin Zhong, Yong Huang, Suhe Li, Shanshan Qu, and Jiping Zhang Copyright © 2016 Jialing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Bee Pollen as a Promising Agent in the Burn Wounds Treatment Wed, 18 May 2016 13:20:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8473937/ The aim of the present study was to visualize the benefits and advantages derived from preparations based on extracts of bee pollen as compared to pharmaceuticals commonly used in the treatment of burns. The bee pollen ointment was applied for the first time in topical burn treatment. Experimental burn wounds were inflicted on two white, domestic pigs. Clinical, histopathological, and microbiological assessment of specimens from burn wounds, inflicted on polish domestic pigs, treated with silver sulfadiazine or bee pollen ointment, was done. The comparative material was constituted by either tissues obtained from wounds treated with physiological saline or tissues obtained from wounds which were untreated. Clinical and histopathological evaluation showed that applied apitherapeutic agent reduces the healing time of burn wounds and positively affects the general condition of the animals. Moreover the used natural preparation proved to be highly effective antimicrobial agent, which was reflected in a reduction of the number of microorganisms in quantitative research and bactericidal activity of isolated strains. On the basis of the obtained bacteriological analysis, it may be concluded that the applied bee pollen ointment may affect the wound healing process of burn wounds, preventing infection of the newly formed tissue. Paweł Olczyk, Robert Koprowski, Justyna Kaźmierczak, Lukasz Mencner, Robert Wojtyczka, Jerzy Stojko, Krystyna Olczyk, and Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev Copyright © 2016 Paweł Olczyk et al. All rights reserved. Auricular Acupuncture Wed, 18 May 2016 12:31:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4231260/ Gerhard Litscher and Pei-Jing Rong Copyright © 2016 Gerhard Litscher and Pei-Jing Rong. All rights reserved. Garlic Attenuates Plasma and Kidney ACE-1 and AngII Modulations in Early Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats: Renal Clearance and Blood Pressure Implications Wed, 18 May 2016 08:35:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8142394/ Raw garlic aqueous extract (GE) has ameliorative actions on the renin-angiotensin system in type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM); however its effects on plasma and kidney angiotensin I converting enzyme type-1 (ACE-1) and angiotensin II (AngII) require further elucidation. This study investigated the effect of GE on plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII concentrations and in relation to systemic and renal clearance indicators significant to blood pressure (BP) homeostasis in early streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced type-1 DM. Normal rats () received 0.5 mL normal saline (NR/NS), diabetic rats () received 0.5 mL NS (DR/NS), and treated diabetic rats () received 50 mg/0.1 mL/100 g body weight GE (DR/GE) as daily intraperitoneal injections for 8 weeks. Compared to NR/NS, DR/NS showed a significant increase in plasma ACE-1 and AngII and conversely a decrease in kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These changes were associated with an increase in BP and clearance functions. Alternatively and compared to DR/NS, DR/GE showed normalization or attenuation in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII. These GE induced rectifications were associated with moderation in BP elevation and renal clearance functions. Garlic attenuates modulations in plasma and kidney ACE-1 and AngII, in addition to BP and renal clearance function in type-1 DM. Khaled K. Al-Qattan, Martha Thomson, Divya Jayasree, and Muslim Ali Copyright © 2016 Khaled K. Al-Qattan et al. All rights reserved. Guizhi Fuling Wan, a Traditional Chinese Herbal Formula, Sensitizes Cisplatin-Resistant Human Ovarian Cancer Cells through Inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway Wed, 18 May 2016 07:50:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/4651949/ The aim of the study was to explore the possible mechanisms that Guizhi Fuling Wan (GFW) enhances the sensitivity of the SKOV3/DDP ovarian cancer cells and the resistant xenograft tumours to cisplatin. Rat medicated sera containing GFW were prepared by administering GFW to rats, and the primary bioactive constituents of the sera were gallic acid, paeonol, and paeoniflorin analysed by HPLC/QqQ MS. Cell counting kit-8 analysis was shown that coincubation of the sera with cisplatin/paclitaxel enhanced significantly the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin or paclitaxel in SKOV3/DDP cells. The presence of the rat medicated sera containing GFW resulted in an increase in rhodamine 123 accumulation by flow cytometric assays and a decrease in the protein levels of P-gp, phosphorylation of AKT at Ser473, and mTOR in a dose-dependent manner in SKOV3/DDP cells by western blot analysis, but the sera had no effect on the protein levels of PI3K p110α and total AKT. The low dose of GFW enhanced the anticancer efficacy of cisplatin and paclitaxel treatment in resistant SKOV3/DDP xenograft tumours. GFW could sensitize cisplatin-resistant SKOV3/DDP cells by inhibiting the protein level and function of P-gp, which may be medicated through inactivation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Li Han, Xiaojuan Guo, Hua Bian, Lei Yang, Zhong Chen, Wenhua Zang, and Jingke Yang Copyright © 2016 Li Han et al. All rights reserved. Methanol and Butanol Extracts of Paeonia lutea Leaves Repress Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma Tue, 17 May 2016 14:20:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/6087213/ Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck region worldwide and is generally treated surgically in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, anticancer agents have numerous serious side effects, and alternative, less toxic agents that are effective as chemotherapeutics for SCC are required. The Paeoniaceae family is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. We examined methanol and butanol extracts of Paeonia lutea (P. lutea) leaves for their potential as an anticancer agent. Both extracts decreased the proliferation of SCC cells, induced apoptotic cell death, and modulated migration, adhesion, chemotaxis, and haptotaxis in an extracellular matrix- (ECM-) dependent manner due to altered expression of several integrin subunits. Subsequently, SCC cells were subcutaneously transplanted into athymic nude mice; the extracts reduced the metastasis of SCC cells but had little effect on the volume of the primary tumor or survival or body weight of the mice. The results suggest that the extracts may hold promise for preventing cancer metastasis. Yoshiki Mukudai, Meilin Zhang, Sunao Shiogama, Seiji Kondo, Chihiro Ito, Hiromi Motohashi, Kosuke Kato, Miharu Fujii, Satoru Shintani, Hideyuki Shigemori, Kazunaga Yazawa, and Tatsuo Shirota Copyright © 2016 Yoshiki Mukudai et al. All rights reserved. Rannasangpei Is a Therapeutic Agent in the Treatment of Vascular Dementia Tue, 17 May 2016 11:59:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2530105/ Rannasangpei (RSNP) is used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and neurodegeneration in China; however, its potential use in the treatment of vascular dementia (VD) was unclear. In this study, our aim was to examine the neuroprotective effect of RSNP in a VD rat model, which was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (2VO). Four-week administration with two doses of RSNP was investigated in our study. Severe cognitive deficit in the VD model, which was confirmed in Morris water maze (MWM) test, was significantly restored by the administration of RSNP. ELISA revealed that the treatments with both doses of RSNP could reinstate the cholinergic activity in the VD animals by elevating the production of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and reducing the acetylcholinesterase (AChE); the treatment of RSNP could also reboot the level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and decrease malondialdehyde (MDA). Moreover, Western blot and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) results indicated that the RSNP could suppress the apoptosis in the hippocampus of the VD animals by increasing the expression ratio of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) to Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax). These results suggested that RSNP might be a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular dementia in the future. Peng Wu, Yuandai Luo, Lifang Zhen, Xianda Hu, Ying Shang, Yinuo Liao, Huiyuan Xue, Fukai Huang, and Wei Xiao Copyright © 2016 Peng Wu et al. All rights reserved. Treatment of Huge Hepatocellular Carcinoma Using Cinobufacini Injection in Transarterial Chemoembolization: A Retrospective Study Tue, 17 May 2016 09:25:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/2754542/ The aim of this study is to examine the safety and efficacy of Cinobufacini injection in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for treatment of huge hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Clinical data of 56 consecutive patients with HCC larger than 10 cm who had been treated with TACE between December 2010 and August 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. Among these patients, 31 belonged to the Cinobufacini group and 25 belonged to the epirubicin group. The clinical efficacy, survival time, and adverse events in patients in the two groups were compared. The objective response rate in the Cinobufacini group was significantly higher than that in the epirubicin group (53.6% versus 23.1%, ). The median survival time (10.6 versus 14.1 months, , ) and the median time to progression (4.9 versus 5.7 months, , ) were similar between the groups. The incidence rate of adverse events was lower in the Cinobufacini group than in the epirubicin group (). The short-term clinical efficacy of Cinobufacini is better than that of epirubicin in TACE for treating huge HCC, while their long-term clinical efficacy is similar. However, lower incidence of adverse events was noted in TACE using Cinobufacini rather than epirubicin. Jun Dong, Xiaofeng Zhai, Zhe Chen, Qun Liu, Hua Ye, Wei Chen, and Changquan Ling Copyright © 2016 Jun Dong et al. All rights reserved. Jujuboside A Protects H9C2 Cells from Isoproterenol-Induced Injury via Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway Mon, 16 May 2016 14:23:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/9593716/ Jujuboside A is a kind of the saponins isolated from the seeds of Ziziphus jujuba, which possesses multiple biological effects, such as antianxiety, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects; however, its mediatory effect on isoproterenol-stimulated cardiomyocytes has not been investigated yet. In this study, we tried to detect the protective effect and potential mechanism of JUA on ISO-induced cardiomyocytes injury. H9C2 cells were treated with ISO to induce cell damage. Cells were pretreated with JUA to investigate the effects on the cell viability, morphological changes, light chain 3 conversion, and the activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Results showed that ISO significantly inhibited the cell viability in a time- and dose-dependent manner. JUA pretreatment could reverse the reduction of cell viability and better the injury of H9C2 cells induced by ISO. Western blot analysis showed that JUA could accelerate the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR. Results also indicated that JUA could significantly decrease the ratio of microtubule-associated protein LC3-II/I in H9C2 cells. Taken together, our research showed that JUA could notably reduce the damage cause by ISO via promoting the phosphorylation of PI3K, Akt, and mTOR and inhibiting LC3 conversion, which may be a potential choice for the treatment of heart diseases. Dandan Han, Changrong Wan, Fenghua Liu, Xiaolong Xu, Linshu Jiang, and Jianqin Xu Copyright © 2016 Dandan Han et al. All rights reserved. Moxibustion for Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Mon, 16 May 2016 12:03:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5105108/ Background. The complementary and alternative medicines in treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) are controversial. Methods. We searched PubMed, Ovid Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases, CNKI, Wanfang Database, CBM, VIP, and AMED for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of moxibustion compared with pharmacological medications in patients with IBS-D. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. In total, 568 patients in 7 randomized controlled trials were randomly treated with moxibustion and pharmacological medications. The improvement of global IBS-D symptoms and overall scores was significant ( and , resp.) in patients treated by moxibustion only compared to pharmacological medications. The specific IBS-D symptoms of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, abnormal stool, and defecation frequency were alleviated in patients treated by moxibustion compared to pharmacological medications, but no significance was found except for abdominal distension and defecation frequency ( and , resp.). There were no serious adverse events related to moxibustion. Conclusions. Moxibustion appears to be effective in treating IBS-D compared with pharmacological medications. However, further large, rigorously designed trials are warranted due to insufficient methodological rigor in the included trials. Bozong Tang, Jianliang Zhang, Zongguo Yang, Yunfei Lu, Qingnian Xu, Xiaorong Chen, and Jiang Lin Copyright © 2016 Bozong Tang et al. All rights reserved. Functional Connectivity Modulation by Acupuncture in Patients with Bell’s Palsy Thu, 12 May 2016 10:40:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/5928758/ Bell’s palsy (BP), an acute unilateral facial paralysis, is frequently treated with acupuncture in many countries. However, the mechanism of treatment is not clear so far. In order to explore the potential mechanism, 22 healthy volunteers and 17 BP patients with different clinical duration were recruited. The resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were conducted before and after acupuncture at LI4 (Hegu), respectively. By comparing BP-induced functional connectivity (FC) changes with acupuncture-induced FC changes in the patients, the abnormal increased FC that could be reduced by acupuncture was selected. The FC strength of the selected FC at various stages was analyzed subsequently. Our results show that FC modulation of acupuncture is specific and consistent with the tendency of recovery. Therefore, we propose that FC modulation by acupuncture may be beneficial to recovery from the disease. Yunpeng Bian, Xiaoxuan He, Sheng Hu, Chuanfu Li, Chunsheng Xu, Hongxing Kan, Qiuju Xue, Jun Yang, and Bensheng Qiu Copyright © 2016 Yunpeng Bian et al. All rights reserved. Piperine Plays an Anti-Inflammatory Role in Staphylococcus aureus Endometritis by Inhibiting Activation of NF-κB and MAPK Pathways in Mice Thu, 12 May 2016 09:24:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/8597208/ Endometritis is commonly caused by pathogenic microorganisms, including Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Piperine, which is a natural medicine, has shown a variety of biological activities. To explore the effect and mechanism of piperine on S. aureus endometritis, a mouse model of S. aureus endometritis was successfully established in the present study. Histopathological changes were observed with H&E staining, cytokines were analyzed by ELISA, mRNA was analyzed by qPCR, and proteins were detected by western blot. The results showed that piperine could significantly alleviate inflammatory injury in S. aureus endometritis. The qPCR and ELISA results showed that piperine effectively reduced the S. aureus-induced overexpression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 but increased the expression of IL-10. The S. aureus-induced inflammation was related to TLR-2 and TLR-4 because the results showed that their expression was increased in S. aureus infection but then decreased with piperine treatment. To further confirm that piperine caused an anti-inflammatory response by targeting NF-κB and MAPKs, the expression of I-κB, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK was measured. The phosphorylation of I-κB, p65, p38, ERK, and JNK was inhibited by piperine in a dose-dependent manner. All of the results indicated that piperine may be a potential anti-inflammatory drug both in endometritis and in other S. aureus-induced diseases. Wen-jun Zhai, Zhen-biao Zhang, Nian-nian Xu, Ying-fang Guo, Changwei Qiu, Cheng-ye Li, Gan-zhen Deng, and Meng-yao Guo Copyright © 2016 Wen-jun Zhai et al. All rights reserved. Screening of Bioactivities and Toxicity of Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl Thu, 12 May 2016 07:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/7930563/ The caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, is one of the most endangered vegetation systems in the planet. To be exploited rationally, its potential needs to be scientifically demonstrated. Among these is the faveleira, used in northeastern Brazil. It stands out for its extraordinary drought resistance and medicinal properties. The objective of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of compounds extracted from Cnidoscolus quercifolius Pohl in preventing disease and its rational use as a herbal therapeutic tool. The methodology began with the collection and herborization of the plant material, to obtain the chemical compounds, preliminary phytochemical analysis, and extraction of the constituents of the active extracts. To determine the biological activities the authors conducted investigation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, inhibition capacity of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, and initial assessment of toxicity of the extracts. The results demonstrated great potential as an antimicrobial agent, an important antioxidant capacity, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition response with no significant difference compared with the reference drug. The authors expect to develop a new herbal product, resulting in lower production costs and that, consequently, could be commercialized in more accessible form to the population, highlighting the risk reduction of contraindication of this category of medications. Paulo Fernando Machado Paredes, Fábio Roger Vasconcelos, Raquel Teixeira Terceiro Paim, Márcia Maria Mendes Marques, Selene Maia De Morais, Sandra Machado Lira, Isabel Desidério Braquehais, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto Vieira, Francisca Noelia Pereira Mendes, and Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes Copyright © 2016 Paulo Fernando Machado Paredes et al. All rights reserved. GC-MS Analysis: In Vivo Hepatoprotective and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. Growing in Saudi Arabia Thu, 12 May 2016 07:01:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1867048/ Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS. The following biochemical parameters were evaluated: serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT), gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (γ-GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin. Furthermore, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MDA), nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH), and total protein (TP) contents in liver tissue were estimated. 44 components (92.0%) of the total oil have been identified by GC-MS analysis where α-terpinene and -cymene were the most abundant. The high serum enzymatic (GOT, GPT, GGT, and ALP) and bilirubin concentrations as well as the level of MDA, NP-SH, and TP contents in liver tissues were significantly reinstated towards normalization by the ABEO. Histopathological study further confirmed these findings. In addition, ABEO showed mild antioxidant activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid assays. Mansour S. Al-Said, Ramzi A. Mothana, Mohammed M. Al-Yahya, Syed Rafatullah, Mohammed O. Al-Sohaibani, Jamal M. Khaled, Abdulrahman Alatar, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Mine Kurkcuoglu, and Husnu C. Baser Copyright © 2016 Mansour S. Al-Said et al. All rights reserved.