Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effect of the Herbal Drug Guilu Erxian Jiao on Muscle Strength, Articular Pain, and Disability in Elderly Men with Knee Osteoarthritis Tue, 16 Sep 2014 12:40:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/297458/ Background. Guilu Erxian Jiao (GEJ) is a widely used Chinese herbal remedy for knee osteoarthritis, but its clinical efficacy is unknown. Methods. We enrolled 42 elderly male patients with knee OA, including 21 patients who received the herbal drug GEJ as the case group and 21 patients who did not receive GEJ as the control group. The effects of 12 weeks of GEJ treatment on muscle strength of lower limbs were measured by a Biodex dynamometer, with disability evaluated on the Lequesne index and articular pain measured on the visual analog scale (VAS) between the two groups on the baseline and after treatment. Results. There were significant increases in the levels of muscle strength of TQ/BW-ext-dominant and TQ/BW-flex-dominant between the two groups after treatment (). There were also significant increases in muscle strength of knee extensor muscles in the GEJ-treated group () self-controlled before and after 12 weeks of treatment (all ). There were significant decreases in articular pain () and Lequesne index scores () in the GEJ-treated group when compared to the non-GEJ-treated group. Conclusions. Our results showed that GEJ is effective and is tolerated well in elderly men with knee OA. Chen-Chen Tsai, Yin-Yi Chou, Yi-Ming Chen, Yih-Jing Tang, Hui-Ching Ho, and Der-Yuan Chen Copyright © 2014 Chen-Chen Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Effect of a Comprehensive Health Care Program by Korean Medicine Doctors on Medical Care Utilization for Common Infectious Diseases in Child-Care Centers Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:40:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/781675/ As the role of traditional medicine in community health improvement increases, a comprehensive health care program for infectious diseases management in child-care centers by Korean medicine doctors was developed. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of the program intervention on infection-related medical care utilization among children. The study used a quasi-experimental design with nonequivalent control group, comparing pre- and post-intervention data of the same children. The program implemented interventions in terms of management, education, and medical examination for the teachers, parents, and children in 12-week period. The frequency of utilization, cost, and prescription days of drugs and antibiotics due to infectious diseases prior to the intervention were compared with those during the 3-month intervention, using health insurance claim data. A panel analysis was also conducted to support the findings. A significant reduction (12%) in infection-related visit days of hospitals was observed with the intervention (incident rate ratio = 0.88, ). And medical cost, drug prescription days, and antibiotics prescription days were decreased, although not statistically significant. A further cost-effectiveness analysis in terms of social perspectives, considering the opportunity costs for guardians to take children to medical institutions, would be needed. Minjung Park, Jimin Park, and Soonman Kwon Copyright © 2014 Minjung Park et al. All rights reserved. Two Years versus One Year of Tianjiu Therapy in Sanfu Days for Chronic Asthma: A Clinical Efficacy Observation Trial Thu, 11 Sep 2014 07:02:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/807598/ Background. Tianjiu therapy has established efficacy against chronic asthma with related symptoms or the medication need during asthma attack. This study aimed to explore the optimal duration of Tianjiu therapy for asthma. Methods. This study was a self-comparison-to-the-baseline study, which comparing treatment with Tianjiu therapy for 1 year and 2 years in the same 102 chronic asthma patients. Totally 6 sessions of Tianjiu treatment were provided, 3 sessions in a year as a course of treatment and totally two years treatment. The primary endpoint was the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients and the frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack. Results. The frequency of bronchodilator used during asthma attack significantly improved (, ). But the number of asthma related symptoms which frequently appeared in asthma patients added by 1.38 points (95% CI, 0.25 to 2.51), in 1-year group and in the 2-years group (). Conclusions. The effect of 2 years Tianjiu therapy was not as effective as 1 year such treatment for asthma, but the second year Tianjiu therapy was still needed because it has a role to consolidate the curative effect of Tianjiu therapy for asthma. Li Bing Zhu, Wei Zhang, Vivian Wong, Ziea Eric, Kwai Ching Lo, Wai Chung Chan, To Yau, and Lei Li Copyright © 2014 Li Bing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Oligonol through Akt-mTOR Inhibition in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes Thu, 11 Sep 2014 06:18:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/895272/ Polyphenols have recently become an important focus of study in obesity research. Oligonol is an oligomerized polyphenol, typically comprised of catechin-type polyphenols from a variety of fruits, which has been found to exhibit better bioavailability and bioreactivity than natural polyphenol compounds. Here, we demonstrated that Oligonol inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation by reducing adipogenic gene expression. During adipogenesis, Oligonol downregulated the mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins α (C/EBPα), and δ (C/EBPδ) in a dose-dependent manner and the expression of genes involved in lipid biosynthesis. The antiadipogenic effect of Oligonol appears to originate from its ability to inhibit the Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway by diminishing the phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), a downstream target of mTOR and forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo1). These results suggest that Oligonol may be a potent regulator of obesity by repressing major adipogenic genes through inhibition of the Akt signaling pathway, which induces the inhibition of lipid accumulation, ultimately inhibiting adipogenesis. Jae-Yeo Park, Younghwa Kim, Jee Ae Im, Seungkwon You, and Hyangkyu Lee Copyright © 2014 Jae-Yeo Park et al. All rights reserved. Balance Performance in Irradiated Survivors of Nasopharyngeal Cancer with and without Tai Chi Qigong Training Thu, 11 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/719437/ This cross-sectional exploratory study aimed to compare the one-leg-stance time and the six-minute walk distance among TC Qigong-trained NPC survivors, untrained NPC survivors, and healthy individuals. Twenty-five survivors of NPC with TC Qigong experience, 27 survivors of NPC without TC Qigong experience, and 68 healthy individuals formed the NPC-TC Qigong group, NPC-control group, and healthy-control group, respectively. The one-leg-stance (OLS) timed test was conducted to assess the single-leg standing balance performance of the participants in four conditions: (1) standing on a stable surface with eyes open, (2) standing on a compliant surface with eyes open, (3) standing on a stable surface with eyes closed, and (4) standing on a compliant surface with eyes closed. The six-minute walk test (6MWT) was used to determine the functional balance performance of the participants. Results showed that the NPC-control group had a shorter OLS time in all of the visual and supporting surface conditions than the healthy control group . The OLS time of the TC Qigong-NPC group was comparable to that of the healthy control group in the somatosensory-challenging condition (condition 3) only. Additionally, there was no significant difference in the 6MWT distance among the three groups . TC Qigong may be a rehabilitation exercise that improves somatosensory function and OLS balance performance among survivors of NPC. Shirley S. M. Fong, Louisa M. Y. Chung, William W. N. Tsang, Joyce C. Y. Leung, Caroline Y. C. Charm, W. S. Luk, Lina P. Y. Chow, and Shamay S. M. Ng Copyright © 2014 Shirley S. M. Fong et al. All rights reserved. Mindfulness-Based Therapies in the Treatment of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: A Meta-Analysis Thu, 11 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/140724/ Background. Functional gastrointestinal disorders are highly prevalent and standard treatments are often unsatisfactory. Mindfulness-based therapy has shown benefit in conditions including chronic pain, mood, and somatization disorders. Objectives. To assess the quality and effectiveness reported in existing literature, we conducted a meta-analysis of mindfulness-based therapy in functional gastrointestinal disorders. Methods. Pubmed, EBSCO, and Cochrane databases were searched from inception to May 2014. Study inclusion criteria included randomized, controlled studies of adults using mindfulness-based therapy in the treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias. Effect sizes were calculated and pooled to achieve a summary effect for the intervention on symptom severity and quality of life. Results. Of 119 records, eight articles, describing seven studies, met inclusion criteria. In six studies, significant improvements were achieved or maintained at the end of intervention or follow-up time points. The studies had an unclear or high risk of bias. Pooled effects were statistically significant for IBS severity (0.59, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.86) and quality of life (0.56, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.79). Conclusion. Studies suggest that mindfulness based interventions may provide benefit in functional gastrointestinal disorders; however, substantial improvements in methodological quality and reporting are needed. Monique Aucoin, Marie-Jasmine Lalonde-Parsi, and Kieran Cooley Copyright © 2014 Monique Aucoin et al. All rights reserved. Lipid Lowering Effect of Punica granatum L. Peel in High Lipid Diet Fed Male Rats Wed, 10 Sep 2014 08:17:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/432650/ Many herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of dyslipidemia. The antilipidemic effect of hydroethanolic extract of pomegranate peel (Punica granatum L.) was investigated in high lipid diet fed male rats. Intraperitoneally administration of pomegranate peel extract (50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg body weight) for 23 days on the levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, HDL, alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in high lipid diet fed male rats was evaluated. Treatment of pomegranate extract decreased body weight in treated rats, significantly. Administration of the plant extract significantly decreased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-C, alkaline phosphatise, AST, and ALT levels, whereas it increased serum HDL-C in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline control group. Also, histopathological study showed that treatment of pomegranate peel extract attenuates liver damage in high lipid diet fed rats in comparison to saline group. It is concluded that the plant should be considered as an excellent candidate for future studies on dyslipidemia. Alireza Sadeghipour, Maryam Eidi, Ali Ilchizadeh Kavgani, Reza Ghahramani, Saleh Shahabzadeh, and Ali Anissian Copyright © 2014 Alireza Sadeghipour et al. All rights reserved. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection Mon, 08 Sep 2014 07:19:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/458263/ In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids). Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi) were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05) as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05). It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection. Matilde Jimenez-Coello, Karla Y. Acosta-Viana, Antonio Ortega-Pacheco, Salud Perez-Gutierrez, and Eugenia Guzman-Marin Copyright © 2014 Matilde Jimenez-Coello et al. All rights reserved. Optimization of Cat’s Whiskers Tea (Orthosiphon stamineus) Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide and Selective Chemotherapeutic Potential against Prostate Cancer Cells Sun, 07 Sep 2014 09:16:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/396016/ Cat’s whiskers (Orthosiphon stamineus) leaves extracts were prepared using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) with full factorial design to determine the optimum extraction parameters. Nine extracts were obtained by varying pressure, temperature, and time. The extracts were analysed using FTIR, UV-Vis, and GC-MS. Cytotoxicity of the extracts was evaluated on human (colorectal, breast, and prostate) cancer and normal fibroblast cells. Moderate pressure (31.1 MPa) and temperature (60°C) were recorded as optimum extraction conditions with high yield (1.74%) of the extract (B2) at 60 min extraction time. The optimized extract (B2) displayed selective cytotoxicity against prostate cancer (PC3) cells (IC50 28 µg/mL) and significant antioxidant activity (IC50 42.8 µg/mL). Elevated levels of caspases 3/7 and 9 in B2-treated PC3 cells suggest the induction of apoptosis through nuclear and mitochondrial pathways. Hoechst and rhodamine assays confirmed the nuclear condensation and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential in the cells. B2 also demonstrated inhibitory effects on motility and colonies of PC3 cells at its subcytotoxic concentrations. It is noteworthy that B2 displayed negligible toxicity against the normal cells. Chemometric analysis revealed high content of essential oils, hydrocarbon, fatty acids, esters, and aromatic sesquiterpenes in B2. This study highlights the therapeutic potentials of SC-CO2 extract of cat’s whiskers in targeting prostate carcinoma. Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede, Mohamed B. Khadeer Ahamed, Aman S. Abdul Majid, Hussin M. Baharetha, Loiy E. A. Hassan, Mohd Omar A. Kadir, Zeyad D. Nassar, and Amin M. S. Abdul Majid Copyright © 2014 Fouad Saleih R. Al-Suede et al. All rights reserved. Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Dangguijagyagsan on Serum Lipid Levels and Blood Flow Improvement in Ovariectomized Rats Sun, 07 Sep 2014 07:49:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/497836/ Dangguijagyagsan (DJS), a traditional herbal prescription, has long been used to treat menopause-related symptoms. We identified the cardioprotective effects of an aqueous extract of DJS using an ovariectomized (OVX) and ferric chloride- (FeCl-) induced carotid thrombosis rat model. Female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were ovariectomized or Sham-operated (Sham-control). The ovariectomized rats were divided into three groups: OVX with saline (OVX-control), aspirin 30 mg/kg/day (OVX-ASA), and DJS 100 mg/kg/day (OVX-DJS). The treatments were administered for 5 weeks. Then, blood samples were collected to analyze the serum lipid levels and platelet aggregation. The topical application of 40% FeCl3 induced intravascular thrombosis, which was used to test thrombotic occlusion and for histological examination. Body weight and the levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) increased in the OVX rats. These effects were reduced by ASA and DJS treatment. In addition, ASA and DJS treatment significantly inhibited platelet aggregation. These treatments also increased time to occlusion and decreased both thrombus size and the presence of collagen fibers in surrounding vessel walls compared with the Sham-control and OVX-control groups. These results suggest that DJS has beneficial effects in terms of preventing cardiovascular disease in menopausal woman because it can reduce the serum lipid levels and improve blood flow by inhibiting platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. In Sil Park, Hye Won Lee, Jin Ah Ryuk, and Byoung Seob Ko Copyright © 2014 In Sil Park et al. All rights reserved. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptidis chinensis Ameliorates Acute and Chronic Colitis in Mice by Inhibiting the Binding of Lipopolysaccharide to TLR4 and IRAK1 Phosphorylation Wed, 03 Sep 2014 12:43:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/809083/ In the previous study, the mixture of the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (AA, family Liliaceae) and the rhizome of Coptidis chinensis (CC, family Ranunculaceae) (AC-mix) improved TNBS- or oxazolone-induced colitis in mice. Therefore, to investigate its anticolitic mechanism, we measured its effect in acute and chronic DSS-induced colitic mice and investigated its anti-inflammatory mechanism in peritoneal macrophages. AC-mix potently suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, colon shortening, myeloperoxidase activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 expressions in acute or chronic DSS-stimulated colitic mice. Among AC-mix ingredients, AA, CC, and their main constituents mangiferin and berberine potently inhibited the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β, as well as the activation of NF-κB in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. AA and mangiferin potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation, but CC and berberine potently inhibited the binding of LPS to TLR4 on macrophages, as well as the phosphorylation of IRAK1. AC-mix potently inhibited IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages. Based on these findings, AC-mix may ameliorate colitis by the synergistic inhibition of IRAK phosphorylation and LPS binding to TLR4 on macrophages. Jin-Ju Jeong, Se-Eun Jang, Supriya R. Hyam, Myung Joo Han, and Dong-Hyun Kim Copyright © 2014 Jin-Ju Jeong et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Decursin Isolated from Angelica gigas Nakai Rescues PC12 Cells from Amyloid β-Protein-Induced Neurotoxicity through Nrf2-Mediated Upregulation of Heme Oxygenase-1: Potential Roles of MAPK” Wed, 03 Sep 2014 05:12:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/473967/ Li Li, Ji-kun Du, Li-yi Zou, Tie Wu, Yong-woo Lee, and Yong-ho Kim Copyright © 2014 Li Li et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Blueberry Juice in Mouse Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypts and Oxidative Damage Wed, 03 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/379890/ Blueberry is a plant with a number of nutritional and biomedical capabilities. In the present study we initially evaluated the capacity of its juice (BJ) to inhibit the number of aberrant crypts (AC) induced with azoxymethane (AOM) in mouse. BJ was administered daily by the oral route to three groups of animals during four weeks (1.6, 4.1, and 15.0 μL/g), respectively, while AOM (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected to the mentioned groups, twice a week, in weeks two and three of the assay. We also included two control groups of mice, one administered distilled water and the other the high dose of BJ. A significant increase of AC was observed in the AOM treated animals, and a mean protection of 75.6% was determined with the two low doses of BJ tested; however, the high dose of the juice administered together with AOM increased the number of crypts more than four times the value observed in animals administered only AOM. Furthermore, we determined the antioxidant potential of BJ with an ex vivo DPPH assay and found a dose-dependent decrease with a mean of 19.5%. We also determined the DNA oxidation/antioxidation by identifying 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts and found a mean decrease of 44.3% with the BJ administration with respect to the level induced by AOM. Our results show a complex differential effect of BJ related to the tested doses, opening the need to further evaluate a number of factors so as to determine the possibility of a cocarcinogenic potential. Isela Álvarez-González, Fernando Garcia-Melo, Verónica R. Vásquez-Garzón, Saúl Villa-Treviño, E. Osiris Madrigal-Santillán, José A. Morales-González, Jorge A. Mendoza-Pérez, and Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar Copyright © 2014 Isela Álvarez-González et al. All rights reserved. Antidiabetic Effect of Methanolic Extract from Berberis julianae Schneid. via Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Type 2 Diabetic Mice Tue, 02 Sep 2014 12:14:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/106206/ We have investigated the antidiabetic effect and mechanism of methanolic extract of Berberis julianae Schneid. (BJSME) in STZ induced Type 2 diabetes mellitus mice. T2DM mice were induced by high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ). BJSME was orally administrated at the doses of 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/d, for 21 days. Metformin was used as positive control drug. Food intake, body weight, plasma glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin tolerance test, insulin, and blood-lipid content were measured. The effects of BJSME on the glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation in L6 myotubes and the GLUT4 protein expression in skeletal muscle as well as phosphorylation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in liver and muscle were examined. In vitro and in vivo results indicate that BJSME increased GLUT4 translocation by 1.8-fold and BJSME significantly improved the oral glucose tolerance and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) of serum and reduced body weight, glucose, and other related blood-lipid contents. The BJSME treatment also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMPK. Thus, BJSME seems to possess promising beneficial effects for the treatment of T2DM with the possible mechanism via stimulating AMPK activity. Jing Yang, Ping Zhao, Dingrong Wan, Qi Zhou, Chao Wang, Guangwen Shu, Zhinan Mei, and Xinzhou Yang Copyright © 2014 Jing Yang et al. All rights reserved. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects against Hydrogen Peroxide-Provoked Endothelial Dysfunction in Isolated Rat Aortic Rings: Implications for Antioxidant Therapy of Vascular Diseases Tue, 02 Sep 2014 08:00:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/627181/ Background and Objectives. Oxidative stress can initiate endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. This study evaluated whether tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), the predominant active ingredient in Rhizoma Ligustici Wallichii (chuanxiong), prevents endothelial dysfunction in a rat model of oxidative stress. Methods. Isolated rat aortic rings were pretreated with various drugs before the induction of endothelial dysfunction by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Changes in isometric tension were then measured in acetylcholine- (ACh-) relaxed rings. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was evaluated in the rings by Western blotting, and superoxide anion () content was assessed in primary rat aortic endothelial cells by dihydroethidium- (DHE-) mediated fluorescence microscopy. Results. ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) was disrupted by H2O2 in endothelium-intact aortic rings. H2O2-impaired relaxation was ameliorated by acute pretreatment with low concentrations of TMP, as well as by pretreatment with catalase and the NADPH oxidase inhibitors, apocynin and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI). TMP, apocynin, and DPI also reduced accumulation in endothelial cells,but TMP failed to alter eNOS expression in aortic rings incubated with H2O2. Conclusions. TMP safeguards against oxidative stress-induced endothelial dysfunction, suggesting that the agent might find therapeutic utility in the management of vascular diseases. However, TMP’s role in inhibiting NADPH oxidase and its vascular-protective mechanism of action requires further investigation. Xiaojia Ni, Siu Ling Wong, Chi Ming Wong, Chi Wai Lau, Xiaogeng Shi, Yefeng Cai, and Yu Huang Copyright © 2014 Xiaojia Ni et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Acupuncture in Reducing Preoperative Anxiety: A Meta-Analysis Tue, 02 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/850367/ Background. Acupuncture has been shown to reduce preoperative anxiety in several previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs). In order to assess the preoperative anxiolytic efficacy of acupuncture therapy, this study conducted a meta-analysis of an array of appropriate studies. Methods. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL) were searched up to February 2014. In the meta-analysis data were included from RCT studies in which groups receiving preoperative acupuncture treatment were compared with control groups receiving a placebo for anxiety. Results. Fourteen publications (N = 1,034) were included. Six publications, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State (STAI-S), reported that acupuncture interventions led to greater reductions in preoperative anxiety relative to sham acupuncture (mean difference = 5.63, P < .00001, 95% CI [4.14, 7.11]). Further eight publications, employing visual analogue scales (VAS), also indicated significant differences in preoperative anxiety amelioration between acupuncture and sham acupuncture (mean difference = 19.23, P < .00001, 95% CI [16.34, 22.12]). Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy aiming at reducing preoperative anxiety has a statistically significant effect relative to placebo or nontreatment conditions. Well-designed and rigorous studies that employ large sample sizes are necessary to corroborate this finding. Hyojeong Bae, Hyunsu Bae, Byung-Il Min, and Seunghun Cho Copyright © 2014 Hyojeong Bae et al. All rights reserved. Effects and Mechanisms of Transcutaneous Electroacupuncture on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:50:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/860631/ Nausea and vomiting are one of the major complications of chemotherapy for cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the emetic effects and mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine of needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) at Neiguan (PC6) and Jianshi (PC5) on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancers. Seventy-two patients with chemotherapy were randomly divided into sham-TEA group (sham-TEA, and TEA group . TEA was performed at PC 6 and PC 5 (1 h, bid) in combination with granisetron. Sham-TEA was delivered at nonacupoints using the same parameters. We found the following. (1) In the acute phase, the conventional antiemetic therapy using Ondansetron effectively reduced nausea and vomiting; the addition of TEA did not show any additive effects. In the delayed phase, however, TEA significantly increased the rate of complete control and reduced the nausea score , compared with sham-TEA. (2) TEA significantly reduced serum levels of 5-HT and dopamine in comparison with sham-TEA. Those results demonstrate that needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture at PC6 using a watch-size digital stimulator improves emesis and reduces nausea in the delayed phase of chemotherapy in patients with cancers. This antiemetic effect is possibly mediated via mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine. Xing Zhang, Hai-feng Jin, Yi-hong Fan, Bin LU, Li-na Meng, and Jiande D. Z. Chen Copyright © 2014 Xing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:19:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/976764/ The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model () by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec). Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min), the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA) of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. Sook-Ha Fan, Noraisah Akbar Ali, and Dayang Fredalina Basri Copyright © 2014 Sook-Ha Fan et al. All rights reserved. The Usefulness of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang for Patients with Angina Pectoris: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/521602/ Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT) for treating angina pectoris (AP). Methods. Six databases were searched (up to December, 2013). Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficiency of XFZYT plus traditional antianginal medications (TAMs) compared with TAMs alone in patients with AP were included. The outcomes were relief of anginal symptoms (RAS) and improvement of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Result. Finally 14 RCTs were included. There were evidences that XFZYT combined with TAMs was more effective in improving RAS (RR = 1.29; 95% CI = [1.20, 1.38]), ECG (RR = 1.37; 95% CI = [1.22, 1.54]), and blood HDL-C level (MD = 0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI = [0.23, 0.35]) compared with TAMs alone. Our meta-analysis also showed the pooled number needed to treat (NNT) of the group with stable angina pectoris (SAP) was smaller in improving RAS (4.2 versus 5.7) and ECG (3.1 versus 5.5) compared with the group with both SAP and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Conclusion. Combination therapy with XFZYT and TAMs is more effective in treating AP compared with TAMs alone. And XFZYT may be a more suitable choice for the treatment of SAP. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the mediocre methodological quality of the included RCTs. Guo-zhong Yi, Yu-qin Qiu, Ya Xiao, and Li-xia Yuan Copyright © 2014 Guo-zhong Yi et al. All rights reserved. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats Sun, 31 Aug 2014 05:23:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/787153/ The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. Poonam Lodhi, Neeraj Tandan, Neera Singh, Divyansh Kumar, and Monu Kumar Copyright © 2014 Poonam Lodhi et al. All rights reserved. Diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Cause Distinct but Overlapping Effects on the Translatome of B Lymphoblastoid Cells Sun, 31 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/204797/ Diarylheptanoids (AO-0001, AO-0002, and AO-0003) isolated from Alpinia officinarum inhibit proinflammatory mediators and exhibit cytotoxic and antiviral activity. However, the precise mechanisms of action of these diarylheptanoids are unknown as are their effects on expression of specific genes. Here, we used a translatome analysis to investigate the mechanisms and modes of action of these three diarylheptanoids. Polysome-associated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were prepared from diarylheptanoids-treated and control cells from a human B lymphoblastoid cell line; these mRNA samples were then used for microarray analysis. Microarray Data Analysis Tool version 3.2 was used to analyze the microarray data analysis; this software uses pathway information of the WikiPathways for gene ontology analysis. Each of the diarylheptanoids caused upregulation or downregulation of the same 37 and 286 genes, respectively. Among the 37 upregulated genes, 16 were related to mRNA processing based on the WikiPathways analysis. Our findings provided new insights into the mode of action of diarylheptanoids from A. officinarum. Tomohito Kakegawa, Saeko Takase, Eri Masubuchi, and Ken Yasukawa Copyright © 2014 Tomohito Kakegawa et al. All rights reserved. Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/156398/ Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. Rime B. El-Houri, Dorota Kotowska, Louise C. B. Olsen, Sumangala Bhattacharya, Lars P. Christensen, Kai Grevsen, Niels Oksbjerg, Nils Færgeman, Karsten Kristiansen, and Kathrine B. Christensen Copyright © 2014 Rime B. El-Houri et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:46:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/569107/ Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB) or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (). Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB ( and , resp.). Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia. Lihua Peng, Li Ren, Peipei Qin, Jing Chen, Ping Feng, Haidan Lin, and Min Su Copyright © 2014 Lihua Peng et al. All rights reserved. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: Consequences of Its Hydrophobicity in the Oxidative Functions and Cytokine Release by Leukocytes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:42:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/793629/ Numerous anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis. NADPH oxidases are multienzymatic complexes involved in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied the importance of the CAPE hydrophobicity on cell-free antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid production, and release of TNF-α and IL-10 by activated leukocytes. The comparison was made with the related, but less hydrophobic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. Cell-free studies such as superoxide anion scavenging assay, triene degradation, and anodic peak potential measurements showed that the alterations in the hydrophobicity did not provoke significant changes in the oxidation potential and antiradical potency of the tested compounds. However, only CAPE was able to inhibit the production of superoxide anion by activated leukocytes. The inhibition of the NADPH oxidase resulted in the blockage of production of hypochlorous acid. Similarly, CAPE was the more effective inhibitor of the release of TNF-α and IL-10 by Staphylococcus aureus stimulated cells. In conclusion, the presence of the catechol moiety and the higher hydrophobicity were essential for the biological effects. Considering the involvement of NADPH oxidases in the genesis and progression of inflammatory diseases, CAPE should be considered as a promising anti-inflammatory drug. Luana Chiquetto Paracatu, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes Faria, Camila Quinello, Camila Rennó, Patricia Palmeira, Maria Luiza Zeraik, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes Copyright © 2014 Luana Chiquetto Paracatu et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid on Intestinal Mucosal Mechanical Barrier of Rats with Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Acetic Acid Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:37:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/218383/ In this study, a rat model with acetic acid-induced PI-IBS was used to study the role of HXZQ oral liquid in repairing the colonic epithelial barrier and reducing intestinal permeability. Pathomorphism of colonic tissue, epithelial ultrastructure, DAO activity in serum, and the protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin were examined to investigate protective effect mechanisms of HXZQ on intestinal mucosa barrier and then present experimental support for its use for prevention and cure of PI-IBS. Yao Liu, Wei Liu, Qiu-Xian Peng, Jiang-Li Peng, Lin-Zhong Yu, and Jian-Lan Hu Copyright © 2014 Yao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine for Cancer Patients 2014 Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/326179/ Thomas Efferth, Sookyung Lee, Yoshiharu Motoo, and Sven Schröder Copyright © 2014 Thomas Efferth et al. All rights reserved. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/579054/ Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. Xiong Wang, Li Ma, En-jing Zhang, Ji-li Zou, Hao Guo, Si-wei Peng, and Jin-hu Wu Copyright © 2014 Xiong Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:05:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/943713/ Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8%) versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%); P < 0.001). In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg) versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg); P < 0.001) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied. Pee-Win Chong, Kai-Zhia Lau, Joerg Gruenwald, and Ralf Uebelhack Copyright © 2014 Pee-Win Chong et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics of Two Alkaloids after Oral Administration of Rhizoma Coptidis Extract in Normal Rats and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/845048/ A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96 mg/kg, containing berberine 22 mg/kg and palmatine 5 mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as , , , and CL/, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status. Zipeng Gong, Ying Chen, Ruijie Zhang, Yinghan Wang, Qing Yang, Yan Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Shuangrong Gao, Hailin Wang, Xiaoxin Zhu, Yu Dong, Yujie Li, and Yajie Wang Copyright © 2014 Zipeng Gong et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/378280/ Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast’s morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral’s mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals. Maria Clerya Alvino Leite, André Parente de Brito Bezerra, Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, and Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima Copyright © 2014 Maria Clerya Alvino Leite et al. All rights reserved.