Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on the Expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in Myocardium of Diabetic Rats Mon, 30 Nov 2015 14:10:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/369631/ Objective. To investigate the effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Methods. A total of 53 healthy male SD rats, mice age of 8 weeks and weight of 220 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into five groups by randomized block design: normal control group (), diabetic group (), low dose of CS group (; CS 0.6 g·kg−1·d−1), middle dose of CS group (; CS 2.5 g·kg−1·d−1), and high dose of CS group (; CS 5 g·kg−1·d−1). The diabetic models with tail intravenous injection by streptozotocin (45 mg·kg−1). Diabetic rats were sacrificed after 8 weeks; the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 proteins and mRNA in the cardiac muscle were determined by using immunohistochemistry staining and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. The data were analyzed using one factor analysis of variance. Result. The expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 proteins and mRNA in the cardiac muscle of diabetic rats were significantly raised (), which could be decreased by CS (). Conclusions. The changes on the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium may be involved in the occurrence of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). CS may play its role on myocardial protection by regulating the expressions of NF-κB and TGF-β1 in myocardium. You-you Gu, Huan Wang, Su Wang, Hua Gao, and Ming-cai Qiu Copyright © 2015 You-you Gu et al. All rights reserved. Hypocholesterolemic and Antiatherosclerotic Potential of Basella alba Leaf Extract in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Rabbits Mon, 30 Nov 2015 12:11:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/751714/ Hypercholesterolemia is the major risk factor that leads to atherosclerosis. Nowadays, alternative treatment using medicinal plants gained much attention since the usage of statins leads to adverse health effects, especially liver and muscle toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the hypocholesterolemic and antiatherosclerotic effects of Basella alba (B. alba) using hypercholesterolemia-induced rabbits. Twenty New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed with varying diets: normal diet, 2% high cholesterol diet (HCD), 2% HCD + 10 mg/kg simvastatin, 2% HCD + 100 mg/kg B. alba extract, and 2% HCD + 200 mg/kg B. alba extract, respectively. The treatment with B. alba extract significantly lowered the levels of total cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides and increased HDL and antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPx) levels. The elevated levels of liver enzymes (AST and ALT) and creatine kinase were noted in hypercholesterolemic and statin treated groups indicating liver and muscle injuries. Treatment with B. alba extract also significantly suppressed the aortic plaque formation and reduced the intima: media ratio as observed in simvastatin-treated group. This is the first in vivo study on B. alba that suggests its potential as an alternative therapeutic agent for hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. Gunasekaran Baskaran, Shamala Salvamani, Azrina Azlan, Siti Aqlima Ahmad, Swee Keong Yeap, and Mohd Yunus Shukor Copyright © 2015 Gunasekaran Baskaran et al. All rights reserved. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Usage of Apitherapy for Disease Prevention and Treatment among Undergraduate Pharmacy Students in Lithuania Mon, 30 Nov 2015 05:58:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/172502/ Traditional medicine therapies are historically used worldwide for disease prevention and treatment purposes. Apitherapy is part of the traditional medicine based on bee product use. Complementary medicine practices which incorporate use of some traditional herbal, mineral, or animal kind substances very often are discussed with pharmacy professionals because these products are often sold in pharmacies as dietary supplements. This study is aimed at determining the attitude, knowledge, and practices of apitherapy among undergraduated pharmacy students (Master of Pharmacy) who already have a pharmacy technician diploma and from 1 to 20 years of practice working in a community pharmacy as pharmacy assistants. A method of questionnaire was chosen. The questions about attitudes, experience, knowledge, and practices for disease prevention and treatment of different bee products, their safety, and informational sources were included. Respondents shared opinion that use of bee product is part of the traditional medicine. Most of them had experience on honey product use for treatment and disease prevention for themselves and their family members (62%) although the need of more evidence based information was expressed. The most known bee products were honey, propolis, and royal jelly. They are widely used for enhancing the immune system and prevention of respiratory tract infection. Sonata Trumbeckaite, Jurgita Dauksiene, Jurga Bernatoniene, and Valdimaras Janulis Copyright © 2015 Sonata Trumbeckaite et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Use of Geniposide and Ginsenoside Rg1 Balance Microglial TNF- and TGF-1 following Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation In Vitro: A Genome-Wide Survey Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:40:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/756346/ Ischemia-activated microglia are like a double-edged sword, characterized by both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to reveal the synergistic effect of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 based on tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and transforming growth factor- (TGF-) β1 balance of microglia. BV2 microglial cells were divided into 5 groups: control, model (oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)), geniposide-treated, ginsenoside-Rg1-treated, and combination-treated. A series of assays were used to detect on (i) cell viability; (ii) NO content; (iii) expression (content) of TNF-α and TGF-β1; and (iv) gene expression profiles. The results showed that integrated use of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 significantly inhibited NO level and protected cell viability, improved the content and expression of TGF-β1, and reduced the content and expression of TNF-α. Separated use of geniposide or ginsenoside Rg1 showed different effects at different emphases. Next-generation sequencing showed that Fcγ-receptor-mediated phagocytosis pathway played a key regulatory role in the balance of TNF-α and TGF-β1 when cotreated with geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1. These findings suggest that synergistic drug combination of geniposide and ginsenoside Rg1 in the treatment of stroke is a feasible avenue for the application. Jun Wang, Jincai Hou, Hui Zhao, and Jianxun Liu Copyright © 2015 Jun Wang et al. All rights reserved. The Antioxidant and Starch Hydrolase Inhibitory Activity of Ten Spices in an In Vitro Model of Digestion: Bioaccessibility of Anthocyanins and Carotenoids Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:35:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/764238/ The antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities of cardamom, cloves, coriander, cumin seeds, curry leaves, fenugreek, mustard seeds, nutmeg, sweet cumin, and star anise extracts were investigated in an in vitro model of digestion mimicking the gastric and duodenal conditions. The total phenolic contents in all spice extracts had statistically significantly () increased following both gastric and duodenal digestion. This was also in correlation with the antioxidant assays quantifying the water-soluble antioxidant capacity of the extracts. The lipophilic Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity assay did not indicate a statistically significant change in the values during any of the digestion phases. Statistically significant () reductions in the anthocyanin contents were observed during the digestion phases in contrast to the carotenoid contents. With the exception of the cumin seed extract, none of the spice extracts showed statistically significant changes in the initial starch hydrolase enzyme inhibitory values prior to gastric and duodenal digestion. In conclusion, this study was able to prove that the 10 spices were a significant source of total phenolics, antioxidant, and starch hydrolase inhibitory activities. Nilakshi Jayawardena, Mindani I. Watawana, Ruchini T. Jayathilaka, and Viduranga Y. Waisundara Copyright © 2015 Nilakshi Jayawardena et al. All rights reserved. Identification of Proteins Implicated in the Increased Heart Rate in ShenSongYangXin-Treated Bradycardia Rabbits by iTRAQ-Based Quantitative Proteomics Sun, 29 Nov 2015 11:29:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/385953/ The present study tries to identify proteins implicated in bradycardia rabbits in hearts after ShenSongYangXin (SSYX, a traditional Chinese medicine) treatment. Eighteen adult rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups: sham, model, and SSYX treatment groups. Heart rate was recorded in rabbits and proteins were isolated from ventricular muscle. We used isobaric tags for elative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) coupled with two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify altered proteins after SSYX treatment. The heart rate decreased after six weeks due to the injury of the sinoatrial node in the model group. This effect was partially reversed by 4-week SSYX treatment. A total of a2988 proteins were quantified by performing the iTRAQ-based experiments. Of these, 94 proteins were differentially expressed according to our criteria (49 upregulated and 45 downregulated). The identification of key proteins implicated in the treatment of bradycardia could serve as a foundation to better understand and further explore the molecular mechanism of SSYX treatment. Zhouying Liu, Jian Huang, Youping Huo, Jing Gong, Yinhui Zhang, Cong Wei, and Jielin Pu Copyright © 2015 Zhouying Liu et al. All rights reserved. Aortic Remodelling Is Improved by 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside Involving the Smad3 Pathway in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Sun, 29 Nov 2015 07:43:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/789027/ Hypertension is a common health problem that substantially increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The condition increases blood pressure, which causes alterations in vascular structure and leads to the development of vascular pathologies. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), a resveratrol analogue extracted from a Chinese medicinal plant, has been proven to have numerous vascular protection functions. This study investigated whether THSG can improve vascular remodeling, which has thus far remained unclear. Orally administering THSG to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) aged 12 weeks for 14 weeks significantly inhibited intima-media thickness in the lower parts of the aortic arch, increased the vascular diastolic rate in response to acetylcholine, and reduced remodelling-related mRNA expression, such as that of ACTA2, CCL3, COL1A2, COL3A1, TIMP1 WISP2, IGFBP1, ECE1, KLF5, MYL1 BMP4, FN1, and PAI-1. Immunofluorescence staining also showed an inhibitory effect similar to that of THSG on PAI-1 protein expression in rat aortas. Results from immunoprecipitation and a Western blot assay showed that THSG inhibited the acetylation of Smad3. A chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that THSG prevented Smad3 binding to the PAI-1 proximal promoter in SHR aortas. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that the inhibitory effect of THSG on aortic remodelling involved the deacetylating role of Smad3 with increasing blood flow and with constant blood pressure. Ju Duan, Xin Han, Shuang Ling, Woting Gan, Li Sun, Rong-Zhen Ni, and Jin-Wen Xu Copyright © 2015 Ju Duan et al. All rights reserved. A Randomized, Double-Blind Pilot Trial of Hydrolyzed Rice Bran versus Placebo for Radioprotective Effect on Acute Gastroenteritis Secondary to Chemoradiotherapy in Patients with Cervical Cancer Thu, 26 Nov 2015 13:23:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/974390/ We aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of hydrolyzed rice bran (HRB) on acute gastroenteritis due to chemoradiotherapy for treatment of cervical cancer. This placebo-controlled, double-blind study was conducted as an exploratory investigation of the colitis-inhibiting effects of HRB in alleviating acute-phase gastrointestinal side effects of chemoradiotherapy. The study involved 20 patients (10 in the HRB group, 10 in the control group). The patients in the control group underwent the same chemoradiotherapy regimen as those in the HRB group, but they received a placebo instead of HRB. The diarrheal side effect assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and a trend toward a reduction in diarrhea symptoms was observed with the oral intake of HRB. Additionally, no significant difference was observed in the administration of intestinal regulators and antidiarrheal agents, but again the assessment score was lower in the HRB than control group, and diarrhea symptoms were alleviated with the oral intake of HRB. A trend toward no need for strong antidiarrheal agents was seen. Although this study was an exploratory clinical trial, the results suggest that HRB may relieve diarrhea, an acute-phase gastrointestinal side effect of chemoradiotherapy. Yoshiyuki Itoh, Mika Mizuno, Mitsuru Ikeda, Rie Nakahara, Seiji Kubota, Junji Ito, Tohru Okada, Mariko Kawamura, Fumitaka Kikkawa, and Shinji Naganawa Copyright © 2015 Yoshiyuki Itoh et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Paeoniflorin on α-Synuclein Degradation Pathway Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:44:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/182495/ Paeoniflorin (PF) is the major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix. It plays a neuroprotective role by regulating autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome degradation pathway. In this study, we found PF significantly reduced cell damage caused by MPP+, returning cells to normal state. Cell viability significantly improved after 24 h exposure to RAPA and PF in the MPP+ group (all ). CAT and SOD activities were significantly decreased after PF and RAPA treatment, compared with MPP+ (). In addition, MPP+ activated both LC3-II and E1; RAPA increased LC3-II but inhibited E1. PF significantly upregulated both LC3-II (autophagy) and E1 (ubiquitin-proteasome pathway) expression (), promoted degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. We show MPP+ enhanced immunofluorescence signal of intracellular α-synuclein and LC3. Fluorescence intensity of α-synuclein decreased after PF treatment. In conclusion, these data show PF reversed the decline of proteasome activity caused by MPP+ and significantly upregulated both autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways, promoted the degradation of α-synuclein, and reduced cell damage. These findings suggest PF is a potential therapeutic medicine for neurodegenerative diseases. Zenglin Cai, Xinzhi Zhang, Yongjin Zhang, Xiuming Li, Jing Xu, and Xiaomin Li Copyright © 2015 Zenglin Cai et al. All rights reserved. Practitioner Perspectives on Delivering Integrative Medicine in a Large, Acute Care Hospital Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:20:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/394040/ Background. We describe the process and challenges of delivering integrative medicine (IM) at a large, acute care hospital, from the perspectives of IM practitioners. To date, minimal literature that addresses the delivery of IM care in an inpatient setting from this perspective exists. Methods. Fifteen IM practitioners were interviewed about their experience delivering IM services at Abbott Northwestern Hospital (ANW), a 630-bed tertiary care hospital. Themes were drawn from codes developed through analysis of the data. Results. Analysis of interview transcripts highlighted challenges of ensuring efficient use of IM practitioner resources across a large hospital, the IM practitioner role in affecting patient experiences, and the ways practitioners navigated differences in IM and conventional medicine cultures in an inpatient setting. Conclusions. IM practitioners favorably viewed their role in patient care, but this work existed within the context of challenges related to balancing supply and demand for services and to integrating an IM program into the established culture of a large hospital. Hospitals planning IM programs should carefully assess the supply and demand dynamics of offering IM in a hospital, advocate for the unique IM practitioner role in patient care, and actively support integration of conventional and complementary approaches. Kent C. Nate, Kristen H. Griffin, Jon B. Christianson, and Jeffery A. Dusek Copyright © 2015 Kent C. Nate et al. All rights reserved. Antinociceptive Effects of Spinal Manipulative Therapy on Nociceptive Behavior of Adult Rats during the Formalin Test Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:19:10 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/520454/ Optimizing pain relief resulting from spinal manipulative therapies, including low velocity variable amplitude spinal manipulation (LVVA-SM), requires determining their mechanisms. Pain models that incorporate simulated spinal manipulative therapy treatments are needed for these studies. The antinociceptive effects of a single LVVA-SM treatment on rat nociceptive behavior during the commonly used formalin test were investigated. Dilute formalin was injected subcutaneously into a plantar hindpaw. Licking behavior was video-recorded for 5 minutes. Ten minutes of LVVA-SM at 20° flexion was administered with a custom-made device at the lumbar (L5) vertebra of isoflurane-anesthetized experimental rats () beginning 10 minutes after formalin injection. Hindpaw licking was video-recorded for 60 minutes beginning 5 minutes after LVVA-SM. Control rats () underwent the same methods except for LVVA-SM. The mean times spent licking the formalin-injected hindpaw of both groups 1–5 minutes after injection were not different. The mean licking time during the first 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM of experimental rats was significantly less than that of control rats (). The mean licking times of both groups during the second and third 20 minutes post-LVVA-SM were not different. Administration of LVVA-SM had a short-term, remote antinociceptive effect similar to clinical findings. Therefore, mechanistic investigations using this experimental approach are warranted. Stephen M. Onifer, William R. Reed, Randall S. Sozio, and Cynthia R. Long Copyright © 2015 Stephen M. Onifer et al. All rights reserved. Oleuropein-Enriched Olive Leaf Extract Affects Calcium Dynamics and Impairs Viability of Malignant Mesothelioma Cells Thu, 26 Nov 2015 12:11:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/908493/ Malignant mesothelioma is a poor prognosis cancer in urgent need of alternative therapies. Oleuropein, the major phenolic of olive tree (Olea europaea L.), is believed to have therapeutic potentials for various diseases, including tumors. We obtained an oleuropein-enriched fraction, consisting of 60% w/w oleuropein, from olive leaves, and assessed its effects on intracellular Ca2+ and cell viability in mesothelioma cells. Effects of the oleuropein-enriched fraction on Ca2+ dynamics and cell viability were studied in the REN mesothelioma cell line, using fura-2 microspectrofluorimetry and MTT assay, respectively. Fura-2-loaded cells, transiently exposed to the oleuropein-enriched fraction, showed dose-dependent transient elevations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (). Application of standard oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, and of the inhibitor of low-voltage T-type Ca2+ channels NNC-55-0396, suggested that the effect is mainly due to oleuropein acting through its hydroxytyrosol moiety on T-type Ca2+ channels. The oleuropein-enriched fraction and standard oleuropein displayed a significant antiproliferative effect, as measured on REN cells by MTT cell viability assay, with IC50 of 22 μg/mL oleuropein. Data suggest that our oleuropein-enriched fraction from olive leaf extract could have pharmacological application in malignant mesothelioma anticancer therapy, possibly by targeting T-type Ca2+ channels and thereby dysregulating intracellular Ca2+ dynamics. Carla Marchetti, Marco Clericuzio, Barbara Borghesi, Laura Cornara, Stefania Ribulla, Fabio Gosetti, Emilio Marengo, and Bruno Burlando Copyright © 2015 Carla Marchetti et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “Analysis and Thoughts about the Negative Results of International Clinical Trials on Acupuncture” Tue, 24 Nov 2015 13:15:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/637215/ Leigh Jackson Copyright © 2015 Leigh Jackson. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Terminalia catappa Exerts Antimetastatic Effects on Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Transcriptional Inhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 by Modulating NF-κB and AP-1 Activity” Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:37:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/326234/ Chao-Bin Yeh, Ming-Ju Hsieh, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Ming-Hsien Chien, Pen-Yuan Lin, Hui-Ling Chiou, and Shun-Fa Yang Copyright © 2015 Chao-Bin Yeh et al. All rights reserved. Integration of Spirituality in Medical Education in Iran: A Qualitative Exploration of Requirements Tue, 24 Nov 2015 12:18:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/793085/ Background. Healthcare system has needed to provide spiritual services, and one of the reasons for not addressing spirituality in this field is lack of training in this area. This study purpose is to explore and identify main requirements for designing this education, in Iran. Materials and Methods. This is a qualitative study with conventional content analysis method. 18 participants, who were main stakeholders in spirituality, medical education, and curriculum development, were selected by purposive sampling. Data were collected using semistructured interviews, which continued until data saturation. Results. Three main themes and their categories were extracted from analysis of data. The themes are (1) educational needs including clinical practice needs; (2) opportunities including rich background and backup, perceived clinical need, and right context of medical education for change; and (3) challenges including challenges in academic planning and barriers to implementation. Conclusion. All stakeholders acknowledged the need for addressing spirituality in formal medical education. It seems that implementation of such programs requires attention to facilitating factors and challenges proposed by those involved. Nadereh Memaryan, Maryam Rassouli, Seyedeh Zahra Nahardani, and Parisa Amiri Copyright © 2015 Nadereh Memaryan et al. All rights reserved. Relationship of Genetic Polymorphisms of the Chemokine, CCL5, and Its Receptor, CCR5, with Coronary Artery Disease in Taiwan Tue, 24 Nov 2015 09:49:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/851683/ The chemokine receptor CCR5 polymorphism, which confers resistance to HIV infection, has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the association of the chemokine, CCL5, and its receptor, CCR5, polymorphism and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Taiwanese has not been studied. In this study, 483 subjects who received elective coronary angiography were recruited from Chung Shan Medical University Hospital. CCL5-403 and CCR5-59029 were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. We found that CCL5-403 with TT genotype frequencies was significantly associated with the risk of CAD group (odds ratio = 3.063 and ). Moreover, the frequencies of CCR5-59029 with GG or GA genotype were higher than AA genotype in acute coronary syndrome individuals (odds ratio = 1.853, CI = 1.176–2.921, ). In conclusion, we found that CCL5-403 polymorphism may increase genetic susceptibility of CAD. CCL5-403 or CCR5-59029 single nucleotide polymorphism may include genotype score and it may predict cardiovascular event. Ke-Hsin Ting, Kwo-Chang Ueng, Whei-Ling Chiang, Ying-Erh Chou, Shun-Fa Yang, and Po-Hui Wang Copyright © 2015 Ke-Hsin Ting et al. All rights reserved. Deqi Is Double-Faced: The Acupuncture Practitioner’s and the Subject’s Perspective Tue, 24 Nov 2015 08:51:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/635089/ Background. While therapeutic acupuncture perception (deqi) has recently been investigated only for the subject’s perception, classical acupuncture discussed acupuncture perception for both the practitioner and the subject. The aim of this study was to explore the practitioner’s and the subject’s acupuncture perception during acupuncture. Methods. Explorative crossover study to quantitatively document acupuncture perception of both the practitioner and the subject. Eighty-one participants acted as a practitioner or a subject. The practitioner’s and the subject’s acupuncture perceptions were collected using self-report type checklists. Acupuncture needles were inserted to LI4 or ST36, adopting a four-phase method: insertion into shallow, middle, and deep depths, followed by twirling manipulation. Pain, transmission, dullness, and soreness feelings of the subject and thick, tangled, solid, and empty feelings of the practitioner were analyzed for their correlation. Results. The practitioner’s and the subject’s perception showed a significant correlation. Acupuncture perception varied over four phases of needling, with a tendency to be rated higher when inserted deep. Perception for LI4 was generally higher than those for ST36. Conclusion. The practitioner’s acupuncture perception was successfully documented and analyzed in relation to the subject’s acupuncture perception and different needling conditions. Chang Shik Yin, Younbyeong Chae, O-Seok Kang, Seung-Tae Kim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, Ji-Yeun Park, Hyejung Lee, and Hi-Joon Park Copyright © 2015 Chang Shik Yin et al. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective Effect of Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized) in Transient and Permanent Rat Cerebral Ischemia Model Mon, 23 Nov 2015 11:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/134685/ Xueshuantong for Injection (Lyophilized) (XST), a Chinese Materia Medica standardized product extracted from Panax notoginseng (Burk.), is used extensively for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as acutely cerebral infarction clinically in China. In the present study, we evaluated the acute and extended protective effects of XST in different rat cerebral ischemic model and explored its effect on peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling pathway. We found that XST treatment for 3 days could significantly inhibit transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) induced infarct volume and swelling percent and regulate the mRNA expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-17, IL-23p19, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in brain. Further study demonstrated that treatment with XST suppressed the protein expression of peroxiredoxin (Prx) 6-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and phosphorylation level of p38 and upregulated the phosphorylation level of STAT3. In permanent MCAO rats, XST could reduce the infarct volume and swelling percent. Moreover, our results revealed that XST treatment could increase the rats’ weight and improve a batch of functional outcomes. In conclusion, the present data suggested that XST could protect against ischemia injury in transient and permanent MCAO rats, which might be related to Prx6-TLR4 pathway. Xumei Wang, Shaoxia Wang, Jinxin Wang, Hong Guo, Zhaopeng Dong, Lijuan Chai, Limin Hu, Yue Zhang, Hong Wang, and Lu Chen Copyright © 2015 Xumei Wang et al. All rights reserved. Chinese Herbal Medicines as an Adjunctive Therapy for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 23 Nov 2015 09:26:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/350730/ Pancreatic cancer is a common malignancy with a high mortality. Most patients present clinically with advanced pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the effect of radiotherapy or chemotherapy is limited. Complementary and alternative medicines represent exciting adjunctive therapies. In this study, we ascertained the beneficial and adverse effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in combination with conventional therapy for inoperable pancreatic cancer by using meta-analysis methods for controlled clinical trials. We extracted data for studies searched from six electronic databases that were searched and also assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. We evaluated the following outcome measures: 6-month and 1-year survival rate, objective response rate, disease control rate, quality of life, and adverse effects. The final analysis showed CHM is a promising strategy as an adjunctive therapy to treat advanced or inoperable pancreatic cancer and that CHM in combination with conventional therapy is a promising strategy for resistant disease. However, convincing evidence must be obtained and confirmed by high-quality trials in future studies. Bin Li, Run Gan, Quanjun Yang, Jinlu Huang, Pengguo Chen, Lili Wan, and Cheng Guo Copyright © 2015 Bin Li et al. All rights reserved. Yokukansan Increases 5-HT1A Receptors in the Prefrontal Cortex and Enhances 5-HT1A Receptor Agonist-Induced Behavioral Responses in Socially Isolated Mice Mon, 23 Nov 2015 09:25:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/726471/ The traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan has an anxiolytic effect, which occurs after repeated administration. In this study, to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of repeated yokukansan administration on serotonin 1A (5-H) receptor density and affinity and its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of socially isolated mice. Moreover, we examined the effects of yokukansan on a 5-H receptor-mediated behavioral response. Male mice were subjected to social isolation stress for 6 weeks and simultaneously treated with yokukansan. Thereafter, the density and affinity of 5-H receptors were analyzed by a receptor-binding assay. Levels of 5-H receptor protein and mRNA were also measured. Furthermore, (±)-8-hydroxy-2-(dipropylamino)tetralin hydrobromide (8-OH-DPAT; a 5-H receptor agonist) was injected intraperitoneally, and rearing behavior was examined. Social isolation stress alone did not affect 5-H receptor density or affinity. However, yokukansan significantly increased receptor density and decreased affinity concomitant with unchanged protein and mRNA levels. Yokukansan also enhanced the 8-OH-DPAT-induced decrease in rearing behavior. These results suggest that yokukansan increases 5-H receptors in the PFC of socially isolated mice and enhances their function, which might underlie its anxiolytic effects. Toshiyuki Ueki, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Akinori Nishi, Yasushi Ikarashi, Tomohisa Hattori, and Yoshio Kase Copyright © 2015 Toshiyuki Ueki et al. All rights reserved. Fishing for Nature’s Hits: Establishment of the Zebrafish as a Model for Screening Antidiabetic Natural Products Mon, 23 Nov 2015 08:30:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/287847/ Diabetes mellitus affects millions of people worldwide and significantly impacts their quality of life. Moreover, life threatening diseases, such as myocardial infarction, blindness, and renal disorders, increase the morbidity rate associated with diabetes. Various natural products from medicinal plants have shown potential as antidiabetes agents in cell-based screening systems. However, many of these potential “hits” fail in mammalian tests, due to issues such as poor pharmacokinetics and/or toxic side effects. To address this problem, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model has been developed as a “bridge” to provide an experimentally convenient animal-based screening system to identify drug candidates that are active in vivo. In this review, we discuss the application of zebrafish to drug screening technologies for diabetes research. Specifically, the discovery of natural product-based antidiabetes compounds using zebrafish will be described. For example, it has recently been demonstrated that antidiabetic natural compounds can be identified in zebrafish using activity guided fractionation of crude plant extracts. Moreover, the development of fluorescent-tagged glucose bioprobes has allowed the screening of natural product-based modulators of glucose homeostasis in zebrafish. We hope that the discussion of these advances will illustrate the value and simplicity of establishing zebrafish-based assays for antidiabetic compounds in natural products-based laboratories. Nadia Tabassum, Hongmei Tai, Da-Woon Jung, and Darren R. Williams Copyright © 2015 Nadia Tabassum et al. All rights reserved. The Activation of Nrf2 and Its Downstream Regulated Genes Mediates the Antioxidative Activities of Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells Sun, 22 Nov 2015 11:22:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/187265/ Epidemiological studies have verified the critical role that antioxidative stress plays in protecting vascular endothelial cells. The aims of the present study were to investigate the antioxidative activities and differential regulation of nuclear erythroid-related factor 2- (Nrf2-) mediated gene expression by Xueshuan Xinmaining Tablet (XXT), a traditional Chinese medicine with the effect of treating cardiovascular diseases. The antioxidative activities of XXT were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), a PCR array, and western blotting. Our results indicated that XXT exhibited potent antioxidative activities by suppressing the levels of hydrogen peroxide- (H2O2-) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We were also conscious of strong Nrf2-mediated antioxidant induction. XXT enhanced the expressions of Keap1, Nrf2, and Nrf2-mediated genes, such as glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit (GCLM), NAD(P)H: quinine oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), heme oxygenase 1 (HMOX1), and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in HUVECs. In summary, XXT strongly activated Nrf2 and its downstream regulated genes, which may contribute to the antioxidative and vascular endothelial cell protective activities of XXT. Lingxin Xiong, Jingshu Xie, Chenxue Song, Jinping Liu, Jingtong Zheng, Chuangui Liu, Xiaotian Zhang, Pingya Li, and Fang Wang Copyright © 2015 Lingxin Xiong et al. All rights reserved. The Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Cold-Pressed and Distilled Essential Oils of Citrus paradisi and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck Sun, 22 Nov 2015 11:09:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/804091/ The chemical composition and functional activities of cold-pressed and water distilled peel essential oils of Citrus paradisi (C. paradisi) and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck (C. grandis) were investigated in present study. Yields of cold-pressed oils were much higher than those of distilled oils. Limonene was the primary ingredient of essential oils of C. paradisi (cold 92.83%; distilled 96.06%) and C. grandis (cold 32.63%; distilled 55.74%). In addition, C. grandis oils obtained were rich in oxygenated or nitrogenated compounds which may be involved in reducing cardiovascular diseases or enhancing sleep effectiveness. The order of free radical scavenging activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. grandis oil > cold-pressed C. grandis oil. Cold-pressed C. grandis oil exhibited the lowest activity in all antioxidative assays. The order of antimicrobial activities of 4 citrus oils was distilled C. grandis oil, cold-pressed C. paradisi oil > distilled C. paradisi oil > cold-pressed C. paradisi oil. Surprisingly, distilled C. grandis oil exhibited better antimicrobial activities than distilled C. paradisi oil, especially against Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica subsp. The results also indicated that the antimicrobial activities of essential oils may not relate to their antioxidative activities. Ming-Chiu Ou, Yi-Hsin Liu, Yung-Wei Sun, and Chin-Feng Chan Copyright © 2015 Ming-Chiu Ou et al. All rights reserved. Luteolin Exerts Cardioprotective Effects through Improving Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Ca2+-ATPase Activity in Rats during Ischemia/Reperfusion In Vivo Sun, 22 Nov 2015 07:50:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/365854/ The flavonoid luteolin exists in many types of fruits, vegetables, and medicinal herbs. Our previous studies have demonstrated that luteolin reduced ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in vitro, which was related with sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) activity. However, the effects of luteolin on SERCA2a activity during I/R in vivo remain unclear. To investigate whether luteolin exerts cardioprotective effects and to monitor changes in SERCA2a expression and activity levels in vivo during I/R, we created a myocardial I/R rat model by ligating the coronary artery. We demonstrated that luteolin could reduce the myocardial infarct size, lactate dehydrogenase release, and apoptosis during I/R injury in vivo. Furthermore, we found that luteolin inhibited the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity in vivo. However, neither I/R nor luteolin altered SERCA2a expression levels in myocardiocytes. Moreover, the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway played a vital role in this mechanism. In conclusion, the present study has confirmed for the first time that luteolin yields cardioprotective effects against I/R injury by inhibiting the I/R-induced decrease in SERCA2a activity partially via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in vivo, independent of SERCA2a protein level regulation. SERCA2a activity presents a novel biomarker to assess the progress of I/R injury in experimental research and clinical applications. Changsheng Nai, Haochen Xuan, Yingying Zhang, Mengxiao Shen, Tongda Xu, Defeng Pan, Congwei Zhang, Yanbin Zhang, and Dongye Li Copyright © 2015 Changsheng Nai et al. All rights reserved. Resveratrol Protects PC12 Cell against 6-OHDA Damage via CXCR4 Signaling Pathway Sun, 22 Nov 2015 06:13:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/730121/ Resveratrol, herbal nonflavonoid polyphenolic compound naturally derived from grapes, has long been acknowledged to possess extensive biological and pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ones and may exert a neuroprotective effect on neuronal damage in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain undefined. In the present study, we intended to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity of PC12 cells and further explore the possible mechanisms involved. For this purpose, PC12 cells were exposed to 6-OHDA in the presence of resveratrol (0, 12.5, 25, and 50 μM). The results showed that resveratrol increased cell viability, alleviated the MMP reduction, and reduced the number of apoptotic cells as measured by MTT assay, JC-1 staining, and Hoechst/PI double staining (all ). Immunofluorescent staining and Western blotting revealed that resveratrol averts 6-OHDA induced CXCR4 upregulation (). Our results demonstrated that resveratrol could effectively protect PC12 cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis via CXCR4 signaling pathway. Jing Zhang, Wenchuang Fan, Hui Wang, Lihua Bao, Guibao Li, Tao Li, Shouyang Song, Hongyu Li, Jing Hao, and Jinhao Sun Copyright © 2015 Jing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Study on the Difference of BIS/BAS Scale between Sasang Types Sun, 22 Nov 2015 05:25:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/805819/ Introduction. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences in temperament between So-Yang (SY) and So-Eum (SE) Sasang types using Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale to elucidate the biopsychological mechanism underlying the Sasang typology, a traditional Korean personalized medicine. Methods. 248 university students were categorized into three Sasang types, and series of t-tests were conducted, separately for male and female participants, to examine the difference of Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS), Behavioral Activation System (BAS), BAS-Drive (BAS-D), BAS-Fun Seeking (BAS-FS), and BAS-Reward Responsiveness (BAS-RR) scores between SY and SE Sasang types. Results. There were significant differences between Sasang types in the BIS/BAS subscales with consideration of gender. In male participants, BAS-total score of SY type () was significantly (, ) higher than that of SE type (). On the other hand, in female participants, BIS score of SY type () was significantly (, ) lower than that of SE type (). Discussion. The current study suggested relationship between Sasang typology and Behavior Inhibition and Activation Systems and showed significant differences in BIS/BAS scale between SY and SE Sasang types. Further studies on biological base of Sasang typology are needed. Soo Jin Lee, Sung Hye Kim, Nangyeon Lim, Mi Young Ahn, and Han Chae Copyright © 2015 Soo Jin Lee et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Electroacupuncture Treatment Improves Neurological Function Associated with Regulation of Tight Junction Proteins in Rats with Cerebral Ischemia Reperfusion Injury” Thu, 19 Nov 2015 15:17:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/898474/ Ya-Min Zhang, Hong Xu, Hua Sun, Su-Hui Chen, and Fu-Ming Wang Copyright © 2015 Ya-Min Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Immunomodulatory Effects of Cinobufagin on Murine Lymphocytes and Macrophages Thu, 19 Nov 2015 07:31:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/835263/ Cinobufagin (CBG), a major bioactive component of the traditional Chinese medicine ChanSu, has been reported to have potent pharmacological activity. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of CBG on the activity of immune cells in mice. Peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes from mice were prepared and cultured in RPMI1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum. Concanavalin (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and CBG (0.0125, 0.05, 0.15, or 0.25 μg/mL) were added to the culture medium, and the phagocytic activity of macrophages was detected by MTT assays. Additionally, lymphocyte secretion of interleukin- (IL-)2 and IL-10 was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the cell cycle distribution and cell surface markers were detected by flow cytometry. Our results demonstrated that CBG promoted lymphocyte proliferation; this effect was suppressed by combined treatment with ConA or LPS. Moreover, CBG also significantly improved the CD4+/CD8+ ratio in spleen lymphocytes and increased the percentage of spleen lymphocytes in the S phase. Finally, we found that CBG enhanced the secretion of IL-2 and IL-10 and increased the phagocytosis ability of macrophages. In summary, CBG could enhance activity of immune cells. Yang Yu, Hui Wang, Xianhua Meng, Lu Hao, Yue Fu, Linlin Fang, Dan Shen, Xiaomeng Yu, and Jingshung Li Copyright © 2015 Yang Yu et al. All rights reserved. Corrigendum to “Antimetastatic Potentials of Dioscorea nipponica on Melanoma In Vitro and In Vivo” Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:52:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/760692/ Mao-Lin Ho, Yih-Shou Hsieh, Jia-Yuh Chen, Kuo-Shuen Chen, Jia-Jing Chen, Wu-Hsien Kuo, Shu-Jiuan Lin, and Pei-Ni Chen Copyright © 2015 Mao-Lin Ho et al. All rights reserved. Topical Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Oil from Tropidurus hispidus (Spix, 1825) Wed, 18 Nov 2015 09:49:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/140247/ Tropidurus hispidus has been used in traditional medicine in several regions of Northeastern Region of Brazil. Its medicinal use involves the treatment of diseases such as warts, sore throat, tonsillitis, chicken pox, varicella, measles, asthma, alcoholism, and dermatomycosis. The present study evaluated the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Tropidurus hispidus fat in treating ear edema in an animal model. Oil from T. hispidus (OTH) was evaluated on its effect against experimental inflammation in mice. OTH was extracted from body fat located in the ventral region of Tropidurus hispidus using hexane as a solvent. We used the model of mouse ear edema induced by phlogistic agents, croton oil (single and multiple applications), arachidonic acid, phenol, capsaicin, and histamine, applied into the right ears of animals pretreated with acetone (control), dexamethasone, or OTH. OTH inhibited the dermatitis induced by all noxious agents, except capsaicin. This effect may be related to the fatty acids present in OTH. Israel J. M. Santos, Gerlânia O. Leite, José Galberto M. Costa, Romulo R. N. Alves, Adriana R. Campos, Irwin R. A. Menezes, Francisco Ronaldo V. Freita, Maria Janeth H. Nunes, and Waltécio O. Almeida Copyright © 2015 Israel J. M. Santos et al. All rights reserved.