Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Wen-Dan Decoction Improves Negative Emotions in Sleep-Deprived Rats by Regulating Orexin-A and Leptin Expression Thu, 17 Apr 2014 08:51:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/872547/ Wen-Dan Decoction (WDD), a formula of traditional Chinese medicine, has been clinically used for treating insomnia for approximately 800 years. However, the therapeutic mechanisms of WDD remain unclear. Orexin-A plays a key role in the sleep-wake cycle, while leptin function is opposite to orexin-A. Thus, orexin-A and leptin may be important factors in sleep disorders. In this study, 48 rats were divided into control, model, WDD-treated, and diazepam-treated groups. The model of insomnia was produced by sleep deprivation (SD) for 14 days. The expressions of orexin-A, leptin, and their receptors in blood serum, prefrontal cortex, and hypothalamus were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunohistochemistry, and real time PCR. Open field tests showed that SD increased both crossing movement (Cm) and rearing-movement (Rm) times. Orexin-A and leptin levels in blood serum increased after SD but decreased in brain compared to the control group. mRNA expressions of orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor after SD were decreased in the prefrontal cortex but were increased in hypothalamus. WDD treatment normalized the behavior and upregulated orexin-A, leptin, orexin receptor 1 and leptin receptor in brain. The findings suggest that WDD treatment may regulate SD-induced negative emotions by regulating orexin-A and leptin expression. Fengzhi Wu, Yuehan Song, Feng Li, Xin He, Jie Ma, Ting Feng, Binghe Guan, Liye Wang, Sinai Li, Xiaolan Liu, Yan Liu, Meng Mao, Jing Liu, Shijing Bai, and Cai Song Copyright © 2014 Fengzhi Wu et al. All rights reserved. Yiqi Huoxue Recipe Improves Heart Function through Inhibiting Apoptosis Related to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Myocardial Infarction Model of Rats Thu, 17 Apr 2014 08:35:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/745919/ Objective. To explore the mechanism of cardioprotective effects of Chinese medicine, Yiqi Huoxue recipe, in rats with myocardial infarction- (MI-) induced heart failure. Methods. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent left anterior descending artery (LAD) ligation or sham operation. The surviving MI rats were divided randomly into three groups: MI (5 mL/kg/d NS by gavage), MI + Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) (12 mg/kg/d MT by gavage), and MI + Yiqi Huoxue (5 mL/kg recipe by gavage). And the sham operation rats were given 5 mL/kg/d normal saline. Treatments were given on the day following surgery for 4 weeks. Then rats were detected for heart structure and function by transthoracic echocardiography. Apoptosis in heart tissues was detected by TUNEL staining. To determine whether the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathway is included in the cardioprotective function of the recipe, ER stress related proteins such as GRP78 and caspase-12 were examined. Results. Yiqi Huoxue recipe attenuated heart function injury, reversed histopathological damage, alleviated myocardial apoptosis and inhibited ER stress in MI rats. Conclusion. All the results suggest that Yiqi Huoxue recipe improves the injured heart function maybe through inhibition of ER stress response pathway, which is a promising target in therapy for heart failure. Li-Xia Lou, Ai-Ming Wu, Dong-Mei Zhang, Sheng-Xian Wu, Yong-Hong Gao, Bo Nie, Ming-Jing Zhao, Xi-Ying Lv, Qiu-Shuo Jin, Yi-Zhou Zhao, Shuo-Ren Wang, and Li-Min Chai Copyright © 2014 Li-Xia Lou et al. All rights reserved. A Platform for Screening Potential Anticholinesterase Fractions and Components Obtained from Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge for Treating Alzheimer’s Disease Thu, 17 Apr 2014 07:53:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/524650/ Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer’s disease to enhance central cholinergic transmission. In this study, a bioactivity-oriented screening platform based on a modified Ellman’s method and HPLC-QTOF MS technique was developed to rapidly screen active agents of Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bge. The 60% ethanol fraction from an ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most potential anticholinesterase activity. Fifteen steroid saponins were identified by the mass spectrum, standards and literature reports. Twenty-five compounds were isolated from the active fraction. The results showed that compounds with the C6–C3–C6 skeleton probably had both AChE and BuChE inhibitory activities. Xanthone and benzene derivatives exhibited no or little activity. Lignans showed weak BuChE inhibitory activity. The steroidal saponins demonstrated moderate or weak AChE inhibitory activity. Yu Sun, Ying Peng, Lin-Guang Li, Li-Wei Zheng, Dong-Ju Lin, Ling-Zhi Li, and Shao-Jiang Song Copyright © 2014 Yu Sun et al. All rights reserved. Salidroside Reduces Cell Mobility via NF-κB and MAPK Signaling in LPS-Induced BV2 Microglial Cells Thu, 17 Apr 2014 07:46:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/383821/ The unregulated activation of microglia following stroke results in the production of toxic factors that propagate secondary neuronal injury. Salidroside has been shown to exhibit protective effects against neuronal death induced by different insults. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of salidroside have not been elucidated clearly in microglia. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying inhibiting LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cell mobility of salidroside. The protective effect of salidroside was investigated in microglial BV2 cell, subjected to stretch injury. Moreover, transwell migration assay demonstrated that salidroside significantly reduced cell motility. Our results also indicated that salidroside suppressed LPS-induced chemokines production in a dose-dependent manner, without causing cytotoxicity in BV2 microglial cells. Moreover, salidroside suppressed LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) by blocking degradation of IκBα and phosphorylation of MAPK (p38, JNK, ERK1/2), which resulted in inhibition of chemokine expression. These results suggest that salidroside possesses a potent suppressive effect on cell migration of BV2 microglia and this compound may offer substantial therapeutic potential for treatment of ischemic strokes that are accompanied by microglial activation. Haixia Hu, Zuanfang Li, Xiaoqin Zhu, Ruhui Lin, and Lidian Chen Copyright © 2014 Haixia Hu et al. All rights reserved. Complementary and Alternative Medicine on Wikipedia: Opportunities for Improvement Thu, 17 Apr 2014 06:41:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/105186/ Wikipedia, a free and collaborative Internet encyclopedia, has become one of the most popular sources of free information on the Internet. However, there have been concerns over the quality of online health information, particularly that on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). This exploratory study aimed to evaluate several page attributes of articles on CAM in the English Wikipedia. A total of 97 articles were analyzed and compared with eight articles of broad categories of therapies in conventional medicine using the Mann-Whitney U test. Based on the Wikipedia editorial assessment grading, 4% of the articles attained “good article” status, 34% required considerable editing, and 56% needed substantial improvements in their content. The median daily access of the articles over the previous 90 days was 372 (range: 7–4,214). The median word count was 1840 with a readability of grade 12.7 (range: 9.4–17.7). Medians of word count and citation density of the CAM articles were significantly lower than those in the articles of conventional medicine therapies. In conclusion, despite its limitations, the general public will continue to access health information on Wikipedia. There are opportunities for health professionals to contribute their knowledge and to improve the accuracy and completeness of the CAM articles on Wikipedia. Malcolm Koo Copyright © 2014 Malcolm Koo. All rights reserved. Effects of Chinese Medicine Tong xinluo on Diabetic Nephropathy via Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition Thu, 17 Apr 2014 06:10:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/123497/ Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of chronic kidney failure and characterized by interstitial and glomeruli fibrosis. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DN. Tong xinluo (TXL), a Chinese herbal compound, has been used in China with established therapeutic efficacy in patients with DN. To investigate the molecular mechanism of TXL improving DN, KK-Ay mice were selected as models for the evaluation of pathogenesis and treatment in DN. In vitro, TGF-β1 was used to induce EMT. Western blot (WB), immunofluorescence staining, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect the changes of EMT markers in vivo and in vitro, respectively. Results showed the expressions of TGF-β1 and its downstream proteins smad3/p-smad3 were greatly reduced in TXL group; meantime, TXL restored the expression of smad7. As a result, the expressions of collagen IV (Col IV) and fibronectin (FN) were significantly decreased in TXL group. In vivo, 24 h-UAER (24-hour urine albumin excretion ratio) and BUN (blood urea nitrogen) were decreased and Ccr (creatinine clearance ratio) was increased in TXL group compared with DN group. In summary, the present study demonstrates that TXL successfully inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in DN, which may account for the therapeutic efficacy in TXL-mediated renoprotection. Na Zhang, Yanbin Gao, Dawei Zou, Jinyang Wang, Jiaoyang Li, Shengnan Zhou, Zhiyao Zhu, Xuan Zhao, Liping Xu, and Haiyan Zhang Copyright © 2014 Na Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Inhibitory Potential of Bavachalcone and Corylin against UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:24:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/958937/ Bavachalcone and corylin are two major bioactive compounds isolated from Psoralea corylifolia L., which has been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine for many years. As two antibiotic or anticancer drugs, bavachalcone and corylin are used in combination with other drugs; thus it is necessary to evaluate potential pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions (HDI) of the two bioactive compounds. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of liver UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT 1A10, and UGT2B4 inhibited by bavachalcone and corylin. 4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) was used as a nonspecific “probe” substrate. Bavachalcone had stronger inhibition on UGT1A1 and UGT1A7 than corylin which did not inhibit UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A7, UGT1A8, UGT1A10, and UGT2B4. Data fitting using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated the noncompetitive inhibition of bavachalcone against UGT1A1 and UGT1A7-mediated 4-MU glucuronidation reaction. The values of inhibition kinetic parameters (Ki) were 5.41 μM and 4.51 μM for UGT1A1 and UGT1A7, respectively. The results of present study suggested that there was a possibility of UGT1A1 and UGT1A7 inhibition-based herb-drug interaction associated with bavachalcone and provided the basis for further in vivo studies to investigate the HDI potential between bavachalcone and UGT substrates. Lina Shan, Shuman Yang, Gang Zhang, Dun Zhou, Zhenyu Qiu, Lei Tian, Hongxia Yuan, Yujun Feng, and Xianbao Shi Copyright © 2014 Lina Shan et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of a Crataegus-Based Multiherb Formula for Dyslipidemia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Wed, 16 Apr 2014 14:05:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/365742/ Background. We for the first time examined the effects of a multiherb formula containing Crataegus pinnatifida (1 g daily), Alisma orientalis, Stigma maydis, Ganoderma lucidum, Polygonum multiflorum, and Morus alba on plasma lipid and glucose levels in Chinese patients with dyslipidemia. Methods. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 42 patients were randomized at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive the herbal formula or placebo for 12 weeks and 40 patients completed the study. Lipid profiles, glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), and laboratory safety parameters were performed before and after treatment. Results. The difference in the changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels between placebo and active treatment (−9%) was significantly better with active treatment. HbA1c levels significantly decreased by −3.9% in the active treatment group, but the change was not significantly different from that with placebo (−1.1%) . There were no apparent adverse effects or changes in laboratory safety parameters with either treatment. Conclusions. The multiherb formula had mild beneficial effects on plasma LDL-C after 12-weeks treatment in subjects with dyslipidemia without any noticeable adverse effects. Miao Hu, Weiwei Zeng, and Brian Tomlinson Copyright © 2014 Miao Hu et al. All rights reserved. Evidence-Based Medicinal Plants for Modern Chronic Diseases Wed, 16 Apr 2014 13:33:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/948385/ Yong-Ouk You, James William Daily III, Tong Ho Kang, Young-Rae Lee, and Serkan Selli Copyright © 2014 Yong-Ouk You et al. All rights reserved. Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Toxicological Aspects of Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre Wed, 16 Apr 2014 09:38:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/782830/ Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre, belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a common weed found in most of the temperate countries including Bangladesh, China, Malaysia, and Japan. The plant is also referred to as “marsh pepper” or “smart weed.” It appears to be a useful herb with evidence-based medicinal properties. The present work addresses the botanical description, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of P. hydropiper. All plant parts have been commonly used in the traditional systems of medicines. Flavonoids are the major group of phytochemical components followed by drimane-type sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpenoids, as well as phenylpropanoids. Different extracts and plant parts showed remarkable pharmacological activities including antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antihelminth, antifeedant, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, oestrogenicity, antifertility, antiadipogenicity, and neuroprotection. Mutagenicity and acute and subchronic toxicities of the plant were also reported. P. hydropiper has tremendous medicinal properties that could further be investigated for the development of evidence-based herbal products. A. K. M. Moyeenul Huq, Jamia Azdina Jamal, and Johnson Stanslas Copyright © 2014 A. K. M. Moyeenul Huq et al. All rights reserved. Transforming Pain into Beauty: On Art, Healing, and Care for the Spirit Wed, 16 Apr 2014 08:05:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/789852/ From drawing to sculpture, poetry to journaling, and dance to music and song, the arts can have a major impact on patients’ spiritual well-being and health. The arts empower patients to fulfill the basic human drive to create and give patients a sense of possibility. Through creative expression, patients regain a feeling of wholeness, individually and as part of the larger world. Although spiritual caregivers have made occasional use of the arts, it would be better for the arts to be seen as a pillar of spiritual care provision. This paper provides a model for arts-based spiritual care (chaplaincy) in oncology/hematology and elsewhere. We discuss how to match the art form intervention to the individual patient and give examples of many kinds of uniquely spiritual arts-based interventions. In life, there are occasional “caseuras,” or ruptures. Using a theoretical foundation drawn from theologian Michael Fishbane, our model of arts-based spiritual care bridges the experience of the caesura to a renewed sense of meaning, or spiritual reorientation, that can be discovered within the reality of illness. Additionally, the ambiguity and playfulness inherent to creative expression strengthen the patient’s flexibility and resilience. Rachel Ettun, Michael Schultz, and Gil Bar-Sela Copyright © 2014 Rachel Ettun et al. All rights reserved. The Overlap of Dietary Supplement and Pharmaceutical Use in the MIDUS National Study Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:35:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/823853/ Introduction. In the United States, dietary supplement (DS) use is common, often takes place outside of the purview of health care providers, and may involve DS in combination with pharmaceuticals. This situation has led to concerns about interactions between DS and pharmaceuticals, as well as the risks from polypharmacy and polysupplement use. Methods. We used data from the Midlife in the US study (MIDUS 2 Survey) to examine DS and prescription pharmaceutical use in 3876 study participants in order to determine the demographics of high-users (5 or more) of DS and pharmaceuticals and the presence of DS-pharmaceutical co-use. Results. Over 69% of study participants regularly used DS, 49.6% regularly used both DS and pharmaceuticals, and 6.3% and 8.7% were high-users of pharmaceuticals and DS, respectively. High-users of DS, pharmaceuticals, and either were more likely than the whole cohort to be female and of lower income. Conclusions. These findings corroborate those of other national studies with respect to the demographics of DS users but add new information about people at risk of DS-pharmaceutical interactions, not an insignificant proportion of the population examined by this dataset. David S. Kiefer, Joe C. Chase, Gayle D. Love, and Bruce P. Barrett Copyright © 2014 David S. Kiefer et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Jingqian Zhitong Fang on Serum Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Primary Dysmenorrhea Wed, 16 Apr 2014 07:11:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/876431/ Primary dysmenorrhea is a common gynecological disease garnering increasing attention and research. To investigate the clinical therapeutic effects of Jingqian Zhitong Fang (JQF) and the differences in serum sex hormone levels during the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea, we selected 30 healthy volunteers and 60 individuals with primary dysmenorrhea. On the third day of the menstrual cycle, we used ELISA to determine the levels of serum prolactin (PRL), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone (TEST), progesterone (PROG), and estradiol (E2) compared with normal levels and levels in the JQF group, the Western medicine group receiving continuous treatment during the first and third menstrual cycles, and the group followed up after the drug was stopped. We observed that after JQF treatment, the levels of the following hormones changed significantly: PRL, LH, TEST, and E2 levels decreased significantly and the PROG level increased significantly after treatment. After treatment with Western medicine, the serum levels of FSH, LH, PROG, and E2 showed no significant change. We conclude that the long-term effect of JQF treatment was better than that of Western medicine. JQF treatment of primary dysmenorrhea is related to adjustment of PRL, LH, TEST, and E2 hormone levels in the human body. Na Dai, Ling Fang, Yu-bo Li, Yu-ming Wang, Ju Yin, and Bao-chan Pu Copyright © 2014 Na Dai et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Prescription, DSGOST, Prevents Cold-Induced RhoA Activation and Endothelin-1 Production in Endothelial Cells Tue, 15 Apr 2014 13:27:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/549307/ Herbal prescription, Danggui-Sayuk-Ga-Osuyu-Saenggang-tang (DSGOST), has long been used to treat Raynaud’s phenomenon (RP) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, a biological mechanism by which DSGOST ameliorates RP is yet deciphered. In this study, we demonstrate that DSGOST inhibits cold-induced activation of RhoA, in both vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and endothelial cells (EC), and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path for cold response on vessels. While cold induced RhoA activity in both cell types, DSGOST pretreatment prevented cold-induced RhoA activation. DSGOST inhibition of cold-induced RhoA activation further blocked α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation to the plasma membrane in VSMC. In addition, DSGOST inhibited endothelin-1-mediated RhoA activation and α2c-adrenoreceptor translocation in VSMC. Meanwhile, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced or RhoA-dependent phosphorylation of FAK, SRC, and ERK. Consistently, DSGOST inhibited cold-induced endothelin-1 expression in EC. Therefore, DSGOST prevents cold-induced RhoA in EC and blocks endothelin-1-mediated paracrine path between EC and VSMC. In conclusion, our data suggest that DSGOST is beneficial for treating RP-like syndrome. Sung-Gook Cho, Ho Yeon Go, Jeong-Su Park, Ki-Yong Jung, Seung-Ho Sun, You-Kyung Choi, Yun-Kyung Song, Jong-Hyeong Park, Chan-Yong Jun, and Seong Gyu Ko Copyright © 2014 Sung-Gook Cho et al. All rights reserved. Crude Ethanol Extract of Pithecellobium ellipticum as a Potential Lipid-Lowering Treatment for Hypercholesterolaemia Tue, 15 Apr 2014 12:35:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/492703/ If left untreated, hypercholesterolaemia can lead to atherosclerosis, given time. Plants from the Fabaceae family have shown the ability to significantly suppress atherosclerosis progression. We selected four extracts from Pithecellobium ellipticum, from the Fabaceae family, to be screened in a 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoA reductase) assay. The ethanol extract, at a concentration of 500 μg/mL, exhibited superior inhibition properties over the other extracts by demonstrating 80.9% inhibition, while 0.223 μg/mL of pravastatin (control) showed 78.1% inhibition towards enzymatic activity. These findings led to the fractionation of the ethanol extract using ethyl acetate : methanol (95 : 5), gradually increasing polarity and produced seven fractions (1A to 7A). Fraction 7A at 150 μg/mL emerged as being the most promising bioactive fraction with 78.7% inhibition. FRAP, beta carotene, and DPPH assays supported the findings from the ethanol extract as it exhibited good overall antioxidant activity. The antioxidant properties have been said to reduce free radicals that are able to oxidize lipoproteins which are the cause of atherosclerosis. Phytochemical screenings revealed the presence of terpenoid, steroid, flavonoid, and phenolic compounds as the responsible group of compound(s), working individually or synergistically, within the extract to prevent binding of HMG-CoA to HMG-CoA reductase. Janet P.-C. Wong, Sumi Wijaya, Kang-Nee Ting, Christophe Wiart, Kamarul’Ain Mustafa, Fiona Shipton, and Teng-Jin Khoo Copyright © 2014 Janet P.-C. Wong et al. All rights reserved. History and Current Status of Evidence-Based Korean Medicine Tue, 15 Apr 2014 12:30:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/503867/ Seong-Gyu Ko, Bharat B. Aggarwal, Mingyao Liu, Chang Shik Yin, Dong Hoon Jin, and Bo-Hyoung Jang Copyright © 2014 Seong-Gyu Ko et al. All rights reserved. Effects and Mechanisms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine during the Reproductive Process Tue, 15 Apr 2014 08:10:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/698921/ Xiaoke Wu, Ernest Hung Yu Ng, Elisabet Stener-Victorin, and Richard S. Legro Copyright © 2014 Xiaoke Wu et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture for Preventing Complications after Radical Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Tue, 15 Apr 2014 07:23:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/802134/ We aimed to investigate the preventive effects of acupuncture for complications after radical hysterectomy. A single-center randomized controlled single-blinded trial was performed in a western-style hospital in China. One hundred and twenty patients after radical hysterectomy were randomly allocated to two groups and started acupuncture from sixth postoperative day for five consecutive days. Sanyinjiao (SP6), Shuidao (ST28), and Epangxian III (MS4) were selected with electrical stimulation and Zusanli (ST36) without electrical stimulation for thirty minutes in treatment group. Binao (LI14) was selected as sham acupuncture point without any stimulation in control group. The main outcome measures were bladder function and prevalence of postoperative complications. Compared with control group, treatment group reported significantly improved bladder function in terms of maximal cystometric capacity, first voiding desire, maximal flow rate, residual urine, and bladder compliance, and decreased bladder sensory loss, incontinence, and urinary retention on fifteenth and thirtieth postoperative days. Treatment group showed significant advantage in reduction of urinary tract infection on thirtieth postoperative day. But no significant difference between groups was observed for lymphocyst formation. By improving postoperative bladder function, early intervention of acupuncture may provide a valuable alternative method to prevent bladder dysfunctional disorders and urinary tract infection after radical hysterectomy. Wei-min Yi, Qing Chen, Chang-hao Liu, Jia-yun Hou, Liu-dan Chen, and Wei-kang Wu Copyright © 2014 Wei-min Yi et al. All rights reserved. Introduction to the History and Current Status of Evidence-Based Korean Medicine: A Unique Integrated System of Allopathic and Holistic Medicine Mon, 14 Apr 2014 08:30:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/740515/ Objectives. Korean medicine, an integrated allopathic and traditional medicine, has developed unique characteristics and has been active in contributing to evidence-based medicine. Recent developments in Korean medicine have not been as well disseminated as traditional Chinese medicine. This introduction to recent developments in Korean medicine will draw attention to, and facilitate, the advancement of evidence-based complementary alternative medicine (CAM). Methods and Results. The history of and recent developments in Korean medicine as evidence-based medicine are explored through discussions on the development of a national standard classification of diseases and study reports, ranging from basic research to newly developed clinical therapies. A national standard classification of diseases has been developed and revised serially into an integrated classification of Western allopathic and traditional holistic medicine disease entities. Standard disease classifications offer a starting point for the reliable gathering of evidence and provide a representative example of the unique status of evidence-based Korean medicine as an integration of Western allopathic medicine and traditional holistic medicine. Conclusions. Recent developments in evidence-based Korean medicine show a unique development in evidence-based medicine, adopting both Western allopathic and holistic traditional medicine. It is expected that Korean medicine will continue to be an important contributor to evidence-based medicine, encompassing conventional and complementary approaches. Chang Shik Yin and Seong-Gyu Ko Copyright © 2014 Chang Shik Yin and Seong-Gyu Ko. All rights reserved. Analysis of the Correlation between Commodity Grade and Quality of Angelica sinensis by Determination of Active Compounds Using Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Chemometrics Mon, 14 Apr 2014 07:46:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/143286/ The contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, butylidenephthalide, ligustilide, and n-butylphthalide were determined by UPLC analytical method; the correlation among the grade, average weight, and content was explored by correlation analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA); the different commercial grades with average weight and content were revealed by principal component analysis (PCA) and then rationality analysis grade classification of A. sinensis. The results showed that various commercial grades can be distinguished by PCA analysis. And there was significant negative correlation between the commodity grades and average weight, commodity, and the content of bioactive compounds, while the content of senkyunolide A had significant negative correlation with commodity grades (). Average weight had no correlation with chemicals compounds. Additionally, there was significant positive correlation among the bioactive compounds (content of ferulic acid and phthalides) of different grades of A. sinensis. The content of senkyunolide A, butylidenephthalide, and ligustilide had significant positive correlation with the content of ferulic acid. The content of ligustilide and butylidenephthalide had significant positive correlation with the content of senkyunolide A. The content of ligustilide had significant positive correlation with the content of butylidenephthalide. The basis of grades classification is related with the difference levels of the bioactive compounds. Zenghui Wang, Dongmei Wang, and Linfang Huang Copyright © 2014 Zenghui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Research Methodology: Choices, Logistics, and Challenges Mon, 14 Apr 2014 06:51:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/780520/ Raheleh Khorsan, Ian D. Coulter, George Lewith, Cheryl Hawk, Ray Kirk, and Brian Mittman Copyright © 2014 Raheleh Khorsan et al. All rights reserved. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Cancer Pain: An Overview of Systematic Reviews Sun, 13 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/170396/ Background and Objective. Now with more and more published systematic reviews of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) on adult cancer pain, it is necessary to use the methods of overview of systematic review to summarize available evidence, appraise the evidence level, and give suggestions to future research and practice. Methods. A comprehensive search (the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and ISI Web of Knowledge) was conducted to identify all systematic reviews or meta-analyses of CAM on adult cancer pain. And the evidence levels were evaluated using GRADE approach. Results. 27 systematic reviews were included. Based on available evidence, we could find that psychoeducational interventions, music interventions, acupuncture plus drug therapy, Chinese herbal medicine plus cancer therapy, compound kushen injection, reflexology, lycopene, TENS, qigong, cupping, cannabis, Reiki, homeopathy (Traumeel), and creative arts therapies might have beneficial effects on adult cancer pain. No benefits were found for acupuncture (versus drug therapy or shame acupuncture), and the results were inconsistent for massage therapy, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS), and Viscum album L plus cancer treatment. However, the evidence levels for these interventions were low or moderate due to high risk of bias and/or small sample size of primary studies. Conclusion. CAM may be beneficial for alleviating cancer pain, but the evidence levels were found to be low or moderate. Future large and rigor randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm the benefits of CAM on adult cancer pain. Yanju Bao, Xiangying Kong, Liping Yang, Rui Liu, Zhan Shi, Weidong Li, Baojin Hua, and Wei Hou Copyright © 2014 Yanju Bao et al. All rights reserved. Irritant Contact Dermatitis Risk of Common Topical Traditional Chinese Medicines Used for Skin-Lightening: A Pilot Clinical Trial with 30 Volunteers Thu, 10 Apr 2014 14:48:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/609064/ Topical traditional Chinese medicine- (TTCM-) related contact dermatitis is not uncommon but ignored. Patch and photopatch tests using 6 individual herbal ingredients and Bai-Zhi-Kao (BZK; 白芷膏), a skin-lightening TTCM preparation, were conducted on 30 participants. Twenty-five subjects showed at least 1 positive reaction, including 6 (20.0%) participants who reacted to BZK. The majority reacted to Radix Ampelopsis japonica (Bai-Lian; 白蘞) (60.0%), whereas few reacted to Rhizoma Bletilla striata (Bai-Ji; 白芨) (16.7%), Rhizoma Atractylodis macrocephalae (Bai-Zhu; 白朮) (10.0%), Radix Angelicae dahuricae (Bai-Zhi; 白芷) (3.3%), and Herba asari (Xi-Xin; 細辛) (3.3%). In the photopatch test, 3 participants (10.0%) reacted positively to BZK and 10 to ≥1 constituent; however, all reacted to Radix Angelicae dahuricae (26.7%), Radix Ampelopsis japonica (13.3%), and Rhizoma Bletilla striata (3.3%). In contrast, no subjects showed positive reactions to Sclerotium Poria cocos (Bai-Fu-Ling; 白茯苓). Thus, BZK and its constituents might present potential latent risk of contact dermatitis owing to the possible presence of Radix Ampelopsis japonica and Radix Angelicae dahuricae. Furthermore, TTCMs, particularly cosmetic products, must be used carefully, with ample warning of potential contact dermatitis risk. Kao-Sung Tsai, Tzu-Chun Lin, Meng-Tse Wu, Jui-Lung Shen, Ming-Ya Mao, Huey-Yi Chen, Yung-Hsiang Chen, and Wen-Chi Chen Copyright © 2014 Kao-Sung Tsai et al. All rights reserved. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant Thu, 10 Apr 2014 12:45:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/642942/ Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao and Siew Hua Gan Copyright © 2014 Pasupuleti Visweswara Rao and Siew Hua Gan. All rights reserved. Yangjing Capsule Extract Promotes Proliferation of GC-1 Spg Cells Thu, 10 Apr 2014 12:12:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/640857/ Objective. To investigate the effect of Yangjing Capsule (YC) extract on proliferation of GC-1 spermatogonia (spg) cells and the mechanism. Methods. GC-1 spg cells were treated with 0.01, 0.1, and 1 mg/mL YC extract. MTT assay was performed to detect the cell viability. Flow cytometry was used to measure the cell cycle and apoptosis of GC-1 spg cells. Real-time PCR and western blot were applied to determine the mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf. Gfrα1 knockdown and LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) were applied to explore the underlying mechanism. Results. After 48 h treatment of YC, the viability of GC-1 spg cells increased significantly and the ratio of apoptotic cells reduced significantly. The increased mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf suggested YC promoted self-renewal of GC-1 spg cells. Both Gfrα1 siRNAs and LY294002 treatments held back YC extract’s stimulation effects on mRNA and protein expression of Oct-4 and Plzf and consequently inhibited the proliferation of GC-1 spg cells induced by YC extract. Conclusion. YC extract could stimulate the proliferation of GC-1 spg cells. Partly via Gfrα1, YC extract is able to trigger the activation of PI3K pathway and finally lead to self-renewal of GC-1 spg cells. Zhiqiang Wang, Baofang Jin, Xindong Zhang, Yugui Cui, Dalin Sun, and Chao Gao Copyright © 2014 Zhiqiang Wang et al. All rights reserved. Time-Course of the Effects of QSYQ in Promoting Heart Function in Ameroid Constrictor-Induced Myocardial Ischemia Pigs Thu, 10 Apr 2014 09:15:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/571076/ We aim to investigate the therapeutic effects of QSYQ on a pig myocardial ischemia (MI) model and to determine its mechanism of action. The MI model was induced by Ameroid constriction of the left anterior descending coronary (LAD) in Ba-Ma miniature pigs. Four groups were created: model group, digoxin group, QSYQ group, and sham-operated group. Heart function, Ang II, CGMP, TXB2, BNP, and cTnT were evaluated before (3 weeks after operation: 0 weeks) and at 2, 4, and 8 weeks after drug administration. After 8 weeks of administration, the pigs were sacrificed for cardiac injury measurements. Pigs with MI showed obvious histological changes, including BNP, cTnT, Ang II, CGRP, TXB2, and ET, deregulated heart function, and increased levels of apoptotic cells in myocardial tissue. Treatment with QSYQ improved cardiac remodeling by counteracting those events. The administration of QSYQ was accompanied by a restoration of heart function and of the levels of Ang II, CGRP, TXB2, ET BNP, and cTnT. In addition, QSYQ attenuated administration, reduced the apoptosis, and decreased the level of TNF-α and active caspase-3. In conclusion, administration of QSYQ could attenuate Ameroid constrictor induced myocardial ischemia, and TNF-α and active caspase-3 seemed to be the critical potential target of QSYQ. Qi Qiu, Yang Lin, Cheng Xiao, Chun Li, Yong Wang, Kexu Yang, Wei Suo, Yu Li, Wenjing Chuo, Yongxiang Wei, and Wei Wang Copyright © 2014 Qi Qiu et al. All rights reserved. Decaffeinated Green Coffee Bean Extract Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice Thu, 10 Apr 2014 08:26:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/718379/ This study investigated whether decaffeinated green coffee bean extract prevents obesity and improves insulin resistance and elucidated its mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6N mice were divided into six dietary groups: chow diet, HFD, HFD-supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.9% decaffeinated green coffee bean extract, and 0.15% 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Based on the reduction in HFD-induced body weight gain and increments in plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin levels, the minimum effective dose of green coffee bean extract appears to be 0.3%. Green coffee bean extract resulted in downregulation of genes involved in WNT10b- and galanin-mediated adipogenesis and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory pathway and stimulation of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in white adipose tissue. Taken together, decaffeinated green coffee bean extract appeared to reverse HFD-induced fat accumulation and insulin resistance by downregulating the genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. Su Jin Song, Sena Choi, and Taesun Park Copyright © 2014 Su Jin Song et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Effects of Goshajinkigan in Prevention of Diabetic Complications: A Randomized Open-Labeled Clinical Trial Wed, 09 Apr 2014 12:13:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/128726/ Objective. This clinical trial was designed to investigate whether goshajinkigan reduces the onset of diabetic complications or not. Materials and Methods. A total of 332 type 2 diabetic mellitus patients were registered from 9 clinical centers from March 2000 to August 2007. Patients were randomly assigned to take goshajinkigan extract powder, 2.5 grams for 3 times a day or no kampo therapy, additionally to the regular treatment. The primary endpoints were the onset of macrovascular diseases or progression of nephropathy or retinopathy. Statistical analysis was performed by the intention-to-treat method. Results. After 5 years of observation, 116 patients were submitted to analysis. Among them, no macrovascular events were observed in both groups. Although 43 participants had upstaging of retinopathy or nephropathy in total, there was no significant difference between goshajinkigan group and control group. Deterioration of ankle reflex was suppressed in goshajinkigan group. Also glycated hemoglobin, and fasting plasma glucose were decreased in the goshajinkigan group. Conclusion. Although the power of analysis was too low to demonstrate any effects of goshajinkigan on the progression of macrovascular diseases, retinopathy or nephropathy, goshajinkigan may be beneficial for diabetic neuropathy and glycemic control. K. Watanabe, A. Shimada, K. Miyaki, A. Hirakata, K. Matsuoka, K. Omae, and I. Takei Copyright © 2014 K. Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Protection Effect of Zhen-Wu-Tang on Adriamycin-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome via Inhibiting Oxidative Lesions and Inflammation Damage Wed, 09 Apr 2014 12:11:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/131604/ Zhen-wu-tang (ZWT), a well-known formula in China, is widely used to treat chronic kidney diseases. However, very little information on ZWT’s mechanism of action is currently available. In this study, we investigated the possible protective role and underlying mechanism of ZWT on nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced by Adriamycin (intravenous injection, 6.0 mg/kg) in rats using biochemical and histopathological approaches. ZWT decreased urine protein excretion and the serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine significantly in diseased rats. A decrease in plasma levels of total protein and albumin was also recorded in nephropathic rats. Pathological results show an improved pathological state and recovering glomerular structure in ZWT treatment groups. ZWT decreased renal IL-8 level but increased renal IL-4 level. In addition, rats subjected to ZWT exhibited less IgG deposition in glomerulus compared with model group. RT-PCR results showed that ZWT decreased the mRNA expression of NF-κB p65 and increased the mRNA expression of IκB. Furthermore, ZWT reduced the level of MDA and increased SOD activity. These results demonstrated that ZWT ameliorated Adriamycin-induced NS in rats possibly by inhibiting Adriamycin-induced inflammation damage, enhancing body’s antioxidant capacity, thereby protecting glomerulus from injury. Chun-ling Liang, Jun-biao Wu, Jie-mei Lai, Shu-fang Ye, Jin Lin, Hui Ouyang, Janis Ya-xian Zhan, and Jiu-yao Zhou Copyright © 2014 Chun-ling Liang et al. All rights reserved. Effect of “Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction” on Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid in a Mouse Model of Tourette Syndrome Wed, 09 Apr 2014 08:59:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/407509/ The purpose of this study was to explore the positive effects of Jian-Pi-Zhi-Dong Decoction (JPZDD) on Tourette syndrome (TS) by investigating the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and its type A receptor (GABAAR) in the striatum of a TS mice model. The model was induced by 3,3′-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) treatment; then mice were divided into 4 groups (n=22, each); control and IDPN groups were gavaged with saline and the remaining 2 groups were gavaged with tiapride and JPZDD. We recorded the stereotypic behaviors of TS mice and measured the content of GABA in striatum by HPLC and GABAAR expression by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. Our results showed that JPZDD inhibited the abnormal behaviors of TS model mice and decreased GABA levels and GABAAR protein and mRNA expression in the striatum of TS model mice. In brief, the mechanism by which JPZDD alleviates TS symptoms may be associated with GABAAR expression downregulation in striatum which may regulate GABA metabolism. Wen Zhang, Wenjing Yu, Daohan Wang, Li Wei, Minkyoung Lee, and Sumei Wang Copyright © 2014 Wen Zhang et al. All rights reserved.