Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Distribution of Flavonoids and Cyclohexenyl Chalcone Derivatives in Conventional Propagated and In Vitro-Derived Field-Grown Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. Thu, 26 Mar 2015 13:34:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/451870/ The distribution patterns of flavonoids and cyclohexenyl chalcone derivatives in conventional propagated (CP) and in vitro-derived (CPA) field-grown plants of an important medicinal ginger, Boesenbergia rotunda, are described. A total of eight compounds were extracted from six organs (rootlet, rhizome, shoot base, maroon stem, stalk, and leaf) of the CP and CPA plants. Five major chromatographic peaks, namely, alpinetin, pinocembrin, pinostrobin, 4-hydroxypanduratin A, and panduratin A, were consistently observed by high performance liquid chromatography. Nonaerial organs had higher levels of flavonoids than the aerial ones for all types of samples. Among the compounds detected, pinostrobin and 4-hydroxypanduratin A were the most abundant flavonoid and cyclohexenyl chalcone derivative, respectively. The distribution and abundance of the bioactive compounds suggested that the shoot base could be more potentially useful for medicinal application than other organs of the plant and may be the site of storage or occurrence of biosynthetic enzymatic activities. Boon Chin Tan, Siew Kiat Tan, Sher Ming Wong, Nabeel Ata, Noorsaadah Abd. Rahman, and Norzulaani Khalid Copyright © 2015 Boon Chin Tan et al. All rights reserved. Complementary and Alternative Medicine for Diabetes 2014 Thu, 26 Mar 2015 13:06:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/685248/ Wen-Chin Yang, Cicero L. T. Chang, Cheng-Rui Li, Srinivas Nammi, and William C. S. Cho Copyright © 2015 Wen-Chin Yang et al. All rights reserved. Safety of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:35:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/380678/ Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, there has been no systematic evaluation of its safety. This review examined the adverse events (AEs) reported in clinical studies of CHM for COPD. Five English databases (PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, AMED, and CENTRAL) and four Chinese databases (CBM, CNKI, CQVIP, and Wanfang Data) were searched from inception to May 2013. Adverse event data, including nature, severity, author-assigned causality, management, and outcome, were extracted from included studies. Descriptive statistics were used for the rate of adverse events. Of the 152 included studies, AEs were reported in 47 studies. The rate of adverse events was slightly lower in the CHM groups compared with controls (84 events in 5,909 participants, 1.4% versus 102 events in 5,676 participants, 1.8%). The most frequently reported adverse event was nausea (28 cases in the CHM groups and 19 cases in the control groups), which was more common in studies where CHM was combined with pharmacotherapy to treat acute exacerbation of COPD. Other frequent adverse events were abdominal discomfort, dry mouth, and dizziness. Detailed information about the adverse events was scant. Overall, CHM appears to be well tolerated in people with COPD. Meaghan Coyle, Johannah Linda Shergis, Shaonan Liu, Lei Wu, Anthony Lin Zhang, Xinfeng Guo, Chuanjian Lu, and Charlie Changli Xue Copyright © 2015 Meaghan Coyle et al. All rights reserved. Does Scientific Evidence for the Use of Natural Products in the Treatment of Oral Candidiasis Exist? A Systematic Review Thu, 26 Mar 2015 12:20:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/147804/ In view of the limitations of antifungal agents used in the treatment of oral candidiasis and the wide variety of natural products that have been studied as treatment of this disease, this systematic literature review proposed to evaluate whether scientific evidence attesting to the efficacy of natural products in the treatment of this disease exists. A systematic search in PubMed, MEDLINE, SciELO, Lilacs, and Cochrane Library databases was accomplished using the associations among the keywords Candida albicans, phytotherapy, biological products, denture stomatitis, and oral candidiasis in both English and Portuguese. Four independent observers evaluated the methodological quality of the resulting articles. Three studies were included for detailed analysis and evaluated according to the analysis protocol based on the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) 2010 statement. The tested products were different in all studies. Two studies mentioned random samples, but no study described the sample allocation. No study mentioned sample calculations, a prior pilot study, or examiner calibration, and only one trial reported sample losses. Differences between the tested products and the methodological designs among these studies did not allow the existence of scientific evidence related to the effectiveness of these products for the proposed subjects to be confirmed. Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira, Ana Luíza Alves de Lima Pérez, Ítalo Martins Rocha, Mayara Abreu Pinheiro, Ricardo Dias de Castro, Hugo Lemes Carlo, Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima, and Lúcio Roberto Castellano Copyright © 2015 Gabriela Lacet Silva Ferreira et al. All rights reserved. Advances in the Research and Development of Natural Health Products as Main Stream Cancer Therapeutics Thu, 26 Mar 2015 09:05:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/751348/ Natural health products (NHPs) are defined as natural extracts containing polychemical mixtures; they play a leading role in the discovery and development of drugs, for disease treatment. More than 50% of current cancer therapeutics are derived from natural sources. However, the efficacy of natural extracts in treating cancer has not been explored extensively. Scientific research into the validity and mechanism of action of these products is needed to develop NHPs as main stream cancer therapy. The preclinical and clinical validation of NHPs would be essential for this development. This review summarizes some of the recent advancements in the area of NHPs with anticancer effects. This review also focuses on various NHPs that have been studied to scientifically validate their claims as anticancer agents. Furthermore, this review emphasizes the efficacy of these NHPs in targeting the multiple vulnerabilities of cancer cells for a more selective efficacious treatment. The studies reviewed here have paved the way for the introduction of more NHPs from traditional medicine to the forefront of modern medicine, in order to provide alternative, safer, and cheaper complementary treatments for cancer therapy and possibly improve the quality of life of cancer patients. Pamela Ovadje, Alessia Roma, Matthew Steckle, Leah Nicoletti, John Thor Arnason, and Siyaram Pandey Copyright © 2015 Pamela Ovadje et al. All rights reserved. Antiageing Mechanisms of a Standardized Supercritical CO2 Preparation of Black Jack (Bidens pilosa L.) in Human Fibroblasts and Skin Fragments Thu, 26 Mar 2015 07:45:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/280529/ The use of topical retinoids to treat skin disorders and ageing can induce local reactions, while oral retinoids are potent teratogens and produce several unwanted effects. This way, efforts to explore complementary care resources should be supported. Based on this, we evaluate the antiageing effects of a supercritical CO2 extract from Bidens pilosa L. (BPE-CO2A) containing a standardized multicomponent mixture of phytol, linolenic, palmitic, linoleic, and oleic acids. BPE-CO2A was assessed for its effects on human dermal fibroblasts (TGF-β1 and FGF levels using ELISA; collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by colorimetric assays, and mRNA expression of RXR, RAR, and EGFr by qRT-PCR) and human skin fragments (RAR, RXR, collagen, elastin, and glycosaminoglycan by immunohistochemical analysis). Levels of extracellular matrix elements, TGF-β1 and FGF, and EGFr gene expression were significantly increased by BPE-CO2A. The modulation of RXR and RAR was positively demonstrated after the treatment with BPE-CO2A or phytol, a component of BPE-CO2A. The effects produced by BPE-CO2A were similar to or better than those produced by retinol and retinoic acid. The ability to stimulate extracellular matrix elements, increase growth factors, and modulate retinoid and rexinoid receptors provides a basis for the development of preparation containing BPE-CO2A as an antiageing/skin-repair agent. Gustavo Dieamant, Maria Del Carmen V. Pereda, Cecília Nogueira, Samara Eberlin, Gustavo Facchini, Juliana Tibério Checon, Camila Kappke Cesar, Lilian Mussi, Márcio Antonio Polezel, Divino Martins-Oliveira Jr., and Luiz Claudio Di Stasi Copyright © 2015 Gustavo Dieamant et al. All rights reserved. Shrinkage of Prostate and Improved Quality of Life: Management of BPH Patients with Croton membranaceus Ethanolic Root Extract Tue, 24 Mar 2015 12:48:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/365205/ Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an enlargement of the prostate. The study aimed at validating the use of freeze-dried Croton membranaceus ethanolic root extract for BPH management. Thirty-three patients were observed before and after 3-month administration of 20 mg t.i.d orally. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaires were used. Total/free PSA (tPSA, fPSA), renal, liver function, lipid tests, and ultrasonographic imaging were performed. Thirty (30) patients (66 ± 11 years) completed the study. IPSS results showed 37% had severe, 40% moderate, and 23% mild symptoms before; 57% and 43% had moderate and mild symptoms, respectively, after treatment. IIED of patients’ results showed 30% with severe, 40% moderate, 24% mild-moderate, 3% mild, and 3% no erectile dysfunction before treatment and 20% severe, 43% moderate, and 37% mild-moderate dysfunction, after treatment. Quality of life (QoL) improved . Significant but non-pathological increases in total and indirect bilirubin as well as apolipoprotein A occurred. Mean tPSA reduced from 27.9 ± 19.0 to 16.2 ± 11.8 ng/mL ; fPSA from 6.1 ± 4.8 to 3.9 ± 2.9 ng/mL ; and prostate volume from 101.8 ± 41.3 to 54.5 ± 24.8 cm3  . C. membranaceus shrinks the prostate and improves QoL. George Awuku Asare, Daniel Afriyie, Robert A. Ngala, Alfred A. Appiah, Yvonne Anang, Iddi Musah, Samuel Adjei, Kwabena Bamfo-Quaicoe, Derick Sule, Ben A. Gyan, Peter Arhin, and Dominic A. Edoh Copyright © 2015 George Awuku Asare et al. All rights reserved. Amelioration of Auditory Response by DA9801 in Diabetic Mouse Tue, 24 Mar 2015 12:43:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/230747/ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease that involves disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and diabetic hearing loss. Recently, neurotrophin has become a treatment target that has shown to be an attractive alternative in recovering auditory function altered by DM. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA9801, a mixture of Dioscorea nipponica and Dioscorea japonica extracts, in the auditory function damage produced in a STZ-induced diabetic model and to provide evidence of the mechanisms involved in enhancing these protective effects. We found a potential application of DA9801 on hearing impairment in the STZ-induced diabetic model, demonstrated by reducing the deterioration produced by DM in ABR threshold in response to clicks and normalizing wave I–IV latencies and Pa latencies in AMLR. We also show evidence that these effects might be elicited by inducing NGF related through Nr3c1 and Akt. Therefore, this result suggests that the neuroprotective effects of DA9801 on the auditory damage produced by DM may be affected by NGF increase resulting from Nr3c1 via Akt transformation. Yeong Ro Lee, Bin Na Hong, You Ri Her, Rodrigo Castañeda, Hyo Won Moon, and Tong Ho Kang Copyright © 2015 Yeong Ro Lee et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Antidepressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Is Associated with Upregulation of BDNF Expression in the Hippocampus Tue, 24 Mar 2015 11:41:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/761238/ Ethanol extract of Yueju pill, a Traditional Chinese Medicine herbal formula widely used to treat mood disorders, demonstrates rapid antidepressant effects similar to ketamine, likely via instant enhancement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus. Here we investigated ethanol extracts of the constituent herbs of Yueju responsible for rapid antidepressant effects. Screening with tail suspension test in Kunming mice at 24 hours after a single administration of five individual constituent herbs of Yueju, we found that only Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (GJ) showed a significant effect. The antidepressant response started at 2 hours after GJ administration. Similar to Yueju and ketamine, a single administration of GJ significantly reduced the number of escape failures in the learned helplessness test. Furthermore, GJ decreased latency of food consumption in the novelty suppressed-feeding test. Additionally, starting from 2 hours and continuing for over 20 hours after GJ administration, BDNF expression in the hippocampus was upregulated, temporally linked with the antidepressant response. These findings suggest that GJ has rapid antidepressant effects, which are associated with the elevated expression of BDNF in the hippocampus. In Yueju formula, Yue represents GJ, as thus our study demonstrates the primary role of GJ in rapid antidepressant efficacy of Yueju. Hailou Zhang, Wenda Xue, Runjie Wu, Tong Gong, Weiwei Tao, Xin Zhou, Jingjing Jiang, Ying Zhang, Nan Zhang, Yi Cui, Chang Chen, and Gang Chen Copyright © 2015 Hailou Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Optimization, Composition, and Antioxidant Activities of Exo- and Intracellular Polysaccharides in Submerged Culture of Cordyceps gracilis (Grev.) Durieu & Mont. Tue, 24 Mar 2015 11:19:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/462864/ Under present experiments, EPS and IPS production, monosaccharide composition, and antioxidant activities of C. gracilis were studied for the first time under submerged culture conditions. Effect of different factors on polysaccharides production was studied by orthogonal experiments using one-factor-at-a-time method. Incubation of culture in the medium with capacity 200 mL (675.12 ± 5.01 and 385.20 ± 5.01 mg/L), rotation speed 150 rpm (324.62 ± 3.32 and 254.62 ± 4.62 mg/L), 6-day culture incubation time (445.24 ± 1.11, 216.60 ± 1.71 mg/L), pH 6.0 (374.81 ± 2.52 and 219.45 ± 2.59 mg/L), and temperature 23°C (405.24 ± 1.11 and 215.60 ± 1.71 mg/L) produced higher EPS and IPS, respectively. Maximum EPS and IPS production was observed in the medium supplemented with glucose as a carbon source (464.82 ± 2.12 and 264.42 ± 2.62 mg/L) and yeast extract as a nitrogen source (465.21 ± 3.11 and 245.17 ± 3.24 mg/L), respectively. Carbon to nitrogen ratio for maximum EPS and IPS production was observed as 10 : 1 (395.29 ± 2.15 and 235.62 ± 1.40 mg/L), respectively. Glucose was found to be the major monosaccharide (62.15 ± 7.33%). Both EPS and IPS of C. gracilis showed significant DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and iron chelating activity. Sapan Kumar Sharma, Nandini Gautam, and Narender Singh Atri Copyright © 2015 Sapan Kumar Sharma et al. All rights reserved. Optimization on Preparation Conditions of Salidroside Liposome and Its Immunological Activity on PCV-2 in Mice Mon, 23 Mar 2015 14:25:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/178128/ The aim of this study was to optimize the preparation conditions of salidroside liposome with high encapsulation efficiency (EE) and to study the immunological enhancement activity of salidroside liposome as porcine circovirus type 2 virus (PCV-2) vaccine adjuvant. Response surface methodology (RSM) was selected to optimize the conditions for the preparation of salidroside liposome using Design-Expert V8.0.6 software. Three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants were prepared to study their adjuvant activity. BALB/c mice were immunized with PCV-2 encapsulated in different kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. The PCV-2-specific IgG in immunized mice serum was determined with ELISA. The results showed that when the concentration of ammonium sulfate was 0.26 molL−1, ethanol volume 6.5 mL, temperature 43°C, ethanol injection rate 3 mLmin−1, and salidroside liposome could be prepared with high encapsulation efficiency of 94.527%. Salidroside liposome as adjuvant could rapidly induce the production of PCV-2-specific IgG and salidroside liposome I adjuvant proved to provide the best effect among the three kinds of salidroside liposome adjuvants. Yibo Feng, Xiaojuan Zhao, Fang Lv, Jinqiu Zhang, Bihua Deng, Yanhong Zhao, Yuanliang Hu, Deyun Wang, Jiaguo Liu, Yu Lu, Ruonan Bo, and Zhenguang Liu Copyright © 2015 Yibo Feng et al. All rights reserved. A Standardized Traditional Chinese Medicine Preparation Named Yejuhua Capsule Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice via Downregulating Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor-κB Mon, 23 Mar 2015 13:31:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/264612/ A standardized traditional Chinese medicine preparation named Yejuhua capsule (YJH) has been clinically used in treatments of various acute respiratory system diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity. In this study, we were aiming to evaluate potential effects and to elucidate underlying mechanisms of YJH against lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Moreover, the chemical analysis and chromatographic fingerprint study were performed for quality evaluation and control of this drug. ALI was induced by intratracheal instillation of LPS (5 mg/kg) into the lung in mice and dexamethasone (5 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as a positive control drug. Results demonstrated that pretreatments with YJH (85, 170, and 340 mg/kg, p.o.) effectively abated LPS-induced histopathologic changes, attenuated the vascular permeability enhancement and edema, inhibited inflammatory cells migrations and protein leakages, suppressed the ability of myeloperoxidase, declined proinflammatory cytokines productions, and downregulated activations of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and expressions of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). This study demonstrated that YJH exerted potential protective effects against LPS-induced ALI in mice and supported that YJH was a potential therapeutic drug for ALI in clinic. And its mechanisms were at least partially associated with downregulations of TLR4/NF-κB pathways. Chu-Wen Li, Zhi-Wei Chen, Xiao-Li Wu, Zhao-Xiao Ning, Zu-Qing Su, Yu-Cui Li, Zi-Ren Su, and Xiao-Ping Lai Copyright © 2015 Chu-Wen Li et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effects of Some Brazilian Medicinal Plants on the Production of TNF-α and CCL2 by THP-1 Cells Mon, 23 Mar 2015 12:27:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/497123/ Several plant species are traditionally used in Brazil to treat various inflammatory diseases. Tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) are key inflammatory mediators in diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and atherosclerosis, respectively; nevertheless, only a few extracts have been assayed against these targets. We herein report the effect of 19 plant extracts on TNF-α and CCL2 release by lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, along with their radical scavenging activity on DPPH. The extracts of Caryocar brasiliense, Casearia sylvestris, Coccoloba cereifera, and Terminalia glabrescens inhibited TNF-α production in a concentration-dependent manner. Fractionation of these extracts potentiated the anti-TNF-α effect, which was shown to concentrate in polar fractions, mainly composed by polyphenols. Significant CCL2 inhibition was elicited by Lippia sidoides and Terminalia glabrescens extracts, whose fractionation resulted in highly active low polar fractions. All assayed extracts showed strong radical scavenging activity, but antioxidant activity did not correlate with inhibition of TNF-α or CCL2 production. Our results allowed identifying extracts with selective capacity to block cytokine production; therefore, further purification of these extracts may yield molecules that could be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Grasielle S. Gusman, Priscilla R. V. Campana, Luciano C. Castro, Rachel O. Castilho, Mauro M. Teixeira, and Fernão C. Braga Copyright © 2015 Grasielle S. Gusman et al. All rights reserved. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Medicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers and Indigenous People in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, for the Treatment of Snakebite Mon, 23 Mar 2015 12:22:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/871675/ Snakebites are common in tropical countries like Bangladesh where most snakebite victims dwell in rural areas. Among the management options after snakebite in Bangladesh, snake charmers (Ozha in Bengali language) are the first contact following a snakebite for more than 80% of the victims and they are treated mostly with the help of some medicinal plants. Our aim of the study is to compile plants used for the treatment of snakebite occurrence in Bangladesh. The field survey was carried out in a period of almost 3 years. Fieldwork was undertaken in Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh, including Chittagong, Rangamati, Bandarban, and Khagrachari. Open-ended and semistructured questionnaire was used to interview a total of 110 people including traditional healers and local people. A total of 116 plant species of 48 families were listed. Leaves were the most cited plant part used against snake venom. Most of the reported species were herb in nature and paste mostly used externally is the mode of preparation. The survey represents the preliminary information of certain medicinal plants having neutralizing effects against snake venoms, though further phytochemical investigation, validation, and clinical trials should be conducted before using these plants as an alternative to popular antivenom. Mohammad Fahim Kadir, James Regun Karmoker, Md. Rashedul Alam, Syeda Rawnak Jahan, Sami Mahbub, and M. M. K. Mia Copyright © 2015 Mohammad Fahim Kadir et al. All rights reserved. AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of Persicaria chinensis Mon, 23 Mar 2015 08:26:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/608126/ In traditional Chinese medicine, Persicaria chinensis L. has been prescribed to cure numerous inflammatory disorders. We previously analyzed the bioactivity of the methanol extract of this plant (Pc-ME) against LPS-induced NO and PGE2 in RAW264.7 macrophages and found that it prevented HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcers in mice. The purpose of the current study was to explore the molecular mechanism by which Pc-ME inhibits activator protein- (AP-) 1 activation pathway and mediates its hepatoprotective activity. To investigate the putative therapeutic properties of Pc-ME against AP-1-mediated inflammation and hepatotoxicity, lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 and U937 cells, a monocyte-like human cell line, and an LPS/D-galactosamine- (D-GalN-) induced acute hepatitis mouse model were employed. The expression of LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly diminished by Pc-ME. Moreover, Pc-ME reduced AP-1 activation and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and differentiated U937 cells. Additionally, we highlighted the hepatoprotective and curative effects of Pc-ME pretreated orally in a mouse model of LPS/D-GalN-intoxicated acute liver injury by demonstrating the significant reduction in elevated serum AST and ALT levels and histological damage. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that Pc-ME could function as an antihepatitis remedy suppressing MAPK/AP-1-mediated inflammatory events. Muhammad Jahangir Hossen, Seung Cheol Kim, Young-Jin Son, Kwang-Soo Baek, Eunji Kim, Woo Seok Yang, Deok Jeong, Jae Gwang Park, Han Gyung Kim, Woo-Jae Chung, Keejung Yoon, Chongsuk Ryou, Sang Yeol Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Jahangir Hossen et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Ameliorating Adriamycin-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease in Rats by Orally Administrated Cardiotoxin from Naja naja atra Venom” Sun, 22 Mar 2015 14:13:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/403750/ Zhi-Hui Ding, Li-Min Xu, Shu-Zhi Wang, Jian-Qun Kou, Yin-Li Xu, Cao-Xin Chen, Hong-Pei Yu, Zheng-Hong Qin, and Yan Xie Copyright © 2015 Zhi-Hui Ding et al. All rights reserved. Different Proportions of Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici) and Honghua (Flos Carthami) Injection on -Glucosidase and -Amylase Activities Sun, 22 Mar 2015 12:32:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/785193/ Objective. To study the effect of different proportions of Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici) and Honghua (Flos Carthami) injection on α-glucosidase and α-amylase activity simultaneously. Methods. The injections were prepared according to the standards of the China Food and Drug Administration. The assay for potential α-glucosidase inhibitors was based on the hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (4-MUG). The α-amylase EnzChek assay kit was used to determine potential α-amylase inhibitors. Acarbose was the positive control. Results. The half maximal (50%) inhibitory concentration (IC50) of acarbose against α-glucosidase and α-amylase was () μg/mL and () μg/mL, respectively. Honghua showed significant inhibition of α-glucosidase activity compared with Huangqi (). Honghua inhibited α-amylase activity, but Huangqi did not. IC50s for α-glucosidase inhibition by mixtures at 10 : 1, 5 : 1, and 2 : 1 were significantly lower than those at the 20 : 1 mixture (). α-Amylase inhibition by the 2 : 1 mixture was significantly higher than that by the 20 : 1, 10 : 1, and 5 : 1 mixtures at 500 μg/mL and 1000 μg/mL (), with 5 : 1 significantly higher than 20 : 1 and 10 : 1 at 1000 μg/mL (). Conclusion. Honghua significantly inhibited α-glucosidase activity compared with Huangqi (). For simultaneous inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase activities, the mixtures at 2 : 1 and 5 : 1 exhibited significant effects compared with those at 20 : 1 (). Hui Liao and Linda Banbury Copyright © 2015 Hui Liao and Linda Banbury. All rights reserved. α-Mangostin Improves Glucose Uptake and Inhibits Adipocytes Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells via PPARγ, GLUT4, and Leptin Expressions Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:45:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/740238/ Obesity has been often associated with the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and cancer. The development of obesity is also accompanied by significant differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the activity of α-mangostin, a major xanthone component isolated from the stem bark of G. malaccensis, on glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells focusing on PPARγ, GLUT4, and leptin expressions. α-Mangostin was found to inhibit cytoplasmic lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation. Cells treated with 50 μM of α-mangostin reduced intracellular fat accumulation dose-dependently up to 44.4% relative to MDI-treated cells. Analyses of 2-deoxy-D-[3H] glucose uptake activity showed that α-mangostin significantly improved the glucose uptake () with highest activity found at 25 μM. In addition, α-mangostin increased the amount of free fatty acids (FFA) released. The highest glycerol release level was observed at 50 μM of α-mangostin. qRT-PCR analysis showed reduced lipid accumulation via inhibition of PPARγ gene expression. Induction of glucose uptake and free fatty acid release by α-mangostin were accompanied by increasing mRNA expression of GLUT4 and leptin. These evidences propose that α-mangostin might be possible candidate for the effective management of obesity in future. Muhammad Taher, Mohamed Zaffar Ali Mohamed Amiroudine, Tengku Muhamad Faris Syafiq Tengku Zakaria, Deny Susanti, Solachuddin J. A. Ichwan, Mohd Arifin Kaderi, Qamar Uddin Ahmed, and Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria Copyright © 2015 Muhammad Taher et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal and Antibacterial Metabolites from a French Poplar Type Propolis Sun, 22 Mar 2015 11:31:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/319240/ During this study, the in vitro antifungal and antibacterial activities of different extracts (aqueous and organic) obtained from a French propolis batch were evaluated. Antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution on three pathogenic strains: Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antibacterial activity was assayed using agar dilution method on 36 Gram-negative and Gram-positive strains including Staphylococcus aureus. Organic extracts showed a significant antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata (MIC80 between 16 and 31 µg/mL) but only a weak activity towards A. fumigatus (MIC80 = 250 µg/mL). DCM based extracts exhibited a selective Gram-positive antibacterial activity, especially against S. aureus (SA) and several of its methicillin-resistant (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) strains (MIC100 30–97 µg/mL). A new and active derivative of catechin was also identified whereas a synergistic antimicrobial effect was noticed during this study. Séverine Boisard, Anne-Marie Le Ray, Anne Landreau, Marie Kempf, Viviane Cassisa, Catherine Flurin, and Pascal Richomme Copyright © 2015 Séverine Boisard et al. All rights reserved. Alterations in Salivary Proteome following Single Twenty-Minute Session of Yogic Breathing Thu, 19 Mar 2015 11:53:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/376029/ Yogic breathing (YB) has been suggested to reduce stress and blood pressure and increase cognitive processes. However, alterations after YB at the molecular level are not well established. Twenty healthy volunteers were randomized into two groups ( per group): YB or attention controls (AC). The YB group performed two YB exercises, each for ten minutes, for a total of twenty minutes in a single session. AC group read a text of their choice for 20 minutes. Saliva was collected at baseline and at 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes. Using Mass Spectrometry (MS), we initially found that 22 proteins were differentially expressed and then validated deleted in malignant brain tumor-1 (DMBT1) and Ig lambda-2 chain C region (IGLC2) using Western Blotting. DMBT1 was elevated in 7 of YB group by 10-fold and 11-fold at 10 and 15 minutes, respectively, whereas it was undetectable in the time-matched AC group (). There was a significant interaction between groups and time assessed by two-way ANOVA (). IGLC2 also showed a significant increase in YB group as measured by Western Blotting. These data are the first to demonstrate the feasibility of stimulating and detecting salivary protein biomarkers in response to an acute Yoga exercise. This trial is registered with ClincalTrials.gov NCT02108769. Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian, Michael G. Janech, and Graham W. Warren Copyright © 2015 Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture and Oxidative Stress Thu, 19 Mar 2015 10:41:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/424762/ Cun-Zhi Liu, Shu-Feng Zhou, Sergio-Botelho Guimarães, William Chi-shing Cho, and Guang-Xia Shi Copyright © 2015 Cun-Zhi Liu et al. All rights reserved. Medicinal Plants in Management of Type 2 Diabetes and Neurodegenerative Disorders Thu, 19 Mar 2015 06:43:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/686872/ Gan Siew Hua, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Marcelo M. S. Lima, Mohamed Ibrahim Khalil, Visweswara Rao Pasupuleti, and Gjumrakch Aliev Copyright © 2015 Gan Siew Hua et al. All rights reserved. Bidens pilosa Formulation Improves Blood Homeostasis and β-Cell Function in Men: A Pilot Study Wed, 18 Mar 2015 13:20:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/832314/ B. pilosa has long been purported to have antidiabetes activity, but despite the advancement in phytochemistry and animal models of diabetes, no human clinical trials have been conducted to date. Here, we evaluated the effect of a B. pilosa formulation on fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting serum insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c in diabetic subjects. The B. pilosa formulation reduced the level of FBG and in diabetics but increased fasting serum insulin in healthy subjects. Moreover, combination of B. pilosa formulation with antidiabetic drugs had better glycemic control in diabetics. The homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) data suggested that the antidiabetic activity of this formulation was via improvement of β-cell function. We also tested the safety of the B. pilosa formulation in healthy subjects and observed no obvious side effects. We conclude that B. pilosa has potential as an antidiabetes treatment. Bun-Yueh Lai, Tzung-Yan Chen, Shou-Hsien Huang, Tien-Fen Kuo, Ting-Hsiang Chang, Chih-Kang Chiang, Meng-Ting Yang, and Cicero Lee-Tian Chang Copyright © 2015 Bun-Yueh Lai et al. All rights reserved. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Monoammonium Glycyrrhizinate on Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through Regulating Nuclear Factor-Kappa B Signaling Pathway Wed, 18 Mar 2015 12:02:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/272474/ The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of monoammonium glycyrrhizinate (MAG) on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and possible mechanism. Acute lung injury was induced in BALB/c mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS, and MAG was injected intraperitoneally 1 h prior to LPS administration. After ALI, the histopathology of lungs, lung wet/dry weight ratio, protein concentration, and inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were determined. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the BALF were measured by ELISA. The activation of NF-κB p65 and IκB-α of lung homogenate was detected by Western blot. Pretreatment with MAG attenuated lung histopathological damage induced by LPS and decreased lung wet/dry weight ratio and the concentrations of protein in BALF. At the same time, MAG reduced the number of inflammatory cells in lung and inhibited the production of TNF-α and IL-1β in BALF. Furthermore, we demonstrated that MAG suppressed activation of NF-κB signaling pathway induced by LPS in lung. The results suggested that the therapeutic mechanism of MAG on ALI may be attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB signaling pathway. Monoammonium glycyrrhizinate may be a potential therapeutic reagent for ALI. Xiaoying Huang, Jiangfeng Tang, Hui Cai, Yi Pan, Yicheng He, Caijun Dai, Ali Chen, Xiaoming Yu, Mayun Chen, Lizhen Zou, and Liangxing Wang Copyright © 2015 Xiaoying Huang et al. All rights reserved. Antitumor Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron In Vitro and In Vivo and Its Possible Mechanism Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:35:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/865714/ The antitumor activities of ethyl acetate extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SD extracts) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were investigated. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. SD extracts were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cells, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR analysis using HepG2 cell and antitumor activity in vivo using H-22 xenograft tumor mice. Six biflavonoids from SD extracts were submitted to molecular docking assay. The results showed that SD extracts had considerable antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce cell apoptosis. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis induced by SD extracts may be associated with decreasing the ratio of bcl-2 and bax mRNA level, activating caspase-3, suppressing survivin, and decreasing the gene expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, FLAP, and 12-LOX mRNA. The main active component in SD extracts is biflavonoids and some exhibited strong interactions with COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX. These results offering evidence of possible mechanisms of SD extracts suppress cell proliferation and promote apoptosis and provide the molecular theoretical basis of clinical application of S. doederleinii for cancer therapy. Jia-zhi Wang, Juan Li, Ping Zhao, Wen-tao Ma, Xie-he Feng, and Ke-li Chen Copyright © 2015 Jia-zhi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Gambogic Acid Lysinate Induces Apoptosis in Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells by Increasing Reactive Oxygen Species Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:35:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/842091/ Gambogic acid (GA) inhibits the proliferation of various human cancer cells. However, because of its water insolubility, the antitumor efficacy of GA is limited. Objectives. To investigate the antitumor activity of gambogic acid lysinate (GAL) and its mechanism. Methods. Inhibition of cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay; intracellular ROS level was detected by staining cells with DCFH-DA; cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometer and the mechanism of GAL was investigated by Western blot. Results. GAL inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7 cells with IC50 values 1.46 μmol/L comparable with GA (IC50, 1.16 μmol/L). GAL promoted the production of ROS; however NAC could remove ROS and block the effect of GAL. GAL inhibited the expression of SIRT1 but increased the phosphorylation of FOXO3a and the expression of p27Kip1. At knockdown of FOXO3a, cell apoptosis induced by GAL can be partly blocked. In addition it also enhanced the cleavage of caspase-3. Conclusions. GAL inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation and induced MCF-7 cell apoptosis by increasing ROS level which could induce cell apoptosis by both SIRT1/FOXO3a/p27Kip1 and caspase-3 signal pathway. These results suggested that GAL might be useful as a modulation agent in cancer chemotherapy. Yong-Zhan Zhen, Ya-Jun Lin, Kai-Ji Li, Xiao-Shan Yang, Yu-Fang Zhao, Jie Wei, Jing-Bo Wei, and Gang Hu Copyright © 2015 Yong-Zhan Zhen et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and Its Processed Products on Nitric Oxide Production in Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells Wed, 18 Mar 2015 09:08:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/828156/ In Chinese medicine, Shengjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Recens) and its processed products, such as Ganjiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma), Paojiang (Zingiberis Rhizoma Preparatum), and Jiangtan (Zingiberis Rhizoma Carbonisata), exert distinct efficacy clinically. This research tried to study the effects of extracts from Shengjiang and its processed products in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. After incubation of the different ginger types in RAW 264.7 cells for 24 h, an aliquot of the culture was mixed with an equal volume of Griess reagent, and nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated using a Griess assay. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used as the positive control. Milli-Q water (MQW) was used as the solvent control. The results showed that NO production increased significantly in RAW 264.7 cells following the stimulation of LPS (0.05 μg mL−1), Shengjiang, Ganjiang, Paojiang, and Jiangtan (50 μg mL−1, 500 μg mL−1) separately compared with the MQW control (). The stimulation effects of Shengjiang and Ganjiang were significantly higher than those of Paojiang and Jiangtan at different concentrations (). The conclusion we could get from this research is that Shengjiang and its processed products could induce NO production in RAW 264.7 cells. Hui Liao Copyright © 2015 Hui Liao. All rights reserved. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes Wed, 18 Mar 2015 07:14:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/357357/ Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes. Shih-Chang Chien, Yueh-Chen Wu, Zeng-Weng Chen, and Wen-Chin Yang Copyright © 2015 Shih-Chang Chien et al. All rights reserved. Yokukansan Improves Mechanical Allodynia through the Regulation of Interleukin-6 Expression in the Spinal Cord in Mice with Neuropathic Pain Wed, 18 Mar 2015 07:02:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/870687/ Neuropathic pain is caused by nerve injury. Yokukansan (Yi-Gan San), a traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, has been widely used for neuropathic pain control. However, the analgesic mechanisms remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the analgesic mechanisms of yokukansan in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. Partial sciatic nerve ligation (PSL) induced mechanical allodynia in mice. Repetitive oral administration of the extracts of yokukansan and the constituent herbal medicine Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma, but not Glycyrrhizae Radix, relieved mechanical allodynia in the PSL mice and inhibited the PSL-induced expression of interleukin- (IL-) 6 mRNA in the spinal cord. Yokukansan did not attenuate intrathecal IL-6-induced mechanical allodynia. IL-6 immunoreactivity was detected in microglia and astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn. These results suggest that yokukansan relieves mechanical allodynia in PSL mice by regulating the expression of IL-6 in astrocytes and/or microglia in the spinal cord. In addition, the components of Atractylodis Lanceae Rhizoma, one of the constituent herbal medicines in yokukansan, may play an important role in the regulation of IL-6 expression and neuropathic pain control. Shigeru Ebisawa, Tsugunobu Andoh, Yutaka Shimada, and Yasushi Kuraishi Copyright © 2015 Shigeru Ebisawa et al. All rights reserved. Jasada bhasma, a Zinc-Based Ayurvedic Preparation: Contemporary Evidence of Antidiabetic Activity Inspires Development of a Nanomedicine Wed, 18 Mar 2015 06:40:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/193156/ The roles of metals in human physiology are well established. It is also known that many metals are required in trace amounts for normal metabolism and their deficiency leads to diseases. In Ayurveda, metal-based preparations, that is, bhasmas, are indicated for the treatment of several diseases. Standard textbooks of Ayurveda recommend Jasada bhasma (zinc based bhasma) as the treatment of choice for diabetes. Modern medicine also recognizes the important role of zinc in glucose homeostasis. Yet, studies that validate the use of Jasada bhasma are few and uncomprehensive. There is an imminent need for a systematic study on physicochemical characterization, pharmacological efficacy, and toxicity assessment of several bhasma preparations to generate scientific evidence of their utility and safety. Interestingly, recent studies suggest that bhasmas comprise submicronic particles or nanoparticles. Thus a bhasma-inspired new drug discovery approach could emerge in which several metal based nanomedicines could be developed. This would help in utilizing the age old, time-tested wisdom of Ayurveda in modern medicine. One such study on antidiabetic activity of Jasada bhasma and the corresponding new drug, namely, zinc oxide nanoparticles, is briefly discussed, as an example. Rinku D. Umrani and Kishore M. Paknikar Copyright © 2015 Rinku D. Umrani and Kishore M. Paknikar. All rights reserved.