Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Autonomic Disorders Wed, 29 Jul 2015 06:19:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/429181/ Kazuo Toda, Jorge L. Zeredo, Sae Uchida, and Vitaly Napadow Copyright © 2015 Kazuo Toda et al. All rights reserved. Studies on the In Vitro Antiproliferative, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Acetylcholinesterase Inhibition Activities Associated with Chrysanthemum coronarium Essential Oil Tue, 28 Jul 2015 14:29:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/790838/ The essential oil of the Jordanian Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (garland) was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its in vitro scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of C. coronarium essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its in vitro antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment. Sanaa K. Bardaweel, Mohammad M. Hudaib, Khaled A. Tawaha, and Rasha M. Bashatwah Copyright © 2015 Sanaa K. Bardaweel et al. All rights reserved. The Anti-Inflammatory and Antibacterial Action of Nanocrystalline Silver and Manuka Honey on the Molecular Alternation of Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Comprehensive Literature Review Tue, 28 Jul 2015 13:22:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/218283/ Honey and silver have been used since ancient times for treating wounds. Their widespread clinical application has attracted attention in light of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. While there have been a number of studies exploring the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects of manuka honey and nanocrystalline silver, their advantages and limitations with regard to the treatment of chronic wounds remain a subject of debate. The aim of this paper is to examine the evidence on the use of nanocrystalline silver and manuka honey for treating diabetic foot ulcers through a critical and comprehensive review of in vitro studies, animal studies, and in vivo studies. The findings from the in vitro and animal studies suggest that both agents have effective antibacterial actions. Their anti-inflammatory action and related impact on wound healing are unclear. Besides, there is no evidence to suggest that any topical agent is more effective for use in treating diabetic foot ulcer. Overall, high-quality, clinical human studies supported by findings from the molecular science on the use of manuka honey or nanocrystalline silver are lacking. There is a need for rigorously designed human clinical studies on the subject to fill this knowledge gap and guide clinical practice. Ka-Kit Tsang, Enid Wai-Yung Kwong, Kevin Y. Woo, Tony Shing-Shun To, Joanne Wai-Yee Chung, and Thomas Kwok-Shing Wong Copyright © 2015 Ka-Kit Tsang et al. All rights reserved. The Beneficial Effect of Equisetum giganteum L. against Candida Biofilm Formation: New Approaches to Denture Stomatitis Tue, 28 Jul 2015 11:58:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/939625/ Equisetum giganteum L. (E. giganteum), Equisetaceae, commonly called “giant horsetail,” is an endemic plant of Central and South America and is used in traditional medicine as diuretic and hemostatic in urinary disorders and in inflammatory conditions among other applications. The chemical composition of the extract EtOH 70% of E. giganteum has shown a clear presence of phenolic compounds derived from caffeic and ferulic acids and flavonoid heterosides derived from quercitin and kaempferol, in addition to styrylpyrones. E. giganteum, mainly at the highest concentrations, showed antimicrobial activity against the relevant microorganisms tested: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. It also demonstrated antiadherent activity on C. albicans biofilms in an experimental model that is similar to dentures. Moreover, all concentrations tested showed anti-inflammatory activity. The extract did not show cytotoxicity in contact with human cells. These properties might qualify E. giganteum extract to be a promising alternative for the topic treatment and prevention of oral candidiasis and denture stomatitis. Rafaela A. S. Alavarce, Luiz L. Saldanha, Nara Ligia M. Almeida, Vinicius C. Porto, Anne L. Dokkedal, and Vanessa S. Lara Copyright © 2015 Rafaela A. S. Alavarce et al. All rights reserved. Huqi San-Evoked Rat Colonic Anion Secretion through Increasing CFTR Expression Tue, 28 Jul 2015 11:51:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/301640/ Huqi San (HQS) is a Chinese herbal preparation of eight medicinal herbs that promote diuresis, detoxification, blood circulation, and cholestasis. Defects in transporter expression and function can cause cholestasis and jaundice. However, the mechanism of the cholestasis underlying HQS effects, especially on the gastrointestinal tract ion secretion, has not been elucidated. Real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to study the expression and localization of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and α-ENaC in rat alimentary tract, and then the effect of HQS on the ion transport in rat distal colon mucosa was investigated using the short-circuit current () technique. The results showed that pretreatment with HQS significantly enhanced mRNA transcripts and protein content of CFTR in liver and distal colon but not α-ENaC in alimentary organs. HQS increases and decreases the transepithelial resistance. Pretreatment with epithelial Na+ channel blocker did not affect the responses elicited by HQS, but removal of extracellular Cl− or pretreatment with Cl− channel or Na+-K+-2Cl− cotransporter blocker inhibited HQS-elicited responses. These findings demonstrated that HQS, RA, and RP can stimulate Cl− secretion in the distal colon by increasing the mRNA transcripts and protein content of CFTR in liver and distal colon. Xiaowei Xue, Zhengming Shi, Wen Wang, Xiaotong Yu, Ping Feng, Min Zhang, Xuejiang Wang, and Jingdong Xu Copyright © 2015 Xiaowei Xue et al. All rights reserved. A Glucosamine-Specific Lectin from Green Dragon No. 8 Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Induced Apoptosis on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cells Tue, 28 Jul 2015 11:38:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/760539/ A lectin exhibiting antiproliferative activity on tumor cell lines but devoid of antifungal activity has been purified from Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Green Dragon no. 8 seeds. The lectin was a 60 kDa dimeric protein with two 30 kDa subunits. It was a glucosamine-specific lectin as implied from the inhibitory effect of glucosamine on hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The steps for isolation of the lectin involved Affi-gel blue gel (affinity gel), Mono Q (anion exchanger), and Superdex 75 column (size exclusion). The lectin was purified 20.8-fold from the crude extract of the beans. The purified lectin showed antiproliferative activity on breast cancer MCF7 cell line and nasopharyngeal cancer HONE1 and CNE2 cell lines, but a low activity on normal skin fibroblast HSF98 cell line. The lectin was shown to induce apoptosis on HONE1 cells, as indicated by increased phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization. It also blocked HONE1 cell division and kept the cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Yau Sang Chan, Lixin Xia, and Tzi Bun Ng Copyright © 2015 Yau Sang Chan et al. All rights reserved. Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu Formulation Prevents Hyperglycaemia and Depressive-Like Behaviour in Rats by Reducing the Glucocorticoid Level in Plasma and Hippocampus Mon, 27 Jul 2015 14:19:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/158361/ Aim. To determine whether Zuogui Jiangtang Jieyu prescription (ZGJTJY) has hypoglycemic and antidepressant effects which are mediated by corticosterone through adjustment of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and glucocorticoid (GR) levels. Materials and Methods. The diabetes-related depression rats were randomly divided into four groups: the model group, metformin (1.8 mg/kg) combined with fluoxetine (10.8 mg/kg) group, and ZGJTJY high and low dose groups. Four weeks after modeling, blood glucose, behavior, and cognitive function of depression were detected. The expressions of 11β-HSD1 and GR in hippocampus were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemical experiments. Results. We found that (1) the treatment with ZGJTJY (10.26 g/kg) increases the motor activities and improves cognition ability. (2) ZGJTJY (10.26 g/kg) significantly relieves the disorder in blood and the relative indexes. (3) ZGJTJY (10.26 g/kg) can reduce hippocampal corticosterone expression levels and further improve hippocampus pathological changes. (4) ZGJTJY increased the expression of GR accompanied with decreasing 11β-HSD1 in hippocampus. Conclusions. ZGJTJY inhibits the expression of 11β-HSD1 and increases GR in hippocampus and subsequently modulates blood glucose levels, and therefore it is potential property that ZGJTJY could be of benefit for the treatment of behavior and cognitive function of diabetes-related depression. YuHong Wang, Hui Yang, Wei Li, Pan Meng, YuanShan Han, Xiuli Zhang, DeLiang Cao, and Yuansheng Tan Copyright © 2015 YuHong Wang et al. All rights reserved. Swertianlarin, an Herbal Agent Derived from Swertia mussotii Franch, Attenuates Liver Injury, Inflammation, and Cholestasis in Common Bile Duct-Ligated Rats Mon, 27 Jul 2015 11:59:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/948376/ Swertianlarin is an herbal agent abundantly distributed in Swertia mussotii Franch, a Chinese traditional herb used for treatment of jaundice. To study the therapeutic effect of swertianlarin on cholestasis, liver injury, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and bile salt concentrations were measured by comparing rats treated with swertianlarin 100 mg/kg/d or saline for 3, 7, or 14 days after bile duct ligation (BDL). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ATL) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were significantly decreased in BDL rats treated with swertianlarin for 14 days (). The reduced liver injury in BDL rats by swertianlarin treatment for 14 days was further confirmed by liver histopathology. Levels of serum tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were decreased by swertianlarin in BDL rats for 3 and 7 days (). Moreover, reductions in serum interleukins IL-1β and IL-6 levels were also observed in BDL rats treated with swertianlarin (). In addition, most of serum toxic bile salt concentrations (e.g., chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA)) in cholestatic rats were decreased by swertianlarin (). In conclusion, the data suggest that swertianlarin derived from Swertia mussotii Franch attenuates liver injury, inflammation, and cholestasis in bile duct-ligated rats. Liangjun Zhang, Ying Cheng, Xiaohuang Du, Sheng Chen, Xinchan Feng, Yu Gao, Shaoxue Li, Li Liu, Mei Yang, Lei Chen, Zhihong Peng, Yong Yang, Weizao Luo, Rongquan Wang, Wensheng Chen, and Jin Chai Copyright © 2015 Liangjun Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds Mon, 27 Jul 2015 11:53:34 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/915927/ Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E), hexane (H), ethyl acetate (EA), or butanol (B) fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o.), sitosterol (from hexane) and vitexin (from ethyl acetate), were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p.), atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p.), and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p.) were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway. Carolina Carvalho Guilhon, Ikarastika Rahayu Abdul Wahab, Fabio Boylan, and Patricia Dias Fernandes Copyright © 2015 Carolina Carvalho Guilhon et al. All rights reserved. Serum Pharmacochemistry Analysis Using UPLC-Q-TOF/MS after Oral Administration to Rats of Shenfu Decoction Mon, 27 Jul 2015 10:28:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/973930/ The purpose of this study was to study the serum pharmacochemistry of SFD as well as the material basis through analyzing the constituents absorbed in blood. The SFD was orally administrated to Wistar rats at 20 g·kg−1, and Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) fingerprints of SFD were created. Serum samples were collected for analysis, and further data processing used MarkerLynx XS software. 19 ginsenosides and 16 alkaloids were detected in SFD. The absorption of alkaloids (mainly monoester diterpenoid alkaloids) increased when Aconitum carmichaeli Debx. was combined with Panax ginseng, while the ginsenosides remained stable. Diester diterpenoid alkaloids were not present in the serum samples. A suitable serum pharmacochemistry method was successfully established to study pharmacological effects and potential improvements in formulation. This may also be useful for toxicity reduction. We suspect that the increased absorption of the monoester diterpenoid alkaloids from the mixture of Panax and Radix, compared to the Panax only extract, may be the reason for the combination of the two herbs in popular medicine formulas in China. Jia-le He, Jia-wei Zhao, Zeng-chun Ma, Yu-guang Wang, Qian-de Liang, Hong-ling Tan, Cheng-rong Xiao, Xiang-lin Tang, and Yue Gao Copyright © 2015 Jia-le He et al. All rights reserved. Si Shen Wan Regulates Phospholipase C-1 and PI3K/Akt Signal in Colonic Mucosa from Rats with Colitis Mon, 27 Jul 2015 10:26:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/392405/ The present study explored the feasible pathway of Si Shen Wan (SSW) in inhibiting apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) by observing activation of phospholipase Cγ-1 (PLC-γ1) and PI3K/Akt signal in colonic mucosa from rats with colitis. Experimental colitis was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in the Sprague-Dawley rats. After SSW was administrated for 7 days after TNBS infusion, western blot showed an increment in levels of PI3K, p-Akt, and IL-23 and a decrement in levels of PLC-γ1 and HSP70 in colonic mucosal injury induced by TNBS. Meanwhile, assessments by ELISA revealed an increment in concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, and IL-17 and a reduction in level of TGF-β after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with SSW for 7 days significantly attenuated the expressions of PI3K and p-Akt and the secretion of IL-2, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-23 and promoted the activation of PLC-γ1, HSP70, and TGF-β. Our previous studies had demonstrated that SSW restored colonic mucosal ulcers by inhibiting apoptosis of IECs. The present study demonstrated that the effect of SSW on inhibiting apoptosis of IECs was realized probably by activation of PLC-γ1 and suppression of PI3K/Akt signal pathway. Duan-yong Liu, Rong Xu, Min-fang Huang, Hong-yan Huang, Xin Wang, Yong Zou, Hai-yang Yue, and Hai-mei Zhao Copyright © 2015 Duan-yong Liu et al. All rights reserved. Complementary Therapies for Idiopathic Hirsutism: Topical Licorice as Promising Option Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:13:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/659041/ Hirsutism is one of the most prevalent health problems in women. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of 755 nm alexandrite hair removal laser with that of alexandrite laser plus topical licorice on the improvement of idiopathic hirsutism. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study was performed on 90 female subjects. The patients were divided into two groups: alexandrite laser plus 15% licorice gel (group A) and placebo (group B). Each subject received one of both products over one side of the face, twice daily for 24 weeks on the hirsute locations. Each group underwent five sessions of alexandrite laser at 6-week intervals. To minimize the effects of confounding variables, the test was performed on two separate zones of patients’ skin. The mean ± SD numbers of terminal hairs in group A were 7.05 ± 4.55 for zone 1 and 6.06 ± 3.70 for zone 2. In group B, they were 3.18 ± 1.75 for zone 1 and 2.49 ± 1.63 for zone 2. The difference in the mean number of terminal hairs was statistically significant between the two groups (), and there were no serious adverse reactions. The treatment of idiopathic hirsutism with 755 nm alexandrite laser plus topical licorice is more effective than alexandrite laser only. Gita Faghihi, Fariba Iraji, Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini, Bahar Saffar, Ali Saffaei, Mohsen Pourazizi, Abolfazl Aslani, and Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh Copyright © 2015 Gita Faghihi et al. All rights reserved. Allium cepa L. and Quercetin Inhibit RANKL/Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-Induced Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating NF-κB Signaling Pathway Sun, 26 Jul 2015 06:44:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/704781/ Objectives. We evaluated the in vitro modulatory effects of Allium cepa L. extract (AcE) and quercetin (Qt) on osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced). Methods. RAW 264.7 cells were differentiated with 30 ng/mL of RANKL, costimulated with PgLPS (1 µg/mL), and treated with AcE (50–1000 µg/mL) or Qt (1.25, 2.5, or 5 µM). Cell viability was determined by alamarBlue and protein assays. Nuclei morphology was analysed by DAPI staining. TRAP assays were performed as follows: p-nitrophenyl phosphate was used to determine the acid phosphatase activity of the osteoclasts and TRAP staining was used to evaluate the number and size of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclast cells. Von Kossa staining was used to measure osteoclast resorptive activity. Cytokine levels were measured on osteoclast precursor cell culture supernatants. Using western blot analysis, p-IκBα and IκBα degradation, inhibitor of NF-kappaB, were evaluated. Results. Both AcE and Qt did not affect cell viability and significantly reduced osteoclastogenesis compared to control. We observed lower production of IL-6 and IL-1α and an increased production of IL-3 and IL-4. AcE and Qt downregulated NF-κB pathway. Conclusion. AcE and Qt may be inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis under inflammatory conditions (LPS-induced) via attenuation of RANKL/PgLPS-induced NF-κB activation. Tatiane Oliveira, Camila A. Figueiredo, Carlos Brito, Alexander Stavroullakis, Ana Carolina Ferreira, Getulio Nogueira-Filho, and Anuradha Prakki Copyright © 2015 Tatiane Oliveira et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats Wed, 22 Jul 2015 12:52:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/381919/ The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg−1 body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity. Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa, Faten M. Ibrahim, Samia M. M. Mohafrash, Doha H. Abou Baker, and Souad El Gengaihi Copyright © 2015 Abdel-Tawab H. Mossa et al. All rights reserved. Review of Ethnobotanical, Phytochemical, and Pharmacological Study of Thymus serpyllum L. Wed, 22 Jul 2015 11:15:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/101978/ Thymus serpyllum L. (wild thyme) is a perennial shrub, native to areas of northern and central Europe. Its aerial parts are most frequently used in ethnomedicine (mainly for treating illnesses and problems related to the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems), although recently its essential oils are becoming more popular as an important plant-derived product. The composition of these oils is affected by geographic region, the development stage of the plant, the harvest season, habitat, and climatic conditions. Wild thyme essential oil has an ever-growing number of uses in contemporary medicine due to its pharmacological properties: antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anticancerogenic activities. The antioxidative and antimicrobial properties of the essential oil are related to the synergistic and cumulative effect of its components. In terms of antitumor and cytotoxic activity, further research into the effects of essential oil is necessary, aimed at improving its cytotoxic effects, on the basis of which appropriate medicines can be formulated. Due to its pharmacological properties, the essential oil of wild thyme, a plant used in traditional medicine, represents an important natural resource for the pharmaceutical industry. In addition, it can be a source of natural antioxidants, nutritional supplements, or components of functional foods in the food industry. Snežana Jarić, Miroslava Mitrović, and Pavle Pavlović Copyright © 2015 Snežana Jarić et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Volatile Components between Raw and Vinegar Baked Radix Bupleuri by GC-MS Based Metabolic Fingerprinting Approach Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:59:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/653791/ Radix Bupleuri (RB), also named Chaihu in Chinese, is a commonly used herbal drug in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and the processing of RB with vinegar to prepare vinegar-baked Radix Bupleuri (VBRB) has a long history in the clinic of TCM. In the present study, GC-MS coupled with multivariate data analysis was applied to compare the volatile components between crude and two vinegar processed RBs. After vinegar baking, the oil yields were decreased significantly, and the chemical compositions were also changed greatly. The chemical changes included the disappearance or appearance, as well as the content increase or decrease of some volatile compounds. The oil yields of two different VBRBs showed no significant difference but differed markedly in their chemical compositions, suggesting that the type of vinegar exerted great impacts on the vinegar-baking process. Thus, the effect of different vinegars on processing should be further investigated to ensure the therapeutic effect and safety of VBRB in clinic. Jie Xing, Hui-Min Sun, Zhen-Yu Li, and Xue-Mei Qin Copyright © 2015 Jie Xing et al. All rights reserved. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:46:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/689138/ Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD () at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. Anne Cathrine Thorup, Max Norman Lambert, Henriette Strøm Kahr, Mette Bjerre, and Per Bendix Jeppesen Copyright © 2015 Anne Cathrine Thorup et al. All rights reserved. The Mechanism Underlying the Antibacterial Activity of Shikonin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Tue, 21 Jul 2015 13:04:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/520578/ Shikonin (SKN), a highly liposoluble naphthoquinone pigment isolated from the roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon, is known to exert antibacterial, wound-healing, anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and antitumor effects. The aim of this study was to examine SKN antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The SKN was analyzed in combination with membrane-permeabilizing agents Tris and Triton X-100, ATPase inhibitors sodium azide and N,N′-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, and S. aureus-derived peptidoglycan; the effects on MRSA viability were evaluated by the broth microdilution method, time-kill test, and transmission electron microscopy. Addition of membrane-permeabilizing agents or ATPase inhibitors together with a low dose of SKN potentiated SKN anti-MRSA activity, as evidenced by the reduction of MRSA cell density by 75% compared to that observed when SKN was used alone; in contrast, addition of peptidoglycan blocked the antibacterial activity of SKN. The results indicate that the anti-MRSA effect of SKN is associated with its affinity to peptidoglycan, the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, and the activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. This study revealed the potential of SKN as an effective natural antibiotic and of its possible use to substantially reduce the use of existing antibiotic may also be important for understanding the mechanism underlying the antibacterial activity of natural compounds. Young-Seob Lee, Dae-Young Lee, Yeon Bok Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Seon-Woo Cha, Hong-Woo Park, Geum-Soog Kim, Dong-Yeul Kwon, Min-Ho Lee, and Sin-Hee Han Copyright © 2015 Young-Seob Lee et al. All rights reserved. Evidence-Based Patient Classification for Traditional Chinese Medicine Tue, 21 Jul 2015 09:48:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/168343/ Guo-Zheng Li, Ka-Fai Chung, and Josiah Poon Copyright © 2015 Guo-Zheng Li et al. All rights reserved. Updates on Nutraceutical Sleep Therapeutics and Investigational Research Tue, 21 Jul 2015 09:35:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/105256/ Approximately 50% of the population will suffer from a sleep disorder over the course of their lifetime. There is increasing interest in nutraceuticals for these conditions. The quality of the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of using these supplements to treat sleep disorders varies substantially. In this review, we discuss the data about the effectiveness and safety of six commonly used plant-based sleep therapeutics: caffeine, chamomile, cherries, kava kava, L-tryptophan, marijuana, and valerian. We explore both historical uses of each substance and the current state of the literature. Michael Yurcheshen, Martin Seehuus, and Wilfred Pigeon Copyright © 2015 Michael Yurcheshen et al. All rights reserved. Lonicerae Japonicae Flos and Lonicerae Flos: A Systematic Pharmacology Review Thu, 16 Jul 2015 07:12:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/905063/ Lonicerae japonicae flos, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), has been used for several thousand years in China. Chinese Pharmacopeia once included Lonicerae japonicae flos of Caprifoliaceae family and plants of the same species named Lonicerae flos in general in the same group. Chinese Pharmacopeia (2005 Edition) lists Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos under different categories, although they have the similar history of efficacy. In this study, we research ancient books of TCM, 4 main databases of Chinese academic journals, and MEDLINE/PubMed to verify the origins and effects of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in traditional medicine and systematically summarized the research data in light of modern pharmacology and toxicology. Our results show that Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos are similar pharmacologically, but they also differ significantly in certain aspects. A comprehensive systematic review and a standard comparative pharmacological study of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos as well as other species of Lonicerae flos support their clinical safety and application. Our study provides evidence supporting separate listing of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos in Chinese Pharmacopeia as well as references for revision of relevant pharmacopeial records dealing with traditional efficacy of Lonicerae japonicae flos and Lonicerae flos. Yujie Li, Weiyan Cai, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Yajie Wang, Ying Chen, Wei Zhang, Qing Yang, Yan Guo, Xiaoxin Zhu, and Hainan Wang Copyright © 2015 Yujie Li et al. All rights reserved. Strong Manual Acupuncture Manipulation Could Better Inhibit Spike Frequency of the Dorsal Horn Neurons in Rats with Acute Visceral Nociception Wed, 15 Jul 2015 11:35:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/675437/ Afferent impulses from visceral nociception can be regulated by acupuncture at spinal cord level; however, the effects of different manual acupuncture (MA) manipulations on the afferent impulses are still unknown. Here, we analyzed the spike frequency of excitatory gastric-related wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in spinal dorsal horn (SDH) following acute gastric distension (GD) in rats and compared their responses to MA manipulations with four different frequencies (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 Hz) at Zusanli (ST36). Results indicated that the spike frequency was increased by acute GD stimulation. Under acute GD circumstances, the spike frequency was further activated by weak MA stimulation (0.5 and 1 Hz), while being significantly inhibited by strong MA stimulation (2 and 3 Hz). After 10 minutes of the strong MA stimulation, same intensity of acute GD caused less spike frequency. Our previous researches had demonstrated that different MA manipulations could increase spike frequency in an intensity-dependent manner in normal rats; these findings suggest that acupuncture may have different modulatory effects depending on the state of the stomach. Since neuronal spike frequency was related to the level of nociception, the results suggest that strong MA manipulation may have better effect on acute visceral nociception. Shouhai Hong, Shasha Ding, Fei Wu, Qiang Xi, Qiang Li, Yangyang Liu, Tao Zhou, Cai Qing, Yongming Guo, and Yi Guo Copyright © 2015 Shouhai Hong et al. All rights reserved. Alternative, Complementary, and Forgotten Remedies for Atopic Dermatitis Wed, 15 Jul 2015 09:14:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/676897/ Atopic dermatitis, perhaps more than other dermatologic diseases, has garnered much attention in the realm of alternative medicine. This may be because its etiopathogenesis is incompletely understood, it is increasingly common, and it waxes and wanes often without clear precipitants, opening up many opportunities for misinterpretation. Herein we explore the evidence for a number of different alternative and complementary therapies, from textiles to vitamin supplements. By definition, none have enough data to be deemed “effective” in a conventional sense, but it is hopeful that some show promising evidence that may one day lead to mainstream acceptance with further research. Allison L. Goddard and Peter A. Lio Copyright © 2015 Allison L. Goddard and Peter A. Lio. All rights reserved. Antiviral and Antioxidant Activities of Sulfated Galactomannans from Plants of Caatinga Biome Tue, 14 Jul 2015 12:27:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/591214/ Dengue represents a serious social and economic public health problem; then trying to contribute to improve its control, the objective of this research was to develop phytoterapics for dengue treatment using natural resources from Caatinga biome. Galactomannans isolated from Adenanthera pavonina L., Caesalpinia ferrea Mart., and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tull were chemically sulfated in order to evaluate the antioxidant, and antiviral activities and the role in the inhibition of virus DENV-2 in Vero cells. A positive correlation between the degree of sulfation, antioxidant and antiviral activities was observed. The sulfated galactomannans showed binding to the virus surface, indicating that they interact with DENV-2. The sulfated galactomannans from C. ferrea showed 96% inhibition of replication of DENV-2 followed by D. gardneriana (94%) and A. pavonina (77%) at 25 µg/mL and all sulfated galactomannans also showed antioxidant activity. This work is the first report of the antioxidant and antiviral effects of sulfated galactomannans against DENV-2. The results are very promising and suggest that these sulfated galactomannans from plants of Caatinga biome act in the early step of viral infection. Thus, sulfated galactomannans may act as an entry inhibitor of DENV-2. Márcia Maria Mendes Marques, Selene Maia de Morais, Ana Raquel Araújo da Silva, Naiara Dutra Barroso, Tadeu Rocha Pontes Filho, Fernanda Montenegro de Carvalho Araújo, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto Vieira, Danielle Malta Lima, and Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes Copyright © 2015 Márcia Maria Mendes Marques et al. All rights reserved. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents Tue, 14 Jul 2015 06:24:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/180535/ Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. Tatiana Takahasi Komoto, Tamires Aparecida Bitencourt, Gabriel Silva, Rene Oliveira Beleboni, Mozart Marins, and Ana Lúcia Fachin Copyright © 2015 Tatiana Takahasi Komoto et al. All rights reserved. A Systematic Overview of Reviews for Complementary and Alternative Therapies in the Treatment of the Fibromyalgia Syndrome Mon, 13 Jul 2015 11:50:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/610615/ Objectives. This systematic overview of reviews aimed to summarize evidence and methodological quality from systematic reviews of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. The PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Scopus databases were screened from their inception to Sept 2013 to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of CAM interventions for FMS. Methodological quality of reviews was rated using the AMSTAR instrument. Results. Altogether 25 systematic reviews were found; they investigated the evidence of CAM in general, exercised-based CAM therapies, manipulative therapies, Mind/Body therapies, acupuncture, hydrotherapy, phytotherapy, and homeopathy. Methodological quality of reviews ranged from lowest to highest possible quality. Consistently positive results were found for tai chi, yoga, meditation and mindfulness-based interventions, hypnosis or guided imagery, electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback, and balneotherapy/hydrotherapy. Inconsistent results concerned qigong, acupuncture, chiropractic interventions, electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback, and nutritional supplements. Inconclusive results were found for homeopathy and phytotherapy. Major methodological flaws included missing details on data extraction process, included or excluded studies, study details, and adaption of conclusions based on quality assessment. Conclusions. Despite a growing body of scientific evidence of CAM therapies for the management of FMS systematic reviews still show methodological flaws limiting definite conclusions about their efficacy and safety. Romy Lauche, Holger Cramer, Winfried Häuser, Gustav Dobos, and Jost Langhorst Copyright © 2015 Romy Lauche et al. All rights reserved. Costus afer Possesses Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes Inhibitory Activity and Antioxidant Capacity In Vitro Mon, 13 Jul 2015 11:02:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/987984/ Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism which correlates with postprandial hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Control of blood glucose level is imperative in the management of diabetes. The present study tested the hypothesis that Costus afer, an antihyperglycemic medicinal plant, possesses inhibitory activity against carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes. Hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts were prepared from the leaf, stem, and rhizome of C. afer and subjected to phytochemical screening, assayed for α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and antioxidant capacity (determined by total phenolic and total flavonoids contents, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity). All extracts inhibited -amylase and -glucosidase activities. Ethyl acetate rhizome and methanol leaf extracts exhibited the best inhibitory activity against -amylase and -glucosidase (IC50: 0.10 and 5.99 mg/mL), respectively. Kinetic analysis revealed two modes of enzyme inhibition (competitive and mixed). All extracts showed antioxidant capacity, with hexane extracts exhibiting the best activity. DPPH assay revealed that methanol leaf, rhizome, and ethyl acetate stem extracts (IC50 < 5 mg/mL) were the best antioxidants. The presence of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, and tannins may account for the antioxidant capacity and carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzyme inhibitory activity of C. afer. Armelle D. Tchamgoue, Lauve R. Y. Tchokouaha, Protus A. Tarkang, Jules-Roger Kuiate, and Gabriel A. Agbor Copyright © 2015 Armelle D. Tchamgoue et al. All rights reserved. Significant Geometry Features in Tongue Image Analysis Mon, 13 Jul 2015 10:42:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/897580/ The shape of a human tongue and its relation to a patients’ state, either healthy or diseased (and if diseased which disease), is quantitatively analyzed using geometry features by means of computerized methods in this paper. Thirteen geometry features based on measurements, distances, areas, and their ratios are extracted from tongue images captured by a specially designed device with color correction. Using the features, 5 tongue shapes (rectangle, acute and obtuse triangles, square, and circle) are defined based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Classification of the shapes is subsequently carried out with a decision tree. A large dataset consisting of 672 images comprising of 130 healthy and 542 disease examples (labeled according to Western medical practices) are tested. Experimental results show that the extracted geometry features are effective at tongue shape classification (coarse level). Even if more than one disease class belongs to the same shape, the disease classes can still be discriminated via fine level classification using a combination of the geometry features, with an average accuracy of 76.24% for all shapes. Bob Zhang and Han Zhang Copyright © 2015 Bob Zhang and Han Zhang. All rights reserved. Osthole: A Review on Its Bioactivities, Pharmacological Properties, and Potential as Alternative Medicine Mon, 13 Jul 2015 08:14:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/919616/ This paper reviews the latest understanding of biological and pharmacological properties of osthole (7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one), a natural product found in several medicinal plants such as Cnidium monnieri and Angelica pubescens. In vitro and in vivo experimental results have revealed that osthole demonstrates multiple pharmacological actions including neuroprotective, osteogenic, immunomodulatory, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardiovascular protective, and antimicrobial activities. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies showed osthole uptake and utilization are fast and efficient in body. Moreover, the mechanisms of multiple pharmacological activities of osthole are very likely related to the modulatory effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cGMP) level, though some mechanisms remain unclear. This review aims to summarize the pharmacological properties of osthole and give an overview of the underlying mechanisms, which showcase its potential as a multitarget alternative medicine. Zhong-Rong Zhang, Wing Nang Leung, Ho Yee Cheung, and Chun Wai Chan Copyright © 2015 Zhong-Rong Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Xuezhikang Capsule for Type 2 Diabetes with Hyperlipemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trails Mon, 13 Jul 2015 07:36:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/468520/ Objective. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xuezhikang capsule treating type 2 diabetes with hyperlipidemia. Methods. We searched six databases to identify relevant studies published before January 2015. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We resolved disagreements with this assessment through discussion and a decision was achieved by consensus. Results. We included 21 studies (1548 participants). Treatment courses were at least 8 weeks. Overall, the risk of bias of included trials was unclear. Among them, 16 studies could conduct meta-analysis. The result showed that compared with routine group (5 studies), Xuezhikang group had more effect on decreasing TC, TG, LDL-C, and rising HDL-C. However, compared with statins group (11 studies), Xuezhikang group has less effect on decreasing TC, TG, and rising HDL-C. Meanwhile, two groups had no statistical differences of LDL-C level. Conclusion. Xuezhikang capsule may be effective for treating type 2 diabetes with hyperlipemia. Our findings should be considered cautiously due to unclear risk of bias of the included studies and low methodological quality. Therefore, more strictly designed large-scale randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy of Xuezhikang capsule in type 2 diabetes with hyperlipemia. Min Li, Qingyong He, Yinfeng Chen, Bo Li, Bo Feng, Zhenpeng Zhang, and Jie Wang Copyright © 2015 Min Li et al. All rights reserved.