Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. A 3-Arm, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Heat-Sensitive Moxibustion Therapy to Determine Superior Effect among Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation Thu, 24 Jul 2014 13:26:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/154941/ Systematic reviews of moxibustion for LDH have identified ponderable evidence, especially for heat-sensitive moxibustion (HSM). Therefore, we designed and carried out the large sample trial to evaluate it. 456 patients were recruited from 4 centers in China and were randomly divided into three groups by the ratio of 1 : 1 : 1 to HSM (152) group, conventional moxibustion (152) group, and conventional drug plus acupuncture (152) group. Compared with usual care, there was a statistically significant reduction in mean M-JOA score at 2 weeks and 6 months for HSM (3.8 ± 2.6 versus 8.5 ± 2.9; 3.7 ± 2.2 versus 10.1 ± 2.9) and conventional moxibustion (7.9 ± 3.0 versus 8.5 ± 2.9; 8.9 ± 3.1 versus 10.1 ± 2.9). Compared with conventional moxibustion group, HSM group showed greater improvement in all the outcomes. The mean dose of moxibustion was 41.13 ± 5.26 (range 21–60) minutes in the HSM group. We found that HSM was more effective in treating patients with LDH, compared with conventional moxibustion and conventional drug plus acupuncture. This finding indicated that the application of moxibustion on the heat-sensitive points is a good moxibustion technique in treating disease. Rixin Chen, Mingren Chen, Tongsheng Su, Meiqi Zhou, Jianhua Sun, Jun Xiong, Zhenhai Chi, Dingyi Xie, and Bo Zhang Copyright © 2014 Rixin Chen et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Cardiovascular Diseases: A Comprehensive Overview of Experimental Studies Thu, 24 Jul 2014 09:15:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/204840/ Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases. Xiaochen Yang, Xingjiang Xiong, Heran Wang, and Jie Wang Copyright © 2014 Xiaochen Yang et al. All rights reserved. Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:35:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/375173/ This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT) pilot study was designed to (1) assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA) intervention and (2) provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI), and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen’s effect size of 1.22 . Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3%) . Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted. Chao Hsing Yeh, Natalia E. Morone, Lung-Chang Chien, Yuling Cao, Huijuan Lu, Juan Shen, Leah Margolis, Shreya Bhatnagar, Samuel Hoffman, Zhan Liang, Ronald M. Glick, and Lorna Kwai-Ping Suen Copyright © 2014 Chao Hsing Yeh et al. All rights reserved. Effects of Acupuncture on Leucopenia, Neutropenia, NK, and B Cells in Cancer Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study Thu, 24 Jul 2014 07:34:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/217397/ Chemotherapy is one of most significant therapeutic approaches to cancer. Immune system functional state is considered a major prognostic and predictive impact on the success of chemotherapy and it has an important role on patients’ psychoemotional state and quality of life. In Chinese medicine, chemotherapy is understood as “toxic cold” that may induce a progressive hypofunctional state of immune system, thus compromising the fast recovery of immunity during chemotherapy. In this study, we performed a standardized acupuncture and moxibustion protocol to enhance immunity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy and to assess if the improvement of immunity status correlates with a better psychoemotional state and quality of life. Irene Pais, Nuno Correia, Isabel Pimentel, Maria José Teles, Esmeralda Neves, Júlia Vasconcelos, Judite Guimarães, Nancy Azevedo, António Moreira Pinto, Jorge Machado, Thomas Efferth, and Henry J. Greten Copyright © 2014 Irene Pais et al. All rights reserved. Medicinal Plants and Other Living Organisms with Antitumor Potential against Lung Cancer Thu, 24 Jul 2014 06:53:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/604152/ Lung cancer is a disease with high morbidity and mortality rates. As a result, it is often associated with a significant amount of suffering and a general decrease in the quality of life. Herbal medicines are recognized as an attractive approach to lung cancer therapy with little side effects and are a major source of new drugs. The aim of this work was to review the medicinal plants and other living organisms with antitumor potential against lung cancer. The assays were conducted with animals and humans, and Lewis lung carcinoma was the most used experimental model. China, Japan, South Korea, and Ethiopia were the countries that most published studies of species with antitumor activity. Of the 38 plants evaluated, 27 demonstrated antitumor activity. In addition, six other living organisms were cited for antitumor activity against lung cancer. Mechanisms of action, combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, and new technologies to increase activity and reduce the toxicity of the treatment are discussed. This review was based on the NAPRALERT databank, Web of Science, and Chemical Abstracts. This work shows that natural products from plants continue to be a rich source of herbal medicines or biologically active compounds against cancer. Luara de Sousa Monteiro, Katherine Xavier Bastos, José Maria Barbosa-Filho, Petrônio Filgueiras de Athayde-Filho, Margareth de Fátima Formiga Melo Diniz, and Marianna Vieira Sobral Copyright © 2014 Luara de Sousa Monteiro et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Tetramethylpyrazine on Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/107501/ Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (MIRI) is a common pathological and physiological phenomenon. Tetramethylpyrazine is the extract of the traditional Chinese medicine Chuanxiong, which can exert protective effects on MIRI in multiple ways. This paper reviewed the current research progress and evidence about the cardiovascular effects of tetramethylpyrazine, which included protecting mitochondria and improving energy metabolism, scavenging oxygen free radicals (OFRs) to inhibit lipid peroxidation, attenuating calcium (Ca2+) overload and maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis in cells, inhibiting apoptosis and protecting myocardial cells, interfering with the inflammatory reaction and mitigating cell injury, interfering with cell signaling pathways, and improving function of endothelial cells and protecting myocardial cells. However, further rigorously designed randomized controlled trials are warranted. Weidong Qian, Xingjiang Xiong, Zhuyuan Fang, Haiting Lu, and Zhensheng Wang Copyright © 2014 Weidong Qian et al. All rights reserved. Elemene Injection Induced Autophagy Protects Human Hepatoma Cancer Cells from Starvation and Undergoing Apoptosis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/637528/ Elemene, a compound found in an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, has shown promising anticancer effects against a broad spectrum of tumors. In an in vivo experiment, we found that apatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor that selectively inhibits VEGFR2, combined with elemene injection (Ele) for the treatment of H22 solid tumor in mice resulted in worse effectiveness than apatinib alone. Moreover, Ele could protect HepG2 cells from death induced by serum-free starvation. Further data on the mechanism study revealed that Ele induced protective autophagy and prevented human hepatoma cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. Proapoptosis effect of Ele was enhanced when proautophagy effect was inhibited by hydroxychloroquine. Above all, Ele has the effect of protecting cancer cells from death either in apatinib induced nutrient deficient environment or in serum-free induced starvation. A combination of elemene injection with autophagy inhibitor might thus be a useful therapeutic option for hepatocellular carcinoma. Yan Lin, Keming Wang, Chunping Hu, Lin Lin, Shukui Qin, and Xueting Cai Copyright © 2014 Yan Lin et al. All rights reserved. Behavioral and Histopathological Study of Changes in Spinal Cord Injured Rats Supplemented with Spirulina platensis Thu, 24 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/871657/ Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating disease that leads to permanent disability and causes great suffering. The resulting neurological dysfunction and paralysis is proportional to the severity of the trauma itself. Spirulina is widely used as a nutritional supplement due to its high protein and antioxidant content. In the present study, the protective effect of the Spirulina treatment on locomotor function and morphological damage after SCI was investigated. Seventy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups: Sham (laminectomy alone), Control (laminectomy with SCI), and Experimental (laminectomy with SCI +180 mg/kg per day Spirulina platensis). A laminectomy was performed at T12 and an Inox No.2 modified forceps was used to perform a partial crush injury on the spinal cord. The rats were then perfused at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury for morphological investigations. The injured rat spinal cord indicated a presence of hemorrhage, cavity, and necrosis. Pretreatment with Spirulina significantly improved the locomotor function and showed a significant reduction on the histological changes. The experimental results observed in this study suggest that treatment with Spirulina platensis possesses potential benefits in improving hind limb locomotor function and reducing morphological damage to the spinal cord. Izzuddin Aziz, Muhammad Danial Che Ramli, Nurul Suraya Mohd Zain, and Junedah Sanusi Copyright © 2014 Izzuddin Aziz et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy of Auricular Therapy for Pain Management: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:39:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/934670/ Objective. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of auricular therapy by including a sham therapy control group. Methods. Relevant, randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were identified by searching medical related databases from, depending on journal, 1900 (at the earliest) to 1994 (at the latest) through May 2013. The outcome measure was a pain intensity score. Results. Twenty-two RCTs were identified and 13 RCTs were included for meta-analysis. In these studies, auricular therapy provided significant pain relief when compared to a sham or control group. The overall standardized mean differences (SMD) was 1.59 (95% CI [−2.36, −0.82]) (13 trials, total subject numbers = 806), indicating that, on average, the mean decrease in pain score for auricular therapy group was 1.59 standard deviations greater than the mean decrease for the sham control. In terms of the efficacy of the different treatment methods, auricular acupressure boasts the largest strength of evidence for pain relief, followed by auricular acupuncture. Electroacupuncture stimulation did not show significant evidence for efficacy, which may be due to the small sample size (i.e., only 19 subjects were included). Conclusion. Further large-scale RCTs are needed to determine the efficacy of auricular therapy for pain. Chao Hsing Yeh, Yi Chien Chiang, Samuel L. Hoffman, Zhan Liang, Mary Lou Klem, Wilson W. S. Tam, Lung-Chang Chien, and Lorna Kwai-Ping Suen Copyright © 2014 Chao Hsing Yeh et al. All rights reserved. Antimutagenicity of Methanolic Extracts from Anemopsis californica in Relation to Their Antioxidant Activity Wed, 23 Jul 2014 11:33:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/273878/ Anemopsis californica has been used empirically to treat infectious diseases. However, there are no antimutagenic evaluation reports on this plant. The present study evaluated the antioxidant activity in relation to the mutagenic and antimutagenic activity properties of leaf (LME) and stem (SME) methanolic extracts of A. californica collected in the central Mexican state of Querétaro. Antioxidant properties and total phenols of extracts were evaluated using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and Folin-Ciocalteu methods, respectively. Mutagenicity was evaluated using the Ames test employing Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strains (TA98, TA100, and TA102), with and without an aroclor 1254 (S9 mixture). Antimutagenesis was performed against mutations induced on the Ames test with MNNG, 2AA, or 4NQO. SME presented the highest antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. None of the extracts exhibited mutagenicity in the Ames test. The extracts produced a significant reduction in 2AA-induced mutations in S. typhimurium TA98. In both extracts, mutagenesis induced by 4NQO or methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) was reduced only if the exposure of strains was <10 μg/Petri dish. A. californca antioxidant properties and its capacity to reduce point mutations render it suitable to enhance medical cancer treatments. The significant effect against antimutagenic 2AA suggests that their consumption would provide protection against carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez, Nereyda Bautista-Bautista, José Luis Blasco-Cabal, Marisela Gonzalez-Ávila, Melesio Gutiérrez-Lomelí, and Myriam Arriaga-Alba Copyright © 2014 Carmen Lizette Del-Toro-Sánchez et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Estragole on Leukocyte Behavior and Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:33:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/784689/ Estragole, a chemical constituent of the essential oils of many aromatic plants, is used as flavoring in beverage and food industries. In vivo and in vitro experimental assays have shown that EST has sedative, anticonvulsant, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anesthetic activity. In this work, we evaluate the effect of EST on leukocyte behavior and phagocytic activity of macrophages. In the peritonitis model, EST (500 and 750 mg/kg) decreased the infiltration of peritoneal exudate leukocytes. In vitro chemotaxis assay showed that EST (3, 10, 30, and 60 μg/mL) inhibited neutrophil migration toward fMLP. In the in vivo microcirculation assay, EST at doses of 250, 500, and 750 mg/kg significantly reduced the number of rolling and adherent leukocytes and at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg decreased number of leukocyte migrated to perivascular tissue. The results showed that EST (3, 10, and 30 μg/mL) was able to stimulate the macrophages phagocytosis but only at concentration of 10 μg/mL promoted an increase in nitric oxide (NO) production. In conclusion, this study showed that EST had potential anti-inflammatory effects, likely by inhibiting leukocyte migration and by stimulating macrophages phagocytosis. Francielli Maria de Souza Silva-Comar, Luiz Alexandre Marques Wiirzler, Saulo Euclides Silva-Filho, Raquel Kummer, Raissa Bocchi Pedroso, Ricardo Alexandre Spironello, Expedito Leite Silva, Ciomar Aparecida Bersani-Amado, and Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman Copyright © 2014 Francielli Maria de Souza Silva-Comar et al. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Electroacupuncture at the Weizhong Acupoint (BL-40) as a Means of Relieving Pain Induced by Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Wed, 23 Jul 2014 09:24:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/592319/ Background. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is the preferred option for urolithiasis treatment. However, intensities of pain may be induced and the sedative anesthetic or analgesics were usually needed. The aim of this study was to develop an improved acupuncture-assisted anesthesia approach in pain relief. Methods. We conducted a single-blind, randomized controlled study in China Medical University Hospital. Patients treated by ESWL due to upper urolithiasis were randomly divided into control group, sham-EA group, and 100 Hz EA group. The high frequency electroacupuncture (EA) was applied at the Weizhong acupoint (100 Hz EA group) for 20 minutes prior to the ESWL. In the sham-EA group, the same procedures were performed as those of 100 Hz EA group but no electric current was given to stimulate the acupoints. In the control group, no action was taken before operation. The information including the numbers and dosage of analgesic requirements, pain score, vital signs, and the satisfaction of procedure was collected. Results. A total of 74 subjects were recruited and we found that the interval to the first request analgesic, the number/total dosage of additional analgesic, recovery time from anesthesia, and the satisfaction were all better in both the 100 Hz EA and the sham-EA group. The 100 Hz EA also showed better relief of painful sensations by delaying the onset of pain. Conclusions. The 100 Hz EA and the sham-EA can effectively relieve pain due to ESWL as well as reducing the dosage of opium analgesic used. Wei-Ta Chen, Fang-Chia Chang, Yi-Hung Chen, and Jaung-Geng Lin Copyright © 2014 Wei-Ta Chen et al. All rights reserved. Review on Prescription Compatibility of Shaoyao Gancao Decoction and Reflection on Pharmacokinetic Compatibility Mechanism of Traditional Chinese Medicine Prescription Based on In Vivo Drug Interaction of Main Efficacious Components Wed, 23 Jul 2014 06:19:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/208129/ Shaoyao Gancao Decoction (SGD) derived from Zhang Zhongjing’s “Typhoid Theory” is composed of peony and licorice, having the efficacy of nourishing liver, relaxing spasm, and relieving pain. Modern compatibility studies of SGD on chemistry, pharmacology, and pharmacokinetics all demonstrate the reasonable compatibility of peony and licorice. However, the present research on pharmacokinetics is only descriptive and limited to the influence on in vivo dynamic process of certain ingredients; correspondingly, there is lack of studies on the essence of these efficacious substances’ in vivo changes; that is, whether it is because there exists in vivo drug interaction in absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of active ingredients that leads to the improvement of bioavailability. We herein take SGD as an example and suggest that it is necessary to study in vivo drug interaction of main efficacious components mediated by metabolic enzymes, transport proteins, or plasma protein binding in the course of ADME, which is helpful to illustrate the principle of pharmacokinetic compatibility from the essence leading to the changes of effective substances in vivo. Xiaolin Bi, Meirong Gong, and Liuqing Di Copyright © 2014 Xiaolin Bi et al. All rights reserved. Moxibustion Activates Macrophage Autophagy and Protects Experimental Mice against Bacterial Infection Wed, 23 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/450623/ Moxibustion is one of main therapies in traditional Chinese medicine and uses heat stimulation on the body surface from the burning of moxa to release pain or treat diseases. Emerging studies have shown that moxibustion can generate therapeutic effects by activating a series of signaling pathways and neuroendocrine-immune activities. Here we show moxibustion promoted profound macrophage autophagy in experimental Kunming mice, with reduced Akt phosphorylation and activated eIF2α phosphorylation. Consequently, moxibustion promoted bacterial clearance by macrophages and protected mice from mortality due to bacterial infection. These results indicate that moxibustion generates a protective response by activating autophagy against bacterial infections. Xiaojuan Li, Guanhua Guo, Feng Shen, Lihong Kong, Fengxia Liang, and Guojie Sun Copyright © 2014 Xiaojuan Li et al. All rights reserved. Neuroprotective Effects of Cuscutae Semen in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease Tue, 22 Jul 2014 06:04:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/150153/ Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) pathway. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) causes damage to the DA neurons, and 1-4-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) causes cell death in differentiated PC12 cells that is similar to the degeneration that occurs in PD. Moreover, MPTP treatment increases the activity of the brain’s immune cells, reactive oxygen species- (ROS-) generating processes, and glutathione peroxidase. We recently reported that Cuscutae Semen (CS), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, increases cell viability in a yeast model of PD. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of CS on the neurotoxicity of MPTP in mice and on the MPP+-induced cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. The MPTP-induced loss of nigral DA neurons was partly inhibited by CS-mediated decreases in ROS generation. The activation of microglia was slightly inhibited by CS, although this effect did not reach statistical significance. Furthermore, CS may reduce the MPP+ toxicity in PC12 cells by suppressing glutathione peroxidase activation. These results suggest that CS may be beneficial for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Minsook Ye, Seul gi Lee, Eun Sook Chung, Su-jin Lim, Won Seob Kim, Heera Yoon, Sun Kwang Kim, Kwang Sung Ahn, Young Pyo Jang, and Hyunsu Bae Copyright © 2014 Minsook Ye et al. All rights reserved. Investigation of Hepatic Blood Perfusion by Laser Speckle Imaging and Changes of Hepatic Vasoactive Substances in Mice after Electroacupuncture Mon, 21 Jul 2014 12:21:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/715316/ The study was conducted to observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on hepatic blood perfusion (HBP) and vascular regulation. We investigated 60 male anesthetized mice under the following 3 conditions: without EA stimulation (control group); EA stimulation at Zusanli (ST36 group); EA stimulation at nonacupoint (NA group) during 30 min. The HBP was measured using the laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI). The level of nitric oxide (NO), endothelin-1 (ET-1), and noradrenaline (NE) in liver tissue was detected by biochemical methods. Results were as follows. At each time point, HBP increase in ST36 group was higher than that in the NA group in anesthetized mice. HBP gradually decreased during 30 min in control group. The level of NO in ST36 group was higher than that in NA group. The level of both ET-1 and NE was the highest in control group, followed by NA group and ST36 group. It is concluded that EA at ST36 could increase HBP possibly by increasing the blood flow velocity (BFV), changing vascular activity, increasing the level of NO, and inhibiting the level of ET-1 in liver tissue. Xiao-jing Song, Dong Zhang, Shu-you Wang, and Shun-yue Li Copyright © 2014 Xiao-jing Song et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics and Tissue Distribution Study of Chlorogenic Acid from Lonicerae Japonicae Flos Following Oral Administrations in Rats Mon, 21 Jul 2014 07:18:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/979414/ Chlorogenic acid (ChA) is proposed as the major bioactive compounds of Lonicerae Japonicae Flos (LJF). Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA, via oral administration of LJF extract, using ibuprofen as internal standard, employing a high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry. Analytes were extracted from plasma samples and tissue homogenate by liquid–liquid extraction with acetonitrile, separated on a column by linear gradient elution, and detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in negative selected multiple reaction monitoring mode. Our results successfully demonstrate that the method has satisfactory selectivity, linearity, extraction recovery, matrix effect, precision, accuracy, and stability. Using noncompartment model to study pharmacokinetics, profile revealed that ChA was rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Tissue study indicated that the highest level was observed in liver, followed by kidney, lung, heart, and spleen. In conclusion, this method was suitable for the study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ChA after oral administration. Yulu Zhou, Ting Zhou, Qi Pei, Shikun Liu, and Hong Yuan Copyright © 2014 Yulu Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Caffeamide 36-13 Regulates the Antidiabetic and Hypolipidemic Signs of High-Fat-Fed Mice on Glucose Transporter 4, AMPK Phosphorylation, and Regulated Hepatic Glucose Production Sun, 20 Jul 2014 12:13:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/821569/ This study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of (E)-3-[3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl-1-(piperidin-1-yl)prop-2-en-1-one] (36-13) (TS), one of caffeic acid amide derivatives, on high-fat (HF-) fed mice. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the control (CON) group and the experimental group, which was firstly fed a HF diet for 8 weeks. Then, the HF group was subdivided into four groups and was given TS orally (including two doses) or rosiglitazone (Rosi) or vehicle for 4 weeks. Blood, skeletal muscle, and tissues were examined by measuring glycaemia and dyslipidemia-associated events. TS effectively prevented HF diet-induced increases in the levels of blood glucose, triglyceride, insulin, leptin, and free fatty acid (FFA) and weights of visceral fa; moreover, adipocytes in the visceral depots showed a reduction in size. TS treatment significantly increased the protein contents of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) in skeletal muscle; TS also significantly enhanced Akt phosphorylation in liver, whereas it reduced the expressions of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). Moreover, TS enhanced phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (phospho-AMPK) both in skeletal muscle and liver tissue. Therefore, it is possible that the activation of AMPK by TS resulted in enhanced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, contrasting with diminished gluconeogenesis in liver. TS exhibits hypolipidemic effect by decreasing the expressions of fatty acid synthase (FAS). Thus, antidiabetic properties of TS occurred as a result of decreased hepatic glucose production by PEPCK and G6Pase downregulation and improved insulin sensitization. Thus, amelioration of diabetic and dyslipidemic state by TS in HF-fed mice occurred by regulation of GLUT4, G6Pase, and FAS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Yueh-Hsiung Kuo, Cheng-Hsiu Lin, and Chun-Ching Shih Copyright © 2014 Yueh-Hsiung Kuo et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Profiling of an Antimigraine Herbal Preparation, Tianshu Capsule, Based on the Combination of HPLC, LC-DAD-MSn, and LC-DAD-ESI-IT-TOF/MS Analyses Sun, 20 Jul 2014 11:21:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/580745/ Chemical profiling is always the first task in the standardization and modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine. HPLC and LC-MS were employed to find out the common chromatographic peaks in various batches of Tianshu Capsule (TSC) and the contribution of the characteristic peaks from individual herbs to the whole chromatographic profile of TSC sample. A total of 38 constituents were identified in TSC sample based on the comparison of retention time and UV spectra with authentic compounds as well as by summarized MS fragmentation rules and matching of empirical molecular formula with those of published components. This is the first systematic report on the chemical profiling of the commercial TSC product, which provides the sufficiently chemical evidence for the global quality evaluation of TSC products. Juanjuan Liang, Huimin Gao, Liangmian Chen, Wei Xiao, Zhenzhong Wang, Yongyan Wang, and Zhimin Wang Copyright © 2014 Juanjuan Liang et al. All rights reserved. A Metabonomics Profiling Study on Phlegm Syndrome and Blood-Stasis Syndrome in Coronary Heart Disease Patients Using Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry Sun, 20 Jul 2014 11:14:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/385102/ A metabonomics approach based on liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF/MS) was utilized to obtain potential biomarkers of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and investigate the ZHENG types differentiation in CHD patients. The plasma samples of 20 CHD patients with phlegm syndrome, 20 CHD patients with blood-stasis syndrome, and 16 healthy volunteers were collected in the study. 26 potential biomarkers were identified in the plasma of CHD patients and 19 differential metabolites contributed to the discrimination of phlegm syndrome and blood-stasis syndrome in CHD patients which mainly involved purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism, amino acid metabolism, steroid biosynthesis, and arachidonic acid metabolism. This study demonstrated that metabonomics approach based on LC-MS was useful for studying pathologic changes of CHD patients and interpreting the differentiation of ZHENG types (phlegm and blood-stasis syndrome) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Linlin Zhao, Ling Wan, Xinjian Qiu, Ruomeng Li, Shimi Liu, and Dongsheng Wang Copyright © 2014 Linlin Zhao et al. All rights reserved. IKK β -Targeted Anti-Inflammatory Activities of a Butanol Fraction of Artificially Cultivated Cordyceps pruinosa Fruit Bodies Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:09:24 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/562467/ The inhibitory activities of the Cordyceps pruinosa butanol fraction (Cp-BF) were investigated by determining inflammatory responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells and by evaluating HCl/ethanol (EtOH)-triggered gastric ulcers in mice. The molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of Cp-BF were investigated by identifying target enzymes using biochemical and molecular biological approaches. Cp-BF strongly inhibited the production of NO and TNF-α, release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagocytic uptake of FITC-dextran, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-α in activated RAW264.7 cells. Cp-BF also strongly downregulated the NF-κB pathway by suppressing IKKβ according to luciferase reporter assays and immunoblot analysis. Furthermore, Cp-BF blocked both increased levels of NF-κB-mediated luciferase activities and phosphorylation of p65/p50 observed by IKKβ overexpression. Finally, orally administered Cp-BF was found to attenuate gastric ulcer and block the phosphorylation of IκBα induced by HCl/EtOH. Therefore, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory activity of Cp-BF may be mediated by suppression of IKKα and its downstream NF-κB activation. Since our group has established the mass cultivation conditions by developing culture conditions for Cordyceps pruinosa, the information presented in this study may be useful for developing new anti-inflammatory agents. Han Gyung Kim, Woo Seok Yang, Gi-Ho Sung, Ji Hye Kim, Gwang-Soo Baek, Eunji Kim, Sungjae Yang, Yung Chul Park, Jae Mo Sung, Deok Hyo Yoon, Tae Woong Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Jong-Hoon Kim, and Jae Youl Cho Copyright © 2014 Han Gyung Kim et al. All rights reserved. Wrist-Ankle Acupuncture for the Treatment of Pain Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Tue, 15 Jul 2014 12:06:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/261709/ Routine acupuncture incorporates wrist-ankle acupuncture (WAA) for its analgesic effect, but WAA is not widely used in clinics due to incomplete knowledge of its effectiveness and concerns about less clinical research and because less people know it. This study aimed to assess the efficacy and possible adverse effects of WAA or WAA adjuvants in the treatment of pain symptoms. This study compared WAA or WAA adjuvant with the following therapies: western medication (WM), sham acupuncture (SA), or body acupuncture (BA). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched systematically in related electronic databases by two independent reviewers. 33 RCTs were finally included, in which 7 RCTs were selected for meta-analysis. It was found that WAA or WAA adjuvant was significantly more effective than WM, SA, or BA in pain relief. There was nothing different between WAA and SA in adverse events, but WAA was marginally significantly safer than WM. Although both WAA and WAA adjuvant appeared to be more effective than WM, SA, or BA in the treatment of pain symptoms with few side effects, further studies with better and more rigorously designed are still necessary to ensure the efficacy and safety issue of WAA due to the poor methodology and small sample size of previous studies. Li Bing Zhu, Wai Chung Chan, Kwai Ching Lo, Tin Pui Yum, and Lei Li Copyright © 2014 Li Bing Zhu et al. All rights reserved. Syndrome Differentiation of Diabetes by the Traditional Chinese Medicine according to Evidence-Based Medicine and Expert Consensus Opinion Mon, 14 Jul 2014 15:14:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/492193/ In Chinese medicine, diabetes belongs to the category of “Xiaoke disease (disease with symptoms of frequent drinking and urination)”; in the traditional sense, its pathogenesis is “Yin deficiency and dryness-heat.” However, over time, changes in the social environment and lifestyle have also changed the use of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in diabetes. In this study, we performed diabetes syndrome differentiation using TCM according to evidence-based medicine and expert consensus opinion. Jing Guo, Hongdong Chen, Jun Song, Jia Wang, Linhua Zhao, and Xiaolin Tong Copyright © 2014 Jing Guo et al. All rights reserved. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects Mon, 14 Jul 2014 09:23:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/574986/ This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years) using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect. Sang-Ho Hyun, Jin-Wook Im, Woo-Sang Jung, Ki-Ho Cho, Young-Suk Kim, Chang-Nam Ko, Jung-Mi Park, Seong-Uk Park, Seung-Yeon Cho, and Sang-Kwan Moon Copyright © 2014 Sang-Ho Hyun et al. All rights reserved. Neurotrophic Signaling Factors in Brain Ischemia/Reperfusion Rats: Differential Modulation Pattern between Single-Time and Multiple Electroacupuncture Stimulation Mon, 14 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/625050/ Electroacupuncture (EA) treatment has been widely used for stroke-like disorders in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous studies showed that single-time EA stimulation at “Baihui” (GV 20) and “Shuigou” (GV 26) after the onset of ischemia can protect the brain against ischemic injury in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Here, we further investigated the differential effects between multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation on ischemic injury. In the present study, we found that both single-time EA and multiple EA stimulation significantly reduced MCAO-induced ischemic infarction, while only multiple EA attenuated sensorimotor dysfunctions. Also, with PCR array screening and ingenuity gene analysis, we revealed that multiple EA and single-time EA stimulation could differentially induce expression changes in neurotrophic signaling related genes. Meanwhile, with western blotting, we demonstrated that the level of glia maturation factor β (GMFβ) increased in the early stage (day 1) of reperfusion, and this upregulation was suppressed only by single-time EA stimulation. These findings suggest that the short-term effect of single-time EA stimulation differs from the cumulative effect of multiple EA, which possibly depends on their differential modulation on neurotrophic signaling molecules expression. Changpeng Wang, Fan Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zheng, and Jingchun Guo Copyright © 2014 Changpeng Wang et al. All rights reserved. Buyang Huanwu Decoction for Healthcare: Evidence-Based Theoretical Interpretations of Treating Different Diseases with the Same Method and Target of Vascularity Mon, 14 Jul 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/506783/ Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD) is a famous herbal prescription that has been used to treat stroke for centuries. Recent studies reported that the use of BHD had been extended to treat various kinds of disorders according to the TCM syndrome theory of Treating Different Diseases with the Same Method (TDDSM). Here, an overview of systematic reviews (SRs) of BHD for healthcare was conducted to interpret the TCM theory of TDDSM and its target of vascularity in an evidence-based manner. Literature searches were carried out in 5 databases to search SRs of BHD for any indication up to August 2013. Thirteen eligible SRs were identified which reported a wide range of vascular conditions. Based on the Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire scores, the quality of included SRs was varied, with an average score of 4 points. We found that there is premature evidence for the use of BHD for healthcare, whereas BHD was well tolerable in all patients. BHD can be used to treat many disorders with the same therapeutic principle of invigorating Qi to activate blood circulation, which is essentially a manifestation of the TDDSM and is likely to account for targeting the specific pathogenesis of vascular diseases. Ji-huang Li, Ai-ju Liu, Hui-qin Li, Yan Wang, Hong-Cai Shang, and Guo-qing Zheng Copyright © 2014 Ji-huang Li et al. All rights reserved. Retrospective Long-Term Comparison of Naturopathic Fasting Therapy and Weight Reduction Diet in Overweight Patients Sun, 13 Jul 2014 13:56:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/453407/ In a follow-up study overweight and obese patients fasting according to Buchinger (modified) and a control group treated by a weight reduction diet in the context of an inpatient naturopathic complex treatment were compared using a questionnaire developed for a standardized phone interview years after inpatient treatment. During the inpatient treatment the fasting patients significantly more body weight, but at the time of the interview significantly more weight was gained again. 10.7% of the fasting patients and 31.9% of the control group lowered their weight at least 5% of their initial weight up to the interview. 42% of the fasting and 74% of the control group persistently changed their diet. The control group followed a significantly higher number of trained nutritional aspects. 21% of the fasting and 40% of the control group increased their leisure activity permanently. Continued improvement in quality of life was achieved by 16% of the fasting patients and 28% of the control group. The fasting therapy, carried out as part of the inpatient naturopathic complex treatment, turned out to be less suitable for the treatment of overweight and obesity compared to standard therapy. One likely determinant is the minor poststationary lifestyle modification. André-Michael Beer, Lena Elisabeth Ismar, Dominik Karl Wessely, Tanja Pötschke, Beate Weidner, and Karl Rüdiger Wiebelitz Copyright © 2014 André-Michael Beer et al. All rights reserved. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil Sun, 13 Jul 2014 12:41:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/478290/ This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz, Thays de Lima Matos Freire Dias, Carolina Barbosa Brito Da Matta, Luiz Henrique Agra Cavalcante Silva, João Xavier de Araújo-Júnior, Givanildo Bernardino de Araújo, Flávia de Barros Prado Moura, and Magna Suzana Alexandre-Moreira Copyright © 2014 Aline Cavalcanti De Queiroz et al. All rights reserved. A Unique Electrical Thermal Stimulation System Comparable to Moxibustion of Subcutaneous Tissue Sun, 13 Jul 2014 11:54:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/518313/ Moxibustion strengthens immunity and it is an effective treatment modality, but, depending on the material quantity, shape, and composition, the thermal strength and intensity can be difficult to control, which may cause pain or epidermal burns. To overcome these limitations, a heat stimulating system which is able to control the thermal intensity was developed. The temperature distributions on epidermis, at 5 mm and 10 mm of depth, in rabbit femoral tissue were compared between moxibustion and the electric thermal stimulation system. The stimulation system consists of a high radio frequency dielectric heating equipment (2 MHz frequency, maximum power 200 W), isolation probe, isolation plate, negative pressure generator, and a temperature assessment system. The temperature was modulated by controlling the stimulation pulse duty ratio, repetition number, and output. There were 95% and 91% temperature distribution correlations between moxibustion and the thermal stimulus at 5 mm and 10 mm of depth in tissue, respectively. Moreover, the epidermal temperature in thermal stimulation was lower than that in moxibustion. These results showed that heat loss by the electric thermal stimulation system is less than that by the traditional moxibustion method. Furthermore, the proposed electric thermal stimulation did not cause adverse effects, such as suppuration or blisters, and also provided subcutaneous stimulation comparable to moxibustion. Hyoun-Seok Myoung and Kyoung-Joung Lee Copyright © 2014 Hyoun-Seok Myoung and Kyoung-Joung Lee. All rights reserved. Ginsenoside Rb1 Protects Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes from Hypoxia/Ischemia Induced Apoptosis and Inhibits Activation of the Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway Thu, 10 Jul 2014 14:15:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/149195/ Aim. To investigate the effect of Ginsenoside Rb1 (GS-Rb1) on hypoxia/ischemia (H/I) injury in cardiomyocytes in vitro and the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway mediated mechanism. Methods. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) for the H/I groups were kept in DMEM without glucose and serum, and were placed into a hypoxic jar for 24 h. GS-Rb1 at concentrations from 2.5 to 40 µM was given during hypoxic period for 24 h. NRCMs injury was determined by MTT and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay. Cell apoptosis, ROS accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were assessed by flow cytometry. Cytosolic translocation of mitochondrial cytochrome c and Bcl-2 family proteins were determined by Western blot. Caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities were determined by the assay kit. Results. GS-Rb1 significantly reduced cell death and LDH leakage induced by H/I. It also reduced H/I induced NRCMs apoptosis induced by H/I, in accordance with a minimal reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst. Moreover, GS-Rb1 markedly decreased the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, increased the Bcl-2/ Bax ratio, and preserved mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm). Its administration also inhibited activities of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Conclusion. Administration of GS-Rb1 during H/I in vitro is involved in cardioprotection by inhibiting apoptosis, which may be due to inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Xu Yan, Jinwen Tian, Hongjin Wu, Yuna Liu, Jianxun Ren, Sidao Zheng, Chengying Zhang, Cui Yang, Yang Li, and Shengqi Wang Copyright © 2014 Xu Yan et al. All rights reserved.