Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Effects and Mechanisms of Transcutaneous Electroacupuncture on Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting Sun, 31 Aug 2014 11:50:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/860631/ Nausea and vomiting are one of the major complications of chemotherapy for cancers. The aim of this study is to investigate the emetic effects and mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine of needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) at Neiguan (PC6) and Jianshi (PC5) on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with cancers. Seventy-two patients with chemotherapy were randomly divided into sham-TEA group (sham-TEA, and TEA group . TEA was performed at PC 6 and PC 5 (1 h, bid) in combination with granisetron. Sham-TEA was delivered at nonacupoints using the same parameters. We found the following. (1) In the acute phase, the conventional antiemetic therapy using Ondansetron effectively reduced nausea and vomiting; the addition of TEA did not show any additive effects. In the delayed phase, however, TEA significantly increased the rate of complete control and reduced the nausea score , compared with sham-TEA. (2) TEA significantly reduced serum levels of 5-HT and dopamine in comparison with sham-TEA. Those results demonstrate that needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture at PC6 using a watch-size digital stimulator improves emesis and reduces nausea in the delayed phase of chemotherapy in patients with cancers. This antiemetic effect is possibly mediated via mechanisms involving serotonin and dopamine. Xing Zhang, Hai-feng Jin, Yi-hong Fan, Bin LU, Li-na Meng, and Jiande D. Z. Chen Copyright © 2014 Xing Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier) in Rats Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:19:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/976764/ The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg) served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model () by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec). Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min), the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA) of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity. Sook-Ha Fan, Noraisah Akbar Ali, and Dayang Fredalina Basri Copyright © 2014 Sook-Ha Fan et al. All rights reserved. The Usefulness of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang for Patients with Angina Pectoris: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review Sun, 31 Aug 2014 09:01:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/521602/ Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of Xuefu Zhuyu Tang (XFZYT) for treating angina pectoris (AP). Methods. Six databases were searched (up to December, 2013). Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficiency of XFZYT plus traditional antianginal medications (TAMs) compared with TAMs alone in patients with AP were included. The outcomes were relief of anginal symptoms (RAS) and improvement of electrocardiogram (ECG) and blood high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Result. Finally 14 RCTs were included. There were evidences that XFZYT combined with TAMs was more effective in improving RAS (RR = 1.29; 95% CI = [1.20, 1.38]), ECG (RR = 1.37; 95% CI = [1.22, 1.54]), and blood HDL-C level (MD = 0.29 mmol/L; 95% CI = [0.23, 0.35]) compared with TAMs alone. Our meta-analysis also showed the pooled number needed to treat (NNT) of the group with stable angina pectoris (SAP) was smaller in improving RAS (4.2 versus 5.7) and ECG (3.1 versus 5.5) compared with the group with both SAP and unstable angina pectoris (UAP). Conclusion. Combination therapy with XFZYT and TAMs is more effective in treating AP compared with TAMs alone. And XFZYT may be a more suitable choice for the treatment of SAP. However, the findings should be interpreted with caution due to the mediocre methodological quality of the included RCTs. Guo-zhong Yi, Yu-qin Qiu, Ya Xiao, and Li-xia Yuan Copyright © 2014 Guo-zhong Yi et al. All rights reserved. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats Sun, 31 Aug 2014 05:23:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/787153/ The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. Poonam Lodhi, Neeraj Tandan, Neera Singh, Divyansh Kumar, and Monu Kumar Copyright © 2014 Poonam Lodhi et al. All rights reserved. Diarylheptanoids from Alpinia officinarum Cause Distinct but Overlapping Effects on the Translatome of B Lymphoblastoid Cells Sun, 31 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/204797/ Diarylheptanoids (AO-0001, AO-0002, and AO-0003) isolated from Alpinia officinarum inhibit proinflammatory mediators and exhibit cytotoxic and antiviral activity. However, the precise mechanisms of action of these diarylheptanoids are unknown as are their effects on expression of specific genes. Here, we used a translatome analysis to investigate the mechanisms and modes of action of these three diarylheptanoids. Polysome-associated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were prepared from diarylheptanoids-treated and control cells from a human B lymphoblastoid cell line; these mRNA samples were then used for microarray analysis. Microarray Data Analysis Tool version 3.2 was used to analyze the microarray data analysis; this software uses pathway information of the WikiPathways for gene ontology analysis. Each of the diarylheptanoids caused upregulation or downregulation of the same 37 and 286 genes, respectively. Among the 37 upregulated genes, 16 were related to mRNA processing based on the WikiPathways analysis. Our findings provided new insights into the mode of action of diarylheptanoids from A. officinarum. Tomohito Kakegawa, Saeko Takase, Eri Masubuchi, and Ken Yasukawa Copyright © 2014 Tomohito Kakegawa et al. All rights reserved. Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation Thu, 28 Aug 2014 13:02:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/156398/ Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. Rime B. El-Houri, Dorota Kotowska, Louise C. B. Olsen, Sumangala Bhattacharya, Lars P. Christensen, Kai Grevsen, Niels Oksbjerg, Nils Færgeman, Karsten Kristiansen, and Kathrine B. Christensen Copyright © 2014 Rime B. El-Houri et al. All rights reserved. Continuous Femoral Nerve Block versus Intravenous Patient Controlled Analgesia for Knee Mobility and Long-Term Pain in Patients Receiving Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Controlled Trial Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:46:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/569107/ Objectives. To evaluate the comparative analgesia effectiveness and safety of postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (CFNB) with patient controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA) and their impact on knee function and chronic postoperative pain. Methods. Participants were randomly allocated to receive postoperative continuous femoral nerve block (group CFNB) or intravenous patient controlled analgesia (group PCIA). Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores for knee and incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively were compared. postoperative pain and salvage medication at rest or during mobilization 24 hours, 48 hours, and 7 days postoperatively were also recorded. Results. After discharge from the hospital and rehabilitation of joint function, patients in group CFNB reported significantly improved knee flexion and less incidence of chronic postoperative pain at 3 months and 6 months postoperatively (). Analgesic rescue medications were significantly reduced in patients receiving CFNB ( and , resp.). Conclusion. With standardized rehabilitation therapy, continuous femoral nerve block analgesia reduced the incidence of chronic postoperative pain, improved motility of replaced joints, and reduced the dosages of rescue analgesic medications, suggesting a recovery-enhancing effect of peripheral nerve block analgesia. Lihua Peng, Li Ren, Peipei Qin, Jing Chen, Ping Feng, Haidan Lin, and Min Su Copyright © 2014 Lihua Peng et al. All rights reserved. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: Consequences of Its Hydrophobicity in the Oxidative Functions and Cytokine Release by Leukocytes Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:42:05 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/793629/ Numerous anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis. NADPH oxidases are multienzymatic complexes involved in many inflammatory diseases. Here, we studied the importance of the CAPE hydrophobicity on cell-free antioxidant capacity, inhibition of the NADPH oxidase and hypochlorous acid production, and release of TNF-α and IL-10 by activated leukocytes. The comparison was made with the related, but less hydrophobic, caffeic and chlorogenic acids. Cell-free studies such as superoxide anion scavenging assay, triene degradation, and anodic peak potential measurements showed that the alterations in the hydrophobicity did not provoke significant changes in the oxidation potential and antiradical potency of the tested compounds. However, only CAPE was able to inhibit the production of superoxide anion by activated leukocytes. The inhibition of the NADPH oxidase resulted in the blockage of production of hypochlorous acid. Similarly, CAPE was the more effective inhibitor of the release of TNF-α and IL-10 by Staphylococcus aureus stimulated cells. In conclusion, the presence of the catechol moiety and the higher hydrophobicity were essential for the biological effects. Considering the involvement of NADPH oxidases in the genesis and progression of inflammatory diseases, CAPE should be considered as a promising anti-inflammatory drug. Luana Chiquetto Paracatu, Carolina Maria Quinello Gomes Faria, Camila Quinello, Camila Rennó, Patricia Palmeira, Maria Luiza Zeraik, Luiz Marcos da Fonseca, and Valdecir Farias Ximenes Copyright © 2014 Luana Chiquetto Paracatu et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Huoxiang Zhengqi Oral Liquid on Intestinal Mucosal Mechanical Barrier of Rats with Postinfectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome Induced by Acetic Acid Thu, 28 Aug 2014 09:37:06 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/218383/ In this study, a rat model with acetic acid-induced PI-IBS was used to study the role of HXZQ oral liquid in repairing the colonic epithelial barrier and reducing intestinal permeability. Pathomorphism of colonic tissue, epithelial ultrastructure, DAO activity in serum, and the protein expression of ZO-1 and occludin were examined to investigate protective effect mechanisms of HXZQ on intestinal mucosa barrier and then present experimental support for its use for prevention and cure of PI-IBS. Yao Liu, Wei Liu, Qiu-Xian Peng, Jiang-Li Peng, Lin-Zhong Yu, and Jian-Lan Hu Copyright © 2014 Yao Liu et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine for Cancer Patients 2014 Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:47:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/326179/ Thomas Efferth, Sookyung Lee, Yoshiharu Motoo, and Sven Schröder Copyright © 2014 Thomas Efferth et al. All rights reserved. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:25:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/579054/ Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. Xiong Wang, Li Ma, En-jing Zhang, Ji-li Zou, Hao Guo, Si-wei Peng, and Jin-hu Wu Copyright © 2014 Xiong Wang et al. All rights reserved. A Review of the Efficacy and Safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica Derived Fiber for Weight Management Thu, 28 Aug 2014 06:05:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/943713/ Sedentary lifestyle and caloric overconsumption are the key determinants of the escalating obesity prevalence. Reducing dietary fat absorption may help to induce a negative energy balance and thus help in managing weight problem. Apart from approved drug therapies, weight problems may also be aided with alternative and natural treatments. This paper compiled and reviewed the efficacy and safety of Litramine IQP-G-002AS, an Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI) derived fiber, in reducing dietary fat absorption and promoting weight loss. Evidence reviewed shows that Litramine IQP-G-002AS displays efficacy in promoting fat excretion and weight loss in four randomized, placebo-controlled clinical studies (including an unpublished pilot study). With a daily dosage of 3 g over a seven-day period, Litramine IQP-G-002AS showed an increased faecal fat excretion compared with placebo (15.8% (SD 5.8%) versus 4.6% (SD 3.1%); P < 0.001). In a 12-week study, significant greater weight loss (3.8 kg (SD 1.8 kg) versus 1.4 kg (SD 2.6 kg); P < 0.001) was observed in overweight and obese subjects treated with Litramine IQP-G-002AS as compared to placebo. No relevant gastrointestinal side effects have been reported for Litramine IQP-G-002AS at the dosages studied. Pee-Win Chong, Kai-Zhia Lau, Joerg Gruenwald, and Ralf Uebelhack Copyright © 2014 Pee-Win Chong et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/378280/ Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast’s morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral’s mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals. Maria Clerya Alvino Leite, André Parente de Brito Bezerra, Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, and Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima Copyright © 2014 Maria Clerya Alvino Leite et al. All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics of Two Alkaloids after Oral Administration of Rhizoma Coptidis Extract in Normal Rats and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/845048/ A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96 mg/kg, containing berberine 22 mg/kg and palmatine 5 mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as , , , and CL/, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status. Zipeng Gong, Ying Chen, Ruijie Zhang, Yinghan Wang, Qing Yang, Yan Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Shuangrong Gao, Hailin Wang, Xiaoxin Zhu, Yu Dong, Yujie Li, and Yajie Wang Copyright © 2014 Zipeng Gong et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Chinese Medicine Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:00:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/859309/ William Chi Cho, Myeong Soo Lee, Lixing Lao, and Gerhard Litscher Copyright © 2014 William Chi Cho et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Long-Term Toxicity of Mango Leaves Extract in Mice and Rats Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:55:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/691574/ The acute toxicity of mango leaves extract (MLE) at the maximal dose (18.4 g/kg) was studied in ICR mice and no abnormalities were detected during the experiment. The long-term studies at various doses of MLE (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg) in SD rats for 3 consecutive months revealed that, compared with the control group, rats in MLE treated groups showed slight body weight increase and higher fat weight; the serum TG and CHOL levels and the epididymis weight of male rats were a little higher; the serum K+ level of female rats was on the low side but the weights of liver, kidney, and adrenal gland were on the high side. In addition to this, no other obvious abnormalities were detected. Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Zhizhen Wu, Erwei Liu, Pingping Shi, Lifeng Han, Lingling Guo, Xiumei Gao, and Tao Wang Copyright © 2014 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:21:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/494136/ In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world’s population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body’s symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia. Tayebeh Azam Saedi, Sabariah Md Noor, Patimah Ismail, and Fauziah Othman Copyright © 2014 Tayebeh Azam Saedi et al. All rights reserved. Acupoint Application in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Study Protocol of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/619706/ Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients’ quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. Yulan Ren, Dehua Li, Hui Zheng, Junling Lv, Junyan Leng, Linglin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hailong Fan, and Fanrong Liang Copyright © 2014 Yulan Ren et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/843923/ Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identification using DNA barcoding that focuses on genetic distance, identification efficiency, inter- and intraspecific variation, and barcoding gap. We collected 478 sequences from six candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, ITS, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, and COI) from 29 species of Radix Astragali and adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence was demonstrated as the optimal barcode for identifying Radix Astragali and its adulterants. This new analysis method is helpful in identifying Radix Astragali and expedites the utilization and data mining of DNA barcoding. Sihao Zheng, Dewang Liu, Weiguang Ren, Juan Fu, Linfang Huang, and Shilin Chen Copyright © 2014 Sihao Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/878503/ Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects. Jae-Suk Choi, Joo Wan Kim, Ki-Young Kim, Jong-Kwang Lee, Jae Hak Sohn, and Sae-Kwang Ku Copyright © 2014 Jae-Suk Choi et al. All rights reserved. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:39:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/712634/ Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon’s eye, and dragon’s eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500 μg/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18 µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0 h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1 h and 2 h postinfection, albeit at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. Ananda Marques de Godoi, Lígia Carla Faccin-Galhardi, Nayara Lopes, Daniele Zendrini Rechenchoski, Raimundo Rafael de Almeida, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo, Carlos Nozawa, and Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares Copyright © 2014 Ananda Marques de Godoi et al. All rights reserved. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Tue, 19 Aug 2014 11:29:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/438531/ Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. Oliver Zierau, Ken Y. Z. Zheng, Anja Papke, Tina T. X. Dong, Karl W. K. Tsim, and Günter Vollmer Copyright © 2014 Oliver Zierau et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:31:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/425341/ Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose) has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC), were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100%) remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model. Hui-Qin Zou, Shuo Li, Ying-Hua Huang, Yong Liu, Rudolf Bauer, Lian Peng, Ou Tao, Su-Rong Yan, and Yong-Hong Yan Copyright © 2014 Hui-Qin Zou et al. All rights reserved. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:21:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/745606/ Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE) on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr) for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Aymn T. Abbas, Nagla A. El-Shitany, Lamiaa A. Shaala, Soad S. Ali, Esam I. Azhar, Umama A. Abdel-dayem, and Diaa T. A. Youssef Copyright © 2014 Aymn T. Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:05:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/160373/ The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Culture-dependent method (Biolog) was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare. Yong Li, YiXin Ying, and WanLong Ding Copyright © 2014 Yong Li et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Medicine as an Alternative Medicine for Treating Diabetes: The Global Burden Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:32:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/596071/ Geeta Watal, Preeti Dhar, Sharad Kr. Srivastava, and Bechan Sharma Copyright © 2014 Geeta Watal et al. All rights reserved. Mikania glomerata: Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Neurochemical Study Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:56:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/710410/ The present study primarily aims to identify the relative density and the fatty acids (methyl esters) content present in the standardized ethanol extract of leaves of M. glomerata (EPMG). Meanwhile, in a second moment, this study evaluated the effects of the EPMG on the levels of amino acids in the hippocampus, and the mechanism of sedative and anxiolytic action. Adult mice were treated with doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg and evaluated in open field, elevated plus-maze, light dark, and rotarod tests. Moreover, in the behavioral tests diazepam (GABAergic anxiolytic, 2 mg/kg) as positive control and flumazenil (GABA antagonist, 2.5 mg/kg) were used to identify mechanism of sedative and anxiolytic action produced by EPMG. The EPMG is constituted by the following compounds: methyl cinnamate, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, (2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl propionate, (Z)-methyl-hexadec-7-enoate, methyl hexadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-methyl-octadec-9-enoate, octadecanoic acid, and squalene. This extract demonstrated anxiolytic effects, which may be mediated by GABAergic system, and was able to increase GABA levels and reduce of glutamate and aspartate concentrations in mice hippocampus, which can directly and/or indirectly assist in their anxiolytic effect. Although more studies are needed, the EPMG could represent an interesting therapeutical strategy in the treatment of anxiety. Lorena C. L. R. Santana, Maria R. M. Brito, George L. S. Oliveira, Antônia M. G. L. Citó, Clayton Q. Alves, Juceni P. David, Jorge M. David, and Rivelilson M. de Freitas Copyright © 2014 Lorena C. L. R. Santana et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Decreases the Leukocyte Infiltration to White Adipose Tissue and Attenuates Inflammatory Response in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Rats Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:04:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/473978/ Suppression of white adipose tissue inflammatory signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced inflammatory response. However, the precise mechanism of efficacy of acupuncture related to adipose tissue remains poorly understood. In the present study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 10 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) which was applied at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) for 20 min per day in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity model. Treatment lasted for one week. Obese rats treated with EA showed significantly reduced body weight compared with the rats in HFD group. EA decreased the number of F4/80 and CD11b-positive macrophages in epididymal adipose tissue. We found that 10 Hz EA given 7 days/week at ST36 acupoints significantly alleviated macrophage recruitment and then improved the obesity-associated factors of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and target genes expression in rats with HFD. Adipose tissue inflammatory responses indicated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and CD68 mRNA expression were significantly reduced by EA in obese rats. Additionally, EA was found to significantly reduced serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 in this model. These results indicated that EA improved adipose tissue inflammatory response in obese rats, at least partly, via attenuation of lipogenesis signaling. Chorng-Kai Wen and Tzung-Yan Lee Copyright © 2014 Chorng-Kai Wen and Tzung-Yan Lee. All rights reserved. Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology Sun, 17 Aug 2014 08:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/284517/ Alepidea amatymbica is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa with a long history of traditional use for the management of conditions like colds, coughs, sore throat, influenza, asthma, and abdominal cramps. Despite the much acclaimed traditional uses of the plant, there is a dearth of scientific information on the review of this plant. Hence, this review is aimed at providing information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of A. amatymbica. This review uses all the synonyms of the plant obtained from the plant list. Google scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus were made use of in addition to the University of Fort Hare’s online databases. All the phytochemical studies on Alepidea amatymbica obtained from the literature reported the presence of kaurene-type diterpenoids and their derivatives. Pharmacological areas identified on A. amatymbica fresh and dried extract include antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, astringent, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthes, antihypertensive, anti-HIV, and diuretic activities. Literature search on A. amatymbica revealed the use of cell line, brine shrimps, and rats for the determination of the toxicity in the plant. Clinical trials and product development to fully exploit the medicinal value are also required to validate its folklore use in traditional medicine. O. A. Wintola and A. J. Afolayan Copyright © 2014 O. A. Wintola and A. J. Afolayan. All rights reserved. A Comparative Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices for Treating Gastrointestinal Disorders Used by Communities Living in Three National Parks (Korea) Sun, 17 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/108037/ The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species. Hyun Kim, Mi-Jang Song, Heldenbrand Brian, and Kyoungho Choi Copyright © 2014 Hyun Kim et al. All rights reserved.