Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Pharmacokinetics of Two Alkaloids after Oral Administration of Rhizoma Coptidis Extract in Normal Rats and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Rats Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/845048/ A comparative pharmacokinetic study of berberine and palmatine after oral administration of Rhizoma Coptidis extract (96 mg/kg, containing berberine 22 mg/kg and palmatine 5 mg/kg based on body weight) was performed in normal and postinflammation irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) rats, induced by intracolonic instillation of acetic acid and restraint stress. Quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma was achieved by using a sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS method. Plasma samples were collected at 13 different time points and the pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by WinNonlin software. The significant differences in the pharmacokinetic behaviors, such as , , , and CL/, of berberine and palmatine were found between normal and PI-IBS model rats. The results indicated that PI-IBS pathological conditions in rats could alter the pharmacokinetic behavior of drug. Preclinical pharmacokinetic studies are usually carried out on healthy animals. However, we should pay more attention to the fact that the change of pharmacokinetic behavior plays an important role on efficacy. It is essential to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the drug in disease status. Zipeng Gong, Ying Chen, Ruijie Zhang, Yinghan Wang, Qing Yang, Yan Guo, Xiaogang Weng, Shuangrong Gao, Hailin Wang, Xiaoxin Zhu, Yu Dong, Yujie Li, and Yajie Wang Copyright © 2014 Zipeng Gong et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of Antifungal Activity and Mechanism of Action of Citral against Candida albicans Thu, 28 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/378280/ Candida albicans is a yeast that commensally inhabits the human body and can cause opportunistic or pathogenic infections. Objective. To investigate the antifungal activity of citral against C. albicans. Methodology. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined by the broth microdilution techniques. We also investigated possible citral action on cell walls (0.8 M sorbitol), cell membranes (citral to ergosterol binding), the time-kill curve, and biological activity on the yeast’s morphology. Results. The MIC and MFC of citral were, respectively, 64 µg/mL and 256 µg/mL. Involvement with the cell wall and ergosterol binding were excluded as possible mechanisms of action. In the morphological interference assay, it was observed that the product inhibited pseudohyphae and chlamydoconidia formation. The MIC and the MFC of citral required only 4 hours of exposure to effectively kill 99.9% of the inoculum. Conclusion. Citral showed in vitro antifungal potential against strains of C. albicans. Citral’s mechanism of action does not involve the cell wall or ergosterol, and further study is needed to completely describe its effects before being used in the future as a component of new antifungals. Maria Clerya Alvino Leite, André Parente de Brito Bezerra, Janiere Pereira de Sousa, Felipe Queiroga Sarmento Guerra, and Edeltrudes de Oliveira Lima Copyright © 2014 Maria Clerya Alvino Leite et al. All rights reserved. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Chinese Medicine Wed, 27 Aug 2014 08:00:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/859309/ William Chi Cho, Myeong Soo Lee, Lixing Lao, and Gerhard Litscher Copyright © 2014 William Chi Cho et al. All rights reserved. Acute and Long-Term Toxicity of Mango Leaves Extract in Mice and Rats Wed, 27 Aug 2014 07:55:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/691574/ The acute toxicity of mango leaves extract (MLE) at the maximal dose (18.4 g/kg) was studied in ICR mice and no abnormalities were detected during the experiment. The long-term studies at various doses of MLE (100 mg/kg, 300 mg/kg, and 900 mg/kg) in SD rats for 3 consecutive months revealed that, compared with the control group, rats in MLE treated groups showed slight body weight increase and higher fat weight; the serum TG and CHOL levels and the epididymis weight of male rats were a little higher; the serum K+ level of female rats was on the low side but the weights of liver, kidney, and adrenal gland were on the high side. In addition to this, no other obvious abnormalities were detected. Yi Zhang, Jian Li, Zhizhen Wu, Erwei Liu, Pingping Shi, Lifeng Han, Lingling Guo, Xiumei Gao, and Tao Wang Copyright © 2014 Yi Zhang et al. All rights reserved. The Effects of Herbs and Fruits on Leukaemia Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:21:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/494136/ In developing countries, herbal therapy is the first and basis form of treatment for most types of diseases. About 75–80% of the world’s population prefers herbal therapy as a major treatment due to its better adequacy and satisfactoriness, which enhance human body’s symmetry with minimal side effects. Fruits and plants have been presented from the past as promising tools in becoming a natural anticancer agents. Many of these plant extracts are currently used in cancer therapy and prevention. This review paper will particularly explore and emphasize on herbs and fruits used in the treatment of the leukaemia. Tayebeh Azam Saedi, Sabariah Md Noor, Patimah Ismail, and Fauziah Othman Copyright © 2014 Tayebeh Azam Saedi et al. All rights reserved. Acupoint Application in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina Pectoris: Study Protocol of a Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Wed, 27 Aug 2014 05:10:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/619706/ Background. Chronic stable angina pectoris (CSAP) is a major syndrome of ischemic heart disease (IHD). CSAP manifests as chest pain or discomfort and affects patients’ quality of life. Acupoint application (AP) has been reported to be effective for managing the symptoms of CSAP, but the evidence is not convincing. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of AP in the treatment of CSAP. Methods and Analysis. Two hundred participants with CSAP will be randomly assigned in a 1 : 1 : 1 : 1 ratio into 4 groups. All participants will receive 12 sessions of treatment in 4 weeks and the same basic treatment procedure. The participants will be visited and assessed for 12 weeks, including a 4-week screening, a 4-week treatment phase, and a 4-week follow-up phase. The primary outcome is the change in the total frequency of self-reported angina attack at 4th week compared with the baseline. The secondary outcomes include the intensity of angina pain, consumption of nitroglycerin or Suxiao Jiuxin pills, CCS angina classification, SAQ, SAS and SDS score. Ethics. The study protocol has been reviewed and approved by the Sichuan Regional Ethics Review Committee on TCM (number 2013kl-001). This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov NCT02029118. Yulan Ren, Dehua Li, Hui Zheng, Junling Lv, Junyan Leng, Linglin Zhang, Jie Zhang, Hailong Fan, and Fanrong Liang Copyright © 2014 Yulan Ren et al. All rights reserved. Integrated Analysis for Identifying Radix Astragali and Its Adulterants Based on DNA Barcoding Wed, 27 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/843923/ Radix Astragali is a popular herb used in traditional Chinese medicine for its proimmune and antidiabetic properties. However, methods are needed to help distinguish Radix Astragali from its varied adulterants. DNA barcoding is a widely applicable molecular method used to identify medicinal plants. Yet, its use has been hampered by genetic distance, base variation, and limitations of the bio-NJ tree. Herein, we report the validation of an integrated analysis method for plant species identification using DNA barcoding that focuses on genetic distance, identification efficiency, inter- and intraspecific variation, and barcoding gap. We collected 478 sequences from six candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2, ITS, psbA-trnH, rbcL, matK, and COI) from 29 species of Radix Astragali and adulterants. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence was demonstrated as the optimal barcode for identifying Radix Astragali and its adulterants. This new analysis method is helpful in identifying Radix Astragali and expedites the utilization and data mining of DNA barcoding. Sihao Zheng, Dewang Liu, Weiguang Ren, Juan Fu, Linfang Huang, and Shilin Chen Copyright © 2014 Sihao Zheng et al. All rights reserved. Synergistic Effect of Fermented Rice Extracts on the Probiotic and Laxative Properties of Yoghurt in Rats with Loperamide-Induced Constipation Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:41:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/878503/ Aim. The objective was to evaluate the synergistic effects of fermented rice extracts (FRe) on the laxative and probiotic properties of yoghurt in rats with loperamide-induced constipation. Methods. After constipation induction, yoghurt containing FRe (BFRe; 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1%) was administered orally once per day for 6 days. Results. Loperamide treatment caused marked decreases in fecal pellet numbers and water content discharged, as well as in the surface mucosal thickness of the colonic lumen, intestinal charcoal transit ratio, thickness, and number of mucous-producing goblet cells in the colonic mucosa, whereas it increased the remnant fecal pellet number and the mean diameter of the colonic lumen. However, this loperamide-induced constipation was ameliorated by treatment with FRe, yoghurt single formula, or 0.05%, 0.1%, or 1% BFRe (10 mL/kg). Additionally, the viable numbers of Lactobacillus in the cecal contents and feces were markedly higher than those in constipated rats. Moreover, greater probiotic and laxative effects were detected in BFRe-treated rats than in rats treated with equivalent doses of yoghurt or FRe single formula. Conclusion. The results suggest that addition of FRe to liquid yoghurt will enhance the probiotic and beneficial laxative effects of yoghurt in the digestive tract, without causing side effects. Jae-Suk Choi, Joo Wan Kim, Ki-Young Kim, Jong-Kwang Lee, Jae Hak Sohn, and Sae-Kwang Ku Copyright © 2014 Jae-Suk Choi et al. All rights reserved. Antiviral Activity of Sulfated Polysaccharide of Adenanthera pavonina against Poliovirus in HEp-2 Cells Wed, 20 Aug 2014 06:39:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/712634/ Adenanthera pavonina, popularly known as red-bead tree, carolina, pigeon’s eye, and dragon’s eye, is a plant traditionally used in Brazil for the treatment of several diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the activity of sulfated polysaccharide from the Adenanthera pavonina (SPLSAp) seeds against poliovirus type 1 (PV-1) in HEp-2 cell cultures. The SPLSAp presented a cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 500 μg/mL in HEp-2 cell cultures, evaluated by the dimethylthiazolyl-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method (MTT). The SPLSAp exhibited a significant antiviral activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.18 µg/mL, determined by plaque reduction assay and a high selectivity index (SI) of 423. The maximum inhibition (100%) of PV replication was found when the SPLSAp treatment was concomitant with viral infection (time 0 h), at all tested concentrations. The maximal inhibition was also found when the SPLSAp was used 1 h and 2 h postinfection, albeit at 50 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL. Therefore, we demonstrated that the SPLSAp inhibited PV growth. We also suggested that SPLSAp inhibited PV in more than one step of the replication, as the mechanism of antiviral action. We, therefore, selected the compound as a potential candidate for further development towards the control of the infection. Ananda Marques de Godoi, Lígia Carla Faccin-Galhardi, Nayara Lopes, Daniele Zendrini Rechenchoski, Raimundo Rafael de Almeida, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo, Carlos Nozawa, and Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares Copyright © 2014 Ananda Marques de Godoi et al. All rights reserved. Functions of Danggui Buxue Tang, a Chinese Herbal Decoction Containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix, in Uterus and Liver are Both Estrogen Receptor-Dependent and -Independent Tue, 19 Aug 2014 11:29:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/438531/ Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), a herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR), has been used in treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. Pharmacological results showed that DBT exhibited significant estrogenic properties in vitro, which therefore suggested that DBT could activate the nuclear estrogen receptors. Here, we assessed the estrogenic properties of DBT in an ovariectomized in vivo rat model: DBT was applied to the ovariectomized rats for 3 days. The application of DBT did not alter the weight of uterus and liver, as well as the transcript expression of the proliferation markers including the estrogen receptors α and β. However, DBT stimulated the transcript expression of the estrogen responsive genes. In addition, the inductive role of DBT on the expression of members of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor family in uterus and liver of ovariectomized rats was confirmed. These responses of DBT however were clearly distinct from the response pattern detectable here for 17β-estradiol. Therefore, DBT exhibited weak, but significant, estrogenic properties in vivo; however, some of its activities were independent of the estrogen receptor. Thus, DBT could be an exciting Chinese herbal decoction for an alternative treatment of hormone replacement therapy for women in menopause without subsequent estrogenic side effects. Oliver Zierau, Ken Y. Z. Zheng, Anja Papke, Tina T. X. Dong, Karl W. K. Tsim, and Günter Vollmer Copyright © 2014 Oliver Zierau et al. All rights reserved. Rapid Identification of Asteraceae Plants with Improved RBF-ANN Classification Models Based on MOS Sensor E-Nose Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:31:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/425341/ Plants from Asteraceae family are widely used as herbal medicines and food ingredients, especially in Asian area. Therefore, authentication and quality control of these different Asteraceae plants are important for ensuring consumers’ safety and efficacy. In recent decades, electronic nose (E-nose) has been studied as an alternative approach. In this paper, we aim to develop a novel discriminative model by improving radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) classification model. Feature selection algorithms, including principal component analysis (PCA) and BestFirst + CfsSubsetEval (BC), were applied in the improvement of RBF-ANN models. Results illustrate that in the improved RBF-ANN models with lower dimension data classification accuracies (100%) remained the same as in the original model with higher-dimension data. It is the first time to introduce feature selection methods to get valuable information on how to attribute more relevant MOS sensors; namely, in this case, S1, S3, S4, S6, and S7 show better capability to distinguish these Asteraceae plants. This paper also gives insights to further research in this area, for instance, sensor array optimization and performance improvement of classification model. Hui-Qin Zou, Shuo Li, Ying-Hua Huang, Yong Liu, Rudolf Bauer, Lian Peng, Ou Tao, Su-Rong Yan, and Yong-Hong Yan Copyright © 2014 Hui-Qin Zou et al. All rights reserved. Red Sea Suberea mollis Sponge Extract Protects against CCl4-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Rats via an Antioxidant Mechanism Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:21:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/745606/ Recent studies have demonstrated that marine sponges and their active constituents exhibited several potential medical applications. This study aimed to evaluate the possible hepatoprotective role as well as the antioxidant effect of the Red Sea Suberea mollis sponge extract (SMSE) on carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4-) induced acute liver injury in rats. In vitro antioxidant activity of SMSE was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Rats were orally administered three different concentrations (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) of SMSE and silymarin (100 mg/kg) along with CCl4 (1 mL/kg, i.p., every 72 hr) for 14 days. Plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin were measured. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) were also measured. Liver specimens were histopathologically examined. SMSE showed strong scavenging activity against free radicals in DPPH assay. SMSE significantly reduced liver enzyme activities. Moreover, SMSE significantly reduced hepatic MDA formation. In addition, SMSE restored GSH, NO, SOD, GPx, and CAT. The histopathological results confirmed these findings. The results of this study suggested a potent protective effect of the SMSE against CCl4-induced hepatic injury. This may be due to its antioxidant and radical scavenging activity. Aymn T. Abbas, Nagla A. El-Shitany, Lamiaa A. Shaala, Soad S. Ali, Esam I. Azhar, Umama A. Abdel-dayem, and Diaa T. A. Youssef Copyright © 2014 Aymn T. Abbas et al. All rights reserved. Dynamics of Panax ginseng Rhizospheric Soil Microbial Community and Their Metabolic Function Tue, 19 Aug 2014 07:05:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/160373/ The bacterial communities of 1- to 6-year ginseng rhizosphere soils were characterized by culture-independent approaches, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Culture-dependent method (Biolog) was used to investigate the metabolic function variance of microbe living in rhizosphere soil. Results showed that significant genetic and metabolic function variance were detected among soils, and, with the increasing of cultivating years, genetic diversity of bacterial communities in ginseng rhizosphere soil tended to be decreased. Also we found that Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria, and Proteobacteria were the dominants in rhizosphere soils, but, with the increasing of cultivating years, plant disease prevention or plant growth promoting bacteria, such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Bacillus, tended to be rare. Yong Li, YiXin Ying, and WanLong Ding Copyright © 2014 Yong Li et al. All rights reserved. Herbal Medicine as an Alternative Medicine for Treating Diabetes: The Global Burden Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:32:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/596071/ Geeta Watal, Preeti Dhar, Sharad Kr. Srivastava, and Bechan Sharma Copyright © 2014 Geeta Watal et al. All rights reserved. Mikania glomerata: Phytochemical, Pharmacological, and Neurochemical Study Mon, 18 Aug 2014 06:56:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/710410/ The present study primarily aims to identify the relative density and the fatty acids (methyl esters) content present in the standardized ethanol extract of leaves of M. glomerata (EPMG). Meanwhile, in a second moment, this study evaluated the effects of the EPMG on the levels of amino acids in the hippocampus, and the mechanism of sedative and anxiolytic action. Adult mice were treated with doses of 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg and evaluated in open field, elevated plus-maze, light dark, and rotarod tests. Moreover, in the behavioral tests diazepam (GABAergic anxiolytic, 2 mg/kg) as positive control and flumazenil (GABA antagonist, 2.5 mg/kg) were used to identify mechanism of sedative and anxiolytic action produced by EPMG. The EPMG is constituted by the following compounds: methyl cinnamate, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, (2-hydroxyphenyl)methyl propionate, (Z)-methyl-hexadec-7-enoate, methyl hexadecanoate, hexadecanoic acid, (Z)-methyl-octadec-9-enoate, octadecanoic acid, and squalene. This extract demonstrated anxiolytic effects, which may be mediated by GABAergic system, and was able to increase GABA levels and reduce of glutamate and aspartate concentrations in mice hippocampus, which can directly and/or indirectly assist in their anxiolytic effect. Although more studies are needed, the EPMG could represent an interesting therapeutical strategy in the treatment of anxiety. Lorena C. L. R. Santana, Maria R. M. Brito, George L. S. Oliveira, Antônia M. G. L. Citó, Clayton Q. Alves, Juceni P. David, Jorge M. David, and Rivelilson M. de Freitas Copyright © 2014 Lorena C. L. R. Santana et al. All rights reserved. Electroacupuncture Decreases the Leukocyte Infiltration to White Adipose Tissue and Attenuates Inflammatory Response in High Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Rats Sun, 17 Aug 2014 11:04:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/473978/ Suppression of white adipose tissue inflammatory signaling may contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity-induced inflammatory response. However, the precise mechanism of efficacy of acupuncture related to adipose tissue remains poorly understood. In the present study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activities of 10 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) which was applied at the acupoint Zusanli (ST36) for 20 min per day in high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced obesity model. Treatment lasted for one week. Obese rats treated with EA showed significantly reduced body weight compared with the rats in HFD group. EA decreased the number of F4/80 and CD11b-positive macrophages in epididymal adipose tissue. We found that 10 Hz EA given 7 days/week at ST36 acupoints significantly alleviated macrophage recruitment and then improved the obesity-associated factors of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and target genes expression in rats with HFD. Adipose tissue inflammatory responses indicated by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and CD68 mRNA expression were significantly reduced by EA in obese rats. Additionally, EA was found to significantly reduced serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1 in this model. These results indicated that EA improved adipose tissue inflammatory response in obese rats, at least partly, via attenuation of lipogenesis signaling. Chorng-Kai Wen and Tzung-Yan Lee Copyright © 2014 Chorng-Kai Wen and Tzung-Yan Lee. All rights reserved. Alepidea amatymbica Eckl. & Zeyh.: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology Sun, 17 Aug 2014 08:08:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/284517/ Alepidea amatymbica is an important medicinal plant in Southern Africa with a long history of traditional use for the management of conditions like colds, coughs, sore throat, influenza, asthma, and abdominal cramps. Despite the much acclaimed traditional uses of the plant, there is a dearth of scientific information on the review of this plant. Hence, this review is aimed at providing information on the botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of A. amatymbica. This review uses all the synonyms of the plant obtained from the plant list. Google scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, and Scopus were made use of in addition to the University of Fort Hare’s online databases. All the phytochemical studies on Alepidea amatymbica obtained from the literature reported the presence of kaurene-type diterpenoids and their derivatives. Pharmacological areas identified on A. amatymbica fresh and dried extract include antibacterial, antifungal, sedative, astringent, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, antihelminthes, antihypertensive, anti-HIV, and diuretic activities. Literature search on A. amatymbica revealed the use of cell line, brine shrimps, and rats for the determination of the toxicity in the plant. Clinical trials and product development to fully exploit the medicinal value are also required to validate its folklore use in traditional medicine. O. A. Wintola and A. J. Afolayan Copyright © 2014 O. A. Wintola and A. J. Afolayan. All rights reserved. Ligusticum wallichii Extract Inhibited the Expression of IL-1β after AMI in Rats Sun, 17 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/620359/ This study investigated the effects of Ligusticum wallichii on IL-1β expression in myocardium and central nervous system after AMI. AMI rat was administrated with Ligusticum wallichii extract. A series of assays were used to detect the effects of Ligusticum wallichii extract on infarct size, left ventricular ejection fraction, expression of TLR-4, NF-κB, and IL-1β in myocardium, IL-1β expression in serum and hypothalamus, and NPY expression in hypothalamus. We observed that Ligusticum wallichii extract improved the left ventricular ejection fraction and reduced infarct area enlargement after AMI, by inhibiting the expression of IL-1β in myocardium, serum, and hypothalamus. Ligusticum wallichii extract reduced the expression of IL-1β in myocardium by regulating TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibited IL-1β in hypothalamus by regulating NPY mRNA expression. Zhuo Yuan, Junping Zhang, and Cui Yang Copyright © 2014 Zhuo Yuan et al. All rights reserved. A Comparative Analysis of Ethnomedicinal Practices for Treating Gastrointestinal Disorders Used by Communities Living in Three National Parks (Korea) Sun, 17 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/108037/ The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species. Hyun Kim, Mi-Jang Song, Heldenbrand Brian, and Kyoungho Choi Copyright © 2014 Hyun Kim et al. All rights reserved. Preventive Effect of Crocin on Osteoporosis in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Thu, 14 Aug 2014 12:07:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/825181/ The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effects of crocin on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to a sham-operated group (sham) and five ovariectomy (OVX) subgroups, that is, OVX with vehicle (OVX), OVX with 17β-estradiol (E2, 25 μg/kg/day), and OVX with graded crocin doses (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg/day). Daily oral administration of E2 or crocin started 4 weeks after OVX and lasted for 16 weeks. Our results showed that crocin dose-dependently inhibited the BMD reduction of L4 vertebrae and femurs caused by OVX and prevented the deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in skeletal remodeling as evidenced by the lower levels of bone turnover markers. Furthermore, crocin reversed the oxidative stress status in both serum and bone tissue. The present study indicates that the administration of crocin at higher doses over a 16-week period can prevent OVX-induced osteoporosis in rats without hyperplastic effects on the uterus, which may, at least partially, be attributed to crocin’s antioxidative property. In brief, crocin is a natural alternative for postmenopausal osteoporosis treatment in elderly women. Peng-Chong Cao, Wen-Xing Xiao, Ya-Bo Yan, Xiong Zhao, Shuai Liu, Jing Feng, Wei Zhang, Jun Wang, Ya-Fei Feng, and Wei Lei Copyright © 2014 Peng-Chong Cao et al. All rights reserved. Bian Zheng Lun Zhi as a Complementary and Alternative Treatment for Menstrual Cramps in Women with Dysmenorrhea: A Prospective Clinical Observation Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:55:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/460386/ Background. Limited scientific evidence supports the positive effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for treating dysmenorrhea. Thus, an observation period of 3 months could verify the ancient indication that TCM treatments effectively alleviate menstrual cramps in women with primary dysmenorrhea or endometriosis. Methods. A prospective, nonrandomized study (primary dysmenorrhea and endometriosis groups) was conducted in women with dysmenorrhea for more than three consecutive menstrual cycles. All patients received TCM prescriptions based on bian zheng lun zhi theory 14 days before menstruation for a period of 12 weeks. Pain intensity was evaluated using a 10-cm visual analogue scale and two validated questionnaires (the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire). Results. Of the initial 70 intent-to-treat participants, the women with dysmenorrhea reported significant alleviation of cramps during menstruation after the 12-week TCM treatment. Mixed model analysis revealed that TCM prescriptions were more effective in alleviating fatigue, hot flashes, dizziness, painful breasts, excitement, and irritability in the primary dysmenorrhea group () than in the endometriosis group (). Conclusion. TCM prescriptions based on syndrome differentiation theory might be a potentially viable choice for treating painful menstruation and premenstrual symptoms after ruling out endometriosis. Pin-Yi Lin, Yueh-Ting Tsai, Jung-Nien Lai, Chia-Hao Yeh, and Ruei-Chi Fang Copyright © 2014 Pin-Yi Lin et al. All rights reserved. Inhibitory and Acceleratory Effects of Inonotus obliquus on Tyrosinase Activity and Melanin Formation in B16 Melanoma Cells Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/259836/ The aim of the present study is to preliminarily investigate the antimelanogenesis effect of Inonotus obliquus extracts by cell-free mushroom tyrosinase assay. It was found that petroleum ether and n-butanol extracts might contain unknown potential tyrosinase inhibitors, while its ethyl acetate extract might contain some unknown accelerators. Six compounds were isolated and their structures were identified by interpretation of NMR data and nicotinic acid was first discovered in Inonotus obliquus. In cells testing, betulin and trametenolic acid decreased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, while inotodiol and lanosterol significantly increased tyrosinase activity and melanin content, showing an of 9.74 and 8.43 μM, respectively. Nicotinie acid, 3β,22,25-trihydroxy-lanosta-8-ene, had a little or no effect on tyrosinase. Betulin exhibited a mode of noncompetitive inhibition with a of 0.4 μM on tyrosinase activity showing an IC50 of 5.13 μM and being more effective than kojic acid (6.43 μM), and trametenolic acid exhibited a mode of mixed inhibition with a of 0.9 μM, of 0.5 μM, and an of 7.25 μM. We proposed betulin and trametenolic acid as a new candidate of potent tyrosinase inhibitors and inotodiol and lanosterol as accelerators that could be used as therapeutic agent. Zheng-Fei Yan, Yang Yang, Feng-Hua Tian, Xin-Xin Mao, Yu Li, and Chang-Tian Li Copyright © 2014 Zheng-Fei Yan et al. All rights reserved. Remarkable Anticancer Activity of Teucrium polium on Hepatocellular Carcinogenic Rats Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/726724/ The term cancer has been concomitant with despair, agony, and dreadful death. Like many other diseases, herbal therapy has been used to prevent or suppress cancer. The present study investigated the capability of the decoction of Teucrium polium L. from Lamiaceae family to protect liver cells against hepatocellular carcinoma in carcinogenesis-induced animal model. After 28 weeks of treatment with decoction of Teucrium polium L., serum biochemical markers including ALT, AST, AFP, GGT, ALP, HCY, TNF-α, α2MG, and CBG have been regulated auspiciously. Total antioxidant status also has been increased intensely. Liver lesion score in treated group was lessened and glucocorticoid activity has been intensified significantly. In conclusion, Teucrium polium L. decoction might inhibit or suppress liver cancer development. Ariyo Movahedi, Rusliza Basir, Asmah Rahmat, Mohammad Charaffedine, and Fauziah Othman Copyright © 2014 Ariyo Movahedi et al. All rights reserved. Ananas comosus L. Leaf Phenols and p-Coumaric Acid Regulate Liver Fat Metabolism by Upregulating CPT-1 Expression Tue, 12 Aug 2014 11:42:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/903258/ In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and action mechanisms of pineapple leaf phenols (PLPs) on liver fat metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice. Results show that PLP significantly reduced abdominal fat and liver lipid accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The effects of PLP were comparable with those of FB. Furthermore, at the protein level, PLP upregulated the expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), whereas FB had no effects on CPT-1 compared with the HFD controls. Regarding mRNA expression, PLP mainly promoted the expression of CPT-1, PGC1a, UCP-1, and AMPK in the mitochondria, whereas FB mostly enhanced the expression of Ech1, Acox1, Acaa1, and Ehhadh in peroxisomes. PLP seemed to enhance fat metabolism in the mitochondria, whereas FB mainly exerted the effect in peroxisomes. In addition, p-coumaric acid (CA), one of the main components from PLP, significantly inhibited fat accumulation in oleic acid-induced HepG2 cells. CA also significantly upregulated CPT-1 mRNA and protein expressions in HepG2 cells. We, firstly, found that PLP enhanced liver fat metabolism by upregulating CPT-1 expression in the mitochondria and might be promising in treatment of fatty liver diseases as alternative natural products. CA may be one of the active components of PLP. Weidong Xie, Shaobo Zhang, Fan Lei, Xiaoxi Ouyang, and Lijun Du Copyright © 2014 Weidong Xie et al. All rights reserved. Phytochemical, Phytotherapeutical and Pharmacological Study of Momordica dioica Tue, 12 Aug 2014 09:19:46 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/806082/ Momordica dioica is a perennial, dioecious, cucurbitaceous climbing creeper (commonly known as kakrol, spiny gourd or teasle gourd). It is native to Asia with extensive distribution in India and Bangladesh. It is used not only as preventive and curative agent for various diseases but also as vegetable with a significant nutritional value over thousands of years. This review aims to take an attempt to evaluate the phytochemical, ethnobotanical, phytotherapeutical and pharmacological properties of kakrol according to the view of traditional medicinal plant based treatment including ayurveda along with recent scientific observations. Kakrol is considered as an underutilized vegetable, although having significant presence of certain compounds containing higher nutritional value than many frequently consumed vegetables. Moreover, as a traditional medicinal plant, it is still potential for its phytochemical components that increase the demand of further extensive evaluation to justify its other therapeutical roles. Therefore, this effort will be helpful to researchers who interested to disclose the unjustified phytotherapeutical role of Momordica dioica. Sattya Narayan Talukdar and Mohammad Nazir Hossain Copyright © 2014 Sattya Narayan Talukdar and Mohammad Nazir Hossain. All rights reserved. Inhibiting Effect of Electroacupuncture at Zusanli on Early Inflammatory Factor Levels Formed by Postoperative Abdominal Adhesions Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:59:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/950326/ We observed the inhibitive effect of electroacupuncture (EA) at Zusanli on inflammatory mediators of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesions to find out the relationship between EA and the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. Sixty-four rats were divided into 8 groups (A–H, each = 8): A = sham control; B = abdominal adhesions model; C = abdominal adhesions plus EA; D = sham acupoint control; E = abdominal adhesions plus vagotomy; F = abdominal adhesions plus EA after vagotomy; G = abdominal adhesions plus α-bungarotoxin (BGT); and H = abdominal adhesions plus EA after α-BGT. α-BGT (1 μg/kg) was injected into the abdominal cavity after surgery, and the bilateral celiac vagotomy was done during the surgery. On the third day the levels of inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS)) in tissues were evaluated. The abdominal adhesion groups developed obvious edema. Compared with sham control, the abdominal adhesion resulted in a significant elevation of inflammatory mediators. EA lowered the elevated levels of inflammatory mediators significantly; EA plus α-BGT and vagotomy showed less anti-inflammatory effects. The activation of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway might be one of the mechanisms of EA at Zusanli acupoints to exert the anti-inflammatory effects. Lijian Zhang, Huizhen Wang, Zhenjun Huang, Xian Shi, Sen Hu, Ingrid Gaischek, Daniela Litscher, Lu Wang, and Gerhard Litscher Copyright © 2014 Lijian Zhang et al. All rights reserved. Adverse Events of Massage Therapy in Pain-Related Conditions: A Systematic Review Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:55:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/480956/ Pain-related massage, important in traditional Eastern medicine, is increasingly used in the Western world. So the widening acceptance demands continual safety assessment. This review is an evaluation of the frequency and severity of adverse events (AEs) reported mainly for pain-related massage between 2003 and 2013. Relevant all-languages reports in 6 databases were identified and assessed by two coauthors. During the 11-year period, 40 reports of 138 AEs were associated with massage. Author, year of publication, country of occurrence, participant related (age, sex) or number of patients affected, the details of manual therapy, and clinician type were extracted. Disc herniation, soft tissue trauma, neurologic compromise, spinal cord injury, dissection of the vertebral arteries, and others were the main complications of massage. Spinal manipulation in massage has repeatedly been associated with serious AEs especially. Clearly, massage therapies are not totally devoid of risks. But the incidence of such events is low. Ping Yin, Ningyang Gao, Junyi Wu, Gerhard Litscher, and Shifen Xu Copyright © 2014 Ping Yin et al. All rights reserved. Potential Therapeutic Effects of Meditation for Treating Affective Dysregulation Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:54:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/402718/ Affective dysregulation is at the root of many psychopathologies, including stress induced disorders, anxiety disorders, and depression. The root of these disorders appears to be an attenuated, top-down cognitive control from the prefrontal cortices over the maladaptive subcortical emotional processing. A form of mental training, long-term meditation practice can trigger meditation-specific neuroplastic changes in the brain regions underlying cognitive control and affective regulation, suggesting that meditation can act as a kind of mental exercise to foster affective regulation and possibly a cost-effective intervention in mood disorders. Increasing research has suggested that the cultivation of awareness and acceptance along with a nonjudgmental attitude via meditation promotes adaptive affective regulation. This review examined the concepts of affective regulation and meditation and discussed behavioral and neural evidence of the potential clinical application of meditation. Lately, there has been a growing trend toward incorporating the “mindfulness” component into existing psychotherapeutic treatment. Promising results have been observed thus far. Future studies may consider exploring the possibility of integrating the element of “compassion” into current psychotherapeutic approaches. Natalie T. Y. Leung, Mandy M. Lo, and Tatia M. C. Lee Copyright © 2014 Natalie T. Y. Leung et al. All rights reserved. Antifungal and Antioxidant Activities of the Essential Oil from Angelica koreana Nakai Tue, 12 Aug 2014 08:53:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/398503/ Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine the antifungal and antioxidant activities of the essential oil from Angelica koreana. Methods. Essential oil was obtained from the dried roots of A. koreana by steam distillation, and its composition was identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the oil fraction and its main components were determined by broth dilution assay using common pathogenic Aspergillus and Trichophyton species. The combined effects of the oils with itraconazole were evaluated using a checkerboard titer test. In addition, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging, nitrite inhibition, and reducing power were determined to assess the antioxidant activity of this oil. Results. The essential oil fraction and its main components showed inhibitory activity against all of the tested fungi, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 250–1000 μg/mL. Furthermore, this oil exhibited synergism when combined with itraconazole. Conclusion. In the treatment of infections caused by Aspergillus and Trichophyton species, combining itraconazole with either A. koreana essential oil or its main components may reduce the minimum effective dose of itraconazole required and, thus, minimize its side effects. In addition, this oil is a promising source of natural antioxidant agents. Junghyun Roh and Seungwon Shin Copyright © 2014 Junghyun Roh and Seungwon Shin. All rights reserved. Effect of Poria cocos on Puromycin Aminonucleoside-Induced Nephrotic Syndrome in Rats Thu, 07 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2014/570420/ Nephrotic syndrome is associated with altered renal handling of water and sodium and changes in the levels of aquaporins (AQPs) and epithelial Na channels (ENaCs). The dried sclerotia of Poria cocos Wolf (WPC) have been used for treating chronic edema and nephrosis. We evaluated the effects of WPC on puromycin aminonucleoside- (PAN-) induced renal functional derangement and altered renal AQP2 and ENaC expression. In the nephrotic syndrome rat model, animals were injected with 75 mg/kg PAN and then treated with Losartan (30 mg·kg−1·day−1) or WPC (200 mg·kg−1·day−1) for 7 days. In the WPC group, proteinuria and ascites improved significantly. Plasma levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein- (LDL-) cholesterol reduced significantly in the WPC group. In addition, the WPC group exhibited attenuation of the PAN-induced increase in AQP2 and ENaC α/β subunit protein and mRNA levels. WPC suppressed significantly PAN-induced organic osmolyte regulators, reducing serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible protein kinase (Sgk1) and sodium-myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) mRNA expression. Our results show that WPC improves nephrotic syndrome, including proteinuria and ascites, through inhibition of AQP2 and ENaC expression. Therefore, WPC influences body-fluid regulation via inhibition of water and sodium channels, thereby, improving renal disorders such as edema or nephrosis. So Min Lee, Yun Jung Lee, Jung Joo Yoon, Dae Gill Kang, and Ho Sub Lee Copyright © 2014 So Min Lee et al. All rights reserved.