Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2015 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Medicinal Mushroom for Prevention of Disease of Modern Civilization Sun, 19 Apr 2015 11:37:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/812725/ Da-wei Qin, Zhengwei Gu, and Jian-you Guo Copyright © 2015 Da-wei Qin et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Hericium erinaceus on Alcohol Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice Thu, 16 Apr 2015 12:37:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/418023/ We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEM) on liver injury induced by acute alcohol administration in mice. Mice received ethanol (5 g/kg BW) by gavage every 12 hrs for a total of 3 doses. HEM (200 mg/kg BW) was gavage before ethanol administration. Subsequent serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) level, Maleic dialdehyde (MDA) level, hepatic total antioxidant status (TAOS), and activated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) were determined by ELISA and immunohistochemistry, respectively. HEM administration markedly decreased serum ALT, AST, and MDA levels. The hepatic histopathological observations showed that HEM had a relatively significant role in mice model, which had alcoholic liver damage. In conclusion, we observed that HEM (200 mg/kg BW) supplementation could restrain the hepatic damage caused by acute alcohol exposure. Lijun Hao, Yuxi Xie, Guikai Wu, Aibin Cheng, Xiaogang Liu, Rongjuan Zheng, Hong Huo, and Junwei Zhang Copyright © 2015 Lijun Hao et al. All rights reserved. Aqueous Extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill Prevents Age-Related Changes in the Myenteric Plexus of the Jejunum in Rats Thu, 16 Apr 2015 11:49:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/287153/ This study evaluated the effects of the supplementation with aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei Murrill (ABM) on biometric and blood parameters and quantitative morphology of the myenteric plexus and jejunal wall in aging Wistar rats. The animals were euthanized at 7 (C7), 12 (C12 and CA12), and 23 months of age (C23 and CA23). The CA12 and CA23 groups received a daily dose of ABM extract (26 mg/animal) via gavage, beginning at 7 months of age. A reduction in food intake was observed with aging, with increases in the Lee index, retroperitoneal fat, intestinal length, and levels of total cholesterol and total proteins. Aging led to a reduction of the total wall thickness, mucosa tunic, villus height, crypt depth, and number of goblet cells. In the myenteric plexus, aging quantitatively decreased the population of HuC/D+ neuronal and S100+ glial cells, with maintenance of the nNOS+ nitrergic subpopulation and increase in the cell body area of these populations. Supplementation with the ABM extract preserved the myenteric plexus in old animals, in which no differences were detected in the density and cell body profile of neurons and glial cells in the CA12 and CA23 groups, compared with C7 group. The supplementation with the aqueous extract of ABM efficiently maintained myenteric plexus homeostasis, which positively influenced the physiology and prevented the death of the neurons and glial cells. Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo, João Paulo Ferreira Schoffen, Carla Possani Cirilo, Mariana Cristina Vicente Umada Zapater, Fernando Augusto Vicentini, Andréia Assunção Soares, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht, Nilza Cristina Buttow, and Maria Raquel Marçal Natali Copyright © 2015 Ana Paula de Santi-Rampazzo et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Constituents and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. Essential Oils Thu, 16 Apr 2015 11:36:21 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/842047/ Many essential oils (EOs) of different plant species possess interesting antimicrobial effects on buccal microorganisms and cytotoxic properties. EOs of Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The EO from leaves is rich in sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The three major compounds identified were germacrene-D (24.2%), (E)-caryophyllene (15.5%), and bicyclogermacrene (11.6%). The inner bark EO is composed mainly of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons and the major components are alpha-copaene (14.9%) and alpha-(E)-bergamotene (13.0%). The outer bark EO is composed mainly of oxygenated sesquiterpenes and long-chain alkanes, and the major components are alpha-eudesmol (4.2%) and nonacosane (5.8%). The wood EO is mainly composed of long-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and the major components are nonacosane (9.7%) and palmitic acid (16.2%). The inner bark EO showed the strongest antimicrobial activity against the anaerobic bacteria Prevotella nigrescens (minimum inhibitory concentration-MIC of 50 µg mL−1). The outer bark and wood EOs showed MICs of 100 µg mL−1 for all aerobic microorganisms tested. The EOs presented low toxicity to Vero cells. These results suggest that K. coriacea, a Brazilian plant, provide initial evidence of a new and alternative source of substances with medicinal interest. Carla de M. Martins, Evandro A. do Nascimento, Sérgio A. L. de Morais, Alberto de Oliveira, Roberto Chang, Luís C. S. Cunha, Mário M. Martins, Carlos Henrique G. Martins, Thaís da S. Moraes, Paulla V. Rodrigues, Cláudio V. da Silva, and Francisco J. T. de Aquino Copyright © 2015 Carla de M. Martins et al. All rights reserved. Acupuncture Therapy Is More Effective Than Artificial Tears for Dry Eye Syndrome: Evidence Based on a Meta-Analysis Thu, 16 Apr 2015 09:02:30 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/143858/ Background. The efficacy of acupuncture in dry eye syndrome patients remains controversial. Methods. Pubmed, Ovid, Cochrane libraries, CNKI, Wanfang, and CQVIP databases were electronically searched until October 1, 2014. Outcomes including tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), and cornea fluorescein staining (CFS) were analyzed. A meta-analysis was performed using both fixed- and random-effects models based on heterogeneity across studies. Results. Seven studies were included in this study; 198 and 185 patients were randomly treated with acupuncture and artificial tears, respectively. The overall BUT of patients in acupuncture group was significantly longer than that of the artificial tears group after treatment (). The SIT was significantly higher in the acupuncture group than that in the artificial tears group after treatment (). The CFS of patients in acupuncture group was significantly improved compared to that in artificial group (). Conclusions. Acupuncture therapy is effective for the dry eye patients, partly better than artificial tear treatment. Lei Yang, Zongguo Yang, Hong Yu, and Hui Song Copyright © 2015 Lei Yang et al. All rights reserved. Protective Effect of Ethanol Extracts of Hericium erinaceus on Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Neuropathic Pain in Rats Thu, 16 Apr 2015 07:58:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/595480/ We investigated the effects of Hericium erinaceus (HEE) on alloxan induced diabetic neuropathic pain in laboratory rats. Alloxan induced diabetic rats were administered orally HEE. After 6 weeks of treatments, treatment with HEE 40 mg/kg in diabetic animals showed significant increase in pain threshold and paw withdrawal threshold and significant decrease in serum glucose and urine glucose. We also observed a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, Na+K+ATPase activity, and glutathione S transferase (GST) activity along with significant decreased levels of glutathione (GSH) content in diabetic rats. The total antioxidant status (TAOS) in the HEE-treated groups was significantly lower than that in the alloxan-treated group. HEE can offer pain relief in diabetic neuropathic pain. The improvement in diabetic state after HEE treatment along with the antioxidant activity could be the probable way by which it had alleviated diabetic neuropathy. Zhang Yi, Yang Shao-long, Wang Ai-hong, Sun Zhi-chun, Zhuo Ya-fen, Xu Ye-ting, and He Yu-ling Copyright © 2015 Zhang Yi et al. All rights reserved. Deqi Sensation in Different Kinds of Acupuncture 2014 Thu, 16 Apr 2015 07:53:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/306138/ Cun-Zhi Liu, Gerhard Litscher, Fan-Rong Liang, Jian Kong, Lin-Peng Wang, and Lu Wang Copyright © 2015 Cun-Zhi Liu et al. All rights reserved. The Chemical Constituents and Pharmacological Actions of Cordyceps sinensis Thu, 16 Apr 2015 07:27:22 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/575063/ Cordyceps sinensis, also called DongChongXiaCao (winter worm, summer grass) in Chinese, is becoming increasingly popular and important in the public and scientific communities. This study summarizes the chemical constituents and their corresponding pharmacological actions of Cordyceps sinensis. Many bioactive components of Cordyceps sinensis have been extracted including nucleoside, polysaccharide, sterol, protein, amino acid, and polypeptide. In addition, these constituents’ corresponding pharmacological actions were also shown in the study such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumour, antiapoptosis, and immunomodulatory actions. Therefore can use different effects of C. sinensis against different diseases and provide reference for the study of Cordyceps sinensis in the future. Yi Liu, Jihui Wang, Wei Wang, Hanyue Zhang, Xuelan Zhang, and Chunchao Han Copyright © 2015 Yi Liu et al. All rights reserved. Agaricoglycerides Protect against Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Inflammatory Response, Oxidative Stress, and Expression of NF-κB Thu, 16 Apr 2015 07:17:55 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/142736/ We have investigated the effects of agaricoglycerides (AG) in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury. I/R triggered increases/changes in markers of liver injury, hepatic oxidative stress, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). AG significantly reduced the extent of liver inflammation and oxidative stress and also attenuated the NF-κB activation as well as TNF-α and IL-1β production. Our results indicate that AG may represent a novel protective strategy against I/R-induced injury and inflammatory diseases. Xiang-qian Zhao, Bin Liang, Yang Liu, and Xiao-qiang Huang Copyright © 2015 Xiang-qian Zhao et al. All rights reserved. A Survey of the Practice and Perspectives of Chinese Acupuncturists on Deqi Wed, 15 Apr 2015 12:36:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/684708/ Deqi refers to the special sensation and reaction sensed mainly by both acupuncturist and patient when a needle was inserted into the acupoints and is considered to be vital to achieve acupuncture effect. For acupuncturist, it is important to judge and control Deqi in clinical practice. However, enough attention is paid to patients’ feelings rather than acupuncturists’ nowadays. We thus conducted this survey to determine acupuncturists’ perspectives about Deqi and to further find the proper way to induce Deqi. A total of 250 questionnaires were sent out to acupuncturists and 202 (80.8%) were returned. According to the results, most acupuncturists believe that Deqi is vital to obtain preferable clinical effects. The reliability of acupuncturists’ Deqi sensation ranks as sinking> tightening> astringent. The reliability of patients’ Deqi sensations ranks as sourness> numbness> distention> heaviness> pain. The reliability of influential factors ranks as manipulation> specificity of acupoint> TCM constitution> disease status> patient’s psychological condition> acupuncturists’ psychological guidance> clinical environment. This study is believed to provide additional evidence to the qualitative and quantitative research of Deqi in the future. Yu-lan Ren, Tai-pin Guo, Huai-bin Du, Hua-bin Zheng, Ting-ting Ma, Li Fang, Yu-jie Gao, Xu-guang Yang, Xue-zhi Li, Jing Shi, Liang Chen, Yi-wei Liu, Ru-wen Zhang, Hui Zheng, De-hua Li, Xi Wu, and Fan-rong Liang Copyright © 2015 Yu-lan Ren et al. All rights reserved. Vasorelaxant and Hypotensive Effects of Jaboticaba Fruit (Myrciaria cauliflora) Extract in Rats Wed, 15 Apr 2015 11:51:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/696135/ This study’s aim was to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of M. cauliflora (HEMC) on vascular tension and blood pressure in rats. In our in vitro studies using precontracted isolated aortas from rats, HEMC and acetylcholine (positive control) induced relaxation only in vessels with endothelium. Pretreatment with L-NAME (NO synthase inhibitor) or ODQ (soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) inhibitor) abolished the HEMC-induced relaxation. The treatment with MDL-12,330A (adenylyl cyclase (AC) inhibitor) or diclofenac (COX inhibitor) reduced HEMC-induced vasorelaxation. The blockade of muscarinic and β-adrenergic receptors (by atropine and propranolol, resp.) did not promote changes in HEMC-induced vasorelaxation. In our in vivo studies, catheters were inserted into the right femoral vein and artery of anesthetized rats for HEMC infusion and the measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, and aortic blood flow. The intravenous infusion of HEMC produced hypotension and increased aortic blood flow with no changes in heart rate. These findings showed that HEMC induces endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and hypotension with no alteration in heart rate. The NO/sGC/cGMP pathway seems to be the main cellular route involved in the vascular responsiveness. Daniela Medeiros Lobo de Andrade, Carolina de Fátima Reis, Patrícia Ferreira da Silva Castro, Leonardo Luiz Borges, Nathalia Oda Amaral, Ieda Maria Sapateiro Torres, Stefani Garcia Rezende, Eric de Souza Gil, Edemilson Cardoso da Conceição, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, and Matheus Lavorenti Rocha Copyright © 2015 Daniela Medeiros Lobo de Andrade et al. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Disruption of Quorum Sensing Signaling in Geographically Diverse United States Propolis Wed, 15 Apr 2015 06:10:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/472593/ Propolis or bee glue has been used for centuries for various purposes and is especially important in human health due to many of its biological and pharmacological properties. In this work we showed quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activity of ten geographically distinct propolis samples from the United States using the acyl-homoserine lactone- (AHL-) dependent Chromobacterium violaceum strain CV026. Based on GC-MS chemical profiling the propolis samples can be classified into several groups that are as follows: (1) rich in cinnamic acid derivatives, (2) rich in flavonoids, and (3) rich in triterpenes. An in-depth analysis of the propolis from North Carolina led to the isolation and identification of a triterpenic acid that was recently isolated from Hondurian propolis (Central America) and ethyl ether of p-coumaric alcohol not previously identified in bee propolis. QSI activity was also observed in the second group US propolis samples which contained the flavonoid pinocembrin in addition to other flavonoid compounds. The discovery of compounds that are involved in QSI activity has the potential to facilitate studies that may lead to the development of antivirulence therapies that can be complementary and/or alternative treatments against antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens and/or emerging pathogens that have yet to be identified. Michael A. Savka, Lucas Dailey, Milena Popova, Ralitsa Mihaylova, Benjamin Merritt, Marissa Masek, Phuong Le, Sharifah Radziah Mat Nor, Muhammad Ahmad, André O. Hudson, and Vassya Bankova Copyright © 2015 Michael A. Savka et al. All rights reserved. Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae) Improves the Liver Lipid Metabolism and Redox State of Ovariectomized Rats Tue, 14 Apr 2015 12:54:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/212378/ Vitex agnus-castus (VAC) is a plant that has recently been used to treat the symptoms of menopause, by its actions on the central nervous system. However, little is known about its actions on disturbances in lipid metabolism and nonalcoholic fat liver disease (NAFLD), frequently associated with menopause. Ovariectomized (OVX) rats exhibit increased adiposity and NAFLD 13 weeks after ovary removal and were used as animal models of estrogen deficiency. The rats were treated with crude extract (CE) and a butanolic fraction of VAC (ButF) and displayed the beneficial effects of a reduction in the adiposity index and a complete reversion of NAFLD. NAFLD reversion was accompanied by a general improvement in the liver redox status. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes were restored and the mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide production was significantly reduced in animals treated with CE and the ButF. It can be concluded that the CE and ButF from Vitex agnus-castus were effective in preventing NAFLD and oxidative stress, which are frequent causes of abnormal liver functions in the postmenopausal period. Franciele Neves Moreno, Lilian Brites Campos-Shimada, Silvio Claudio da Costa, Rosângela Fernandes Garcia, Alessandra Lourenço Cecchini, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali, Adriana de Souza Vitoriano, Emy Luiza Ishii-Iwamoto, and Clairce Luzia Salgueiro-Pagadigorria Copyright © 2015 Franciele Neves Moreno et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial Tue, 14 Apr 2015 09:36:43 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/915087/ Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: MCA score units (u), ; placebo:  u, ). The intercept () resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo ( u, ). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation ( u, ). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea ( u, ), epigastric fullness (, ), epigastric pain ( u, ), and bloating ( u, ). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. Attilio Giacosa, Davide Guido, Mario Grassi, Antonella Riva, Paolo Morazzoni, Ezio Bombardelli, Simone Perna, Milena A. Faliva, and Mariangela Rondanelli Copyright © 2015 Attilio Giacosa et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Yokukansan in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Tue, 14 Apr 2015 06:53:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/201592/ Objectives. We aimed at evaluating both the efficacy and safety of TJ-54 (Yokukansan) in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Methods. One hundred and twenty antipsychotic-treated inpatients were included. Patients were randomized to adjuvant treatment with TJ-54 or placebo. During a 4-week follow-up, psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results. TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction total, positive, and general PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant in both per-protocol set (PPS) and intention-to-treat (ITT). However, in PPS analysis, compared to the placebo group, the TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores for lack of spontaneity and flow of conversation (TJ-54: ; placebo: , ), tension (TJ-54: ; placebo: , ), and poor impulse control (TJ-54: ; placebo: , ). Conclusions. The results of the present study indicate that TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant. However, compared to the placebo group, TJ-54 group showed statistically significant improvements in the individual PANSS subscale scores. Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Jun Horiguchi, Rei Wake, Sadayuki Hashioka, Masaya Thoyama, Kenta Murotani, Norio Mori, Yoshio Minabe, Masaomi Iyo, Shuichi Ueno, Sachiko Ezoe, Syuzo Hoshino, and Haruo Seno Copyright © 2015 Tsuyoshi Miyaoka et al. All rights reserved. A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Maca Root as Treatment for Antidepressant-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Women Tue, 14 Apr 2015 05:55:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/949036/ Objective. We sought to demonstrate that maca root may be an effective treatment for antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction (AISD) in women. Method. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of maca root (3.0 g/day) in 45 female outpatients (mean age of 41.5 ± 12.5 years) with SSRI/SNRI-induced sexual dysfunction whose depression remitted. Endpoints were improvement in sexual functioning as per the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and the Massachusetts General Hospital Sexual Function Questionnaire (MGH-SFQ). Results. 45 of 57 consented females were randomized, and 42 (30 premenopausal and 12 postmenopausal women) were eligible for a modified intent-to-treat analysis based on having had at least one postmedication visit. Remission rates by the end of treatment were higher for the maca than the placebo group, based on attainment of an ASEX total score ≤ 10 (9.5% for maca versus 4.8% for placebo), attaining an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 12 (30.0% for maca versus 20.0% for placebo) and reaching an MGH-SFQ score ≤ 8 (9.5% for maca versus 5.0% for placebo). Higher remission rates for the maca versus placebo group were associated with postmenopausal status. Maca was well tolerated. Conclusion. Maca root may alleviate SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women. This trial is registered with NCT00568126. Christina M. Dording, Pamela J. Schettler, Elizabeth D. Dalton, Susannah R. Parkin, Rosemary S. W. Walker, Kara B. Fehling, Maurizio Fava, and David Mischoulon Copyright © 2015 Christina M. Dording et al. All rights reserved. Antiulcerogenic Activity and Toxicity of Bauhinia holophylla Hydroalcoholic Extract Sun, 12 Apr 2015 12:34:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/439506/ Several species of Bauhinia are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, diabetes, and inflammation, among other conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiulcer effect of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of B. holophylla. The chemical profile of the extract was determined by HPLC-PAD-ESI-IT-MS. A dose-effect relation was constructed using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model in male Wistar rats. Histological analyses and studies of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were performed in stomach samples. The involvement of SH compounds, NO, channels, and α2-adrenergic receptors in the gastroprotective effect was evaluated. A toxicity study was performed with a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg. The extract was composed mainly of cyanoglucoside and flavonol-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. SH compounds, NO release, channel activation, and presynaptic α2-adrenergic receptor stimulation each proved to be involved in the antiulcer effect. The levels of GSH and activity of GR and GPx were increased, and the levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were modulated. There was an antidiarrheal effect and there were no signs of toxicity. B. holophylla presents antiulcer activity mainly by decreasing oxidative stress and attenuating the inflammatory response, without inducing side effects. A. L. Rozza, D. A. S. Cesar, L. G. Pieroni, L. L. Saldanha, A. L. Dokkedal, F. M. De-Faria, A. R. M. Souza-Brito, W. Vilegas, R. K. Takahira, and C. H. Pellizzon Copyright © 2015 A. L. Rozza et al. All rights reserved. The Combined Extract of Zingiber officinale and Zea mays (Purple Color) Improves Neuropathy, Oxidative Stress, and Axon Density in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats Sun, 12 Apr 2015 08:56:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/301029/ Based on the protective effect of the combined extract of purple waxy corn and ginger (PWCG) on oxidative stress related disorders in diabetic condition, we aimed to determine the effect of PWCG on the functional, biochemical, and structural change of the lesion nerve in streptozotocin- (STZ-) diabetic rats. PWCG at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mgkg−1 BW were orally given to STZ-diabetic rats which were subjected to chronic constriction (CCI) at right sciatic nerve for 21 days. The blood sugar was assessed before and at the end of study whereas the sciatic function index (SFI), paw withdrawal threshold intensity (PWTI), and paw withdrawal latency (PWL) were assessed every 3 days until the end of study. At the end of study, the determination of nerve conduction velocity (NCV), axon density, oxidative stress status, and aldose reductase (AR) activity of the lesion nerve were performed. It was found that PWCG improved SFI, PWTI, PWL, and NCV together with the improved oxidative stress status and the axon density in the lesion nerve. No changes of AR activity or blood sugar level were observed. Therefore, PWCG might improve the functional and structural changes in STZ-diabetic rats plus CCI via the improved oxidative stress status. Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Paphaphat Thiraphatthanavong, Supaporn Muchimapura, Wipawee Thukhammee, Kamol Lertrat, and Bhalang Suriharn Copyright © 2015 Jintanaporn Wattanathorn et al. All rights reserved. Xanthohumol Induces Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis in Ca Ski Human Cervical Cancer Cells Thu, 09 Apr 2015 12:23:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/921306/ We investigate induction of apoptosis by xanthohumol on Ca Ski cervical cancer cell line. Xanthohumol is a prenylated chalcone naturally found in hop plants, previously reported to be an effective anticancer agent in various cancer cell lines. The present study showed that xanthohumol was effective to inhibit proliferation of Ca Ski cells based on IC50 values using sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. Furthermore, cellular and nuclear morphological changes were observed in the cells using phase contrast microscopy and Hoechst/PI fluorescent staining. In addition, 48-hour long treatment with xanthohumol triggered externalization of phosphatidylserine, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA fragmentation in the cells. Additionally, xanthohumol mediated S phase arrest in cell cycle analysis and increased activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9. On the other hand, Western blot analysis showed that the expression levels of cleaved PARP, p53, and AIF increased, while Bcl-2 and XIAP decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings indicate that xanthohumol-induced cell death might involve intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, as well as downregulation of XIAP, upregulation of p53 proteins, and S phase cell cycle arrest in Ca Ski cervical cancer cells. This work suggests that xanthohumol is a potent chemotherapeutic candidate for cervical cancer. Wai Kuan Yong and Sri Nurestri Abd Malek Copyright © 2015 Wai Kuan Yong and Sri Nurestri Abd Malek. All rights reserved. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) Thu, 09 Apr 2015 08:34:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/490765/ The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. Clarice Noleto Dias, Luciana Patrícia Lima Alves, Klinger Antonio da Franca Rodrigues, Maria Cristiane Aranha Brito, Carliane dos Santos Rosa, Flavia Maria Mendonça do Amaral, Odair dos Santos Monteiro, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar Andrade, José Guilherme Soares Maia, and Denise Fernandes Coutinho Moraes Copyright © 2015 Clarice Noleto Dias et al. All rights reserved. Developing Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Era of Evidence-Based Medicine: Current Evidences and Challenges Wed, 08 Apr 2015 14:08:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/425037/ Evidence-based medicine (EBM), by integrating individual clinical expertise with the best available clinical evidence from systematic research, has in recent years been established as the standard of modern medical practice for greater treatment efficacy and safety. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), on the other hand, evolved as a system of medical practice from ancient China more than 2000 years ago based on empirical knowledge as well as theories and concepts which are yet to be mapped by scientific equivalents. Despite the expanding TCM usage and the recognition of its therapeutic benefits worldwide, the lack of robust evidence from the EBM perspective is hindering acceptance of TCM by the Western medicine community and its integration into mainstream healthcare. For TCM to become an integral component of the healthcare system so that its benefits can be rationally harnessed in the best interests of patients, it is essential for TCM to demonstrate its efficacy and safety by high-level evidence in accordance with EBM, though much debate remains on the validity and feasibility of applying the EBM model on this traditional practice. This review aims to discuss the current status of research in TCM, explore the evidences available on its efficacy and safety, and highlight the issues and challenges faced in applying EBM to TCM. Foon Yin Fung and Yeh Ching Linn Copyright © 2015 Foon Yin Fung and Yeh Ching Linn. All rights reserved. Gastroprotective Effect of Geopropolis from Melipona scutellaris Is Dependent on Production of Nitric Oxide and Prostaglandin Wed, 08 Apr 2015 13:45:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/459846/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of ethanolic extract of geopropolis (EEGP) from Melipona scutellaris and to investigate the possible mechanisms of action. The gastroprotective activity of the EEGP was evaluated using model ulcer induced by ethanol. To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. In addition, the antisecretory activity of EEGP was also evaluated by pylorus ligated model. The EEGP orally administrated (300 mg/kg) reduced the ulcerative lesions induced by the ethanol (). Regarding the mechanism of action, the prior administration of nitric oxide and prostaglandins antagonists suppressed the activity of gastroprotective EEGP (). On the other hand the gastroprotective activity of EEGP was kept in the group pretreated with the antagonist of the NP-SH groups; furthermore the antisecretory activity was not significant (). These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production. Jerônimo Aparecido Ribeiro-Junior, Marcelo Franchin, Miriam Elias Cavallini, Carina Denny, Severino Matias de Alencar, Masaharu Ikegaki, and Pedro Luiz Rosalen Copyright © 2015 Jerônimo Aparecido Ribeiro-Junior et al. All rights reserved. Ferulic Acid Attenuates TGF-β1-Induced Renal Cellular Fibrosis in NRK-52E Cells by Inhibiting Smad/ILK/Snail Pathway Wed, 08 Apr 2015 08:29:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/619720/ Renal fibrosis is a common cause of renal dysfunction with chronic kidney disease. Central to this process is epithelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) of proximal tubular epithelial cells driven by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Ferulic acid (FA) on EMT of renal proximal tubular epithelial cell line (NRK-52E) induced by TGF-β1 and to elucidate its underlying mechanism against EMT related to TGF-β1/Smads pathway. The NRK-52E cells were treated for 48 h with TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) in different concentrations of FA (0 to 200 µM). Fibronectin, a mesenchymal marker, was assessed by western blotting. Western blotting was also used to examine the EMT markers (E-cadherin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)), signal transducer (p-Smad2/3), and EMT initiator (Snail). ILK was also assayed by western blotting. The results showed that TGF-β1 induced spindle-like morphological transition in NRK-52E cells. Smad2/3 signaling pathway activation, increased fibronectin, α-SMA, ILK, and Snail expression, and decreased E-cadherin expression in TGF-β1-treated NRK-52E cells. FA efficiently blocked P-Smad2/3 activation and attenuated all these EMT changes induced by TGF-β1. These findings suggest that FA may serve as a potential fibrosis antagonist for renal proximal tubule cells by inhibiting EMT process. Ming-gang Wei, Wei Sun, Wei-ming He, Li Ni, and Yan-yu Yang Copyright © 2015 Ming-gang Wei et al. All rights reserved. Medication and Dietary Supplement Interactions among a Low-Income, Hospitalized Patient Population Who Take Cardiac Medications Wed, 08 Apr 2015 07:38:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/429826/ Purpose. To identify characteristics associated with the use of potentially harmful combinations of dietary supplements (DS) and cardiac prescription medications in an urban, underserved, inpatient population. Methods. Cardiac prescription medication users were identified to assess the prevalence and risk factors of potentially harmful dietary supplement-prescription medication interactions (PHDS-PMI). We examined sociodemographic and clinical characteristics for crude ( or -tests) and adjusted multivariable logistic regression associations with the outcome. Results. Among 558 patients, there were 121 who also used a DS. Of the 110 participants having a PHDS-PMI, 25% were asked about their DS use at admission, 75% had documentation of DS in their chart, and 21% reported the intention to continue DS use after discharge. A multivariable logistic regression model noted that for every additional medication or DS taken the odds of having a PHDS-PMI increase and that those with a high school education are significantly less likely to have a PHDS-PMI than those with a college education. Conclusion. Inpatients at an urban safety net hospital taking a combination of cardiac prescription medications and DS are at a high risk of harmful supplement-drug interactions. Providers must ask about DS use and should consider the potential for interactions when having patient discussions about cardiac medications and DS. Paula Gardiner, Amanda C. Filippelli, Ekaterina Sadikova, Laura F. White, and Brian W. Jack Copyright © 2015 Paula Gardiner et al. All rights reserved. The Effectiveness of the Feldenkrais Method: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Wed, 08 Apr 2015 06:53:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/752160/ The Feldenkrais Method (FM) has broad application in populations interested in improving awareness, health, and ease of function. This review aimed to update the evidence for the benefits of FM, and for which populations. A best practice systematic review protocol was devised. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias approach and trial findings analysed individually and collectively where possible. Twenty RCTs were included (an additional 14 to an earlier systematic review). The population, outcome, and findings were highly heterogeneous. However, meta-analyses were able to be performed with 7 studies, finding in favour of the FM for improving balance in ageing populations (e.g., timed up and go test MD −1.14 sec, 95% CI −1.78, −0.49; and functional reach test MD 6.08 cm, 95% CI 3.41, 8.74). Single studies reported significant positive effects for reduced perceived effort and increased comfort, body image perception, and dexterity. Risk of bias was high, thus tempering some results. Considered as a body of evidence, effects seem to be generic, supporting the proposal that FM works on a learning paradigm rather than disease-based mechanisms. Further research is required; however, in the meantime, clinicians and professionals may promote the use of FM in populations interested in efficient physical performance and self-efficacy. Susan Hillier and Anthea Worley Copyright © 2015 Susan Hillier and Anthea Worley. All rights reserved. PMC-12, a Prescription of Traditional Korean Medicine, Improves Amyloid -Induced Cognitive Deficits through Modulation of Neuroinflammation Tue, 07 Apr 2015 16:52:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/768049/ PMC-12 is a prescription used in traditional Korean medicine that consists of a mixture of four herbal medicines, Polygonum multiflorum, Rehmannia glutinosa, Polygala tenuifolia, and Acorus gramineus, which have been reported to have various pharmacological effects on age-related neurological diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether PMC-12 improves cognitive deficits associated with decreased neuroinflammation in an amyloid-β-(Aβ-) induced mouse model and exerts the antineuroinflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) stimulated murine BV2 microglia. Intracerebroventricular injection of in mice resulted in impairment in learning and spatial memory, whereas this was reversed by oral administration of PMC-12 (100 and 500 mg/kg/day) in dose-dependent manners. Moreover, PMC-12 reduced the increase of Aβ expression and activation of microglia and astrocytes in the -injected brain. Furthermore, quantitative PCR data showed that inflammatory mediators were significantly decreased by administration of PMC-12 in Aβ-injected brains. Consistent with the in vivo data, PMC-12 significantly reduced the inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated BV2 cells without cell toxicity. Moreover, PMC-12 exhibited anti-inflammatory properties via downregulation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathways. These findings suggest that the protective effects of PMC-12 may be mediated by its antineuroinflammatory activities, resulting in the attenuation of memory impairment; accordingly, PMC-12 may be useful in the prevention and treatment of AD. Min Young Park, Yeon Suk Jung, Jung Hwa Park, Young Whan Choi, Jaewon Lee, Cheol Min Kim, Jin Ung Baek, Byung Tae Choi, and Hwa Kyoung Shin Copyright © 2015 Min Young Park et al. All rights reserved. Effect of Oenothera odorata Root Extract on Microgravity and Disuse-Induced Muscle Atrophy Tue, 07 Apr 2015 16:27:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/130513/ Muscle atrophy, a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and volume, results from reduced muscle use and plays a key role in various muscular diseases. In the microgravity environment of space especially, muscle atrophy is induced by muscle inactivity. Exposure to microgravity induces muscle atrophy through several biological effects, including associations with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study used 3D-clinostat to investigate muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress in vitro, and sciatic denervation was used to investigate muscle atrophy in vivo. We assessed the effect of Oenothera odorata root extract (EVP) on muscle atrophy. EVP helped recover cell viability in C2C12 myoblasts exposed to microgravity for 24 h and delayed muscle atrophy in sciatic denervated mice. However, the expressions of HSP70, SOD1, and ceramide in microgravity-exposed C2C12 myoblasts and in sciatic denervated mice were either decreased or completely inhibited. These results suggested that EVP can be expected to have a positive effect on muscle atrophy by disuse and microgravity. In addition, EVP helped characterize the antioxidant function in muscle atrophy. Yong-Hyeon Lee, Dong-Hyun Seo, Ji-Hyung Park, Kazuya Kabayama, Joerg Opitz, Kwang Ho Lee, Han-Sung Kim, and Tack-Joong Kim Copyright © 2015 Yong-Hyeon Lee et al. All rights reserved. Evaluation of the Effects of a Combination of Japanese Honey and Hydrocolloid Dressing on Cutaneous Wound Healing in Male Mice Tue, 07 Apr 2015 14:20:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/910605/ The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the combined use of Japanese honey and hydrocolloid dressing (HCD) on cutaneous wound healing. Mice were divided into four groups: the Acacia (Japan) + HCD, Manuka (New Zealand) + HCD, Chinese milk vetch (Japan) + HCD, and HCD (control) groups. The mice received two full-thickness wounds. The wounds of the HCD group were covered with HCD, whereas those of the other groups were treated with 0.1 mL of the relevant type of honey, before being covered with HCD. Wound area was significantly smaller in the HCD group than in the Acacia + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups on day 13 and days 8–14, respectively. Moreover, compared with the HCD group, reepithelialization was delayed in the Acacia + HCD group and reepithelialization and collagen deposition were delayed in the Chinese milk vetch + HCD and Manuka + HCD groups. These results indicate that the combined use of Japanese honey and HCD does not promote cutaneous wound healing compared with the use of HCD alone. Thus, this method is probably not useful for promoting healing. Kanae Mukai, Miki Koike, Saki Nakamura, Yuka Kawaguchi, Fumika Katagiri, Saki Nojiri, Yuki Yamada, Eri Miyajima, Mayuko Matsumoto, Emi Komatsu, Yukari Nakajima, Tamae Urai, Naoko Murakado, and Toshio Nakatani Copyright © 2015 Kanae Mukai et al. All rights reserved. Metabolomics Analysis of Seminal Plasma in Infertile Males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency: A Preliminary Study Tue, 07 Apr 2015 14:19:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/892930/ Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an important treatment for male infertility, and its application to therapy is dependent on differentiation of TCM syndromes. This study aims to investigate the changes in metabolites and metabolic pathways in infertile males with Kidney-Yang Deficiency syndrome (KYDS) via metabolomics approaches. Seminal plasma samples were collected from 18 infertile males with KYDS and 18 fertile males. Liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize metabolomics profiles. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA), and pathway analysis were used for pattern recognition and metabolite identification. PCA and PLS-DA results differentiated the two groups of patients. Forty-one discriminating metabolites (18 in positive mode and 23 in negative mode) were identified. Seven metabolites were related to five potential metabolic pathways associated with biosynthesis and metabolism of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and sphingolipid metabolism. The changes in metabolic pathways may play an important role in the origin of KYDS-associated male infertility. Metabolomics analysis of seminal plasma may be used to differentiate TCM syndromes of infertile males, but further research must be conducted. Xiang Chen, Chao Hu, Jican Dai, and Lei Chen Copyright © 2015 Xiang Chen et al. All rights reserved. Antibacterial and Antiproliferative Activities of Plumericin, an Iridoid Isolated from Momordica charantia Vine Tue, 07 Apr 2015 12:52:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2015/823178/ Plumericin, an iridoid lactone, was isolated with relatively high yield from Momordica charantia vine using the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and the separation box (Sepbox) comprising dual combination of high-performance liquid chromatography and solid phase extraction. This compound showed antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Bacillus subtilis with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values better than cloxacillin. Plumericin potently inhibited proliferation of two leukemic cancer cell lines: they were acute and chronic leukemic cancer cell lines, NB4 and K562, with the effective doses (ED50) of 4.35 ± 0.21 and 5.58 ± 0.35 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, the mechanism of growth inhibition in both cell lines was induced by apoptosis, together with G2/M arrest in K562 cells. Jutamas Saengsai, Sumonthip Kongtunjanphuk, Nuttawan Yoswatthana, Tanawan Kummalue, and Weena Jiratchariyakul Copyright © 2015 Jutamas Saengsai et al. All rights reserved.