Table 8: Estimation results (females, ).

SmokerAlcoholObesityHealth
Coefficient -valueCoefficient -valueCoefficient -valueCoefficient -value

Smoker−0.0501(0.855)
Alcohol0.8727**(0.014)
Obesity−0.3474(0.465)

Age 30–44−0.0760(0.327)0.1286(0.271)0.1787*(0.087)−0.5114***(0.000)
Age 45–59−0.1808**(0.028)0.3264***(0.008)0.4321***(0.000)−1.1178***(0.000)
Age 60–74−0.5941***(0.000)0.5074***(0.001)0.4291***(0.001)−1.4134***(0.000)
Age >74−1.0870***(0.000)0.7154***(0.000)0.4252***(0.007)−1.9218***(0.000)
Partnership−0.2973***(0.000)−0.0356(0.603)0.1041*(0.064)−0.0541(0.351)
Children0.0458(0.427)0.0264(0.752)−0.0777(0.282)0.1535**(0.014)
Eastern Germany−0.1104**(0.040)−0.1645**(0.027)0.0722(0.206)−0.0615(0.248)
Turkey−0.0857(0.504)−4.0274***(0.000)0.0032(0.981)0.0605(0.643)
Rest of World0.1093(0.247)−0.2952*(0.063)0.1704*(0.089)−0.1005(0.301)

Rel. Poverty0.3264***(0.000)−0.1462(0.220)0.1571*(0.055)0.0814(0.338)
Tenous prosperity0.0704(0.201)−0.1007(0.214)0.1090*(0.056)−0.0048(0.932)
Higher Income0.0373(0.633)0.1385(0.153)−0.1469(0.118)−0.0049(0.951)
Rel. prosperity−0.1185(0.146)0.2236**(0.013)−0.2377***(0.008)0.0550(0.500)
Economic worries0.1475***(0.003)−0.0345(0.632)0.0805(0.131)−0.3485***(0.000)
Retired−0.2107*(0.057)−0.1346(0.301)−0.0995(0.292)−0.1192(0.193)
Unemployed0.4269***(0.000)0.3238*(0.078)−0.0708(0.590)−0.0051(0.969)
Working h. 1–210.2137***(0.003)0.1133(0.292)−0.1297(0.128)0.2369***(0.003)
Working h. 22–420.2546***(0.000)0.2020**(0.019)−0.2077***(0.004)0.1163(0.102)
Working h. >420.3138***(0.000)0.3013***(0.005)0.1097(0.248)0.0232(0.795)
O-level−0.1372**(0.012)0.2193***(0.005)−0.0788(0.165)0.2071***(0.000)
High school−0.4272***(0.000)0.2861***(0.007)−0.3556***(0.000)0.2333**(0.013)
University−0.5430***(0.000)0.3438***(0.000)−0.3890***(0.000)0.3240***(0.001)
Education−0.3181***(0.001)−0.0801(0.567)−0.2838**(0.040)0.1395(0.220)

Private health ins.−0.0522(0.553)0.0972(0.328)−0.0511(0.596)−0.0283(0.739)
Supplemental ins.0.0376(0.551)0.1712**(0.027)−0.0452(0.533)−0.1088*(0.078)
Risk averse−0.0980**(0.046)0.0029(0.966)0.0021(0.967)−0.1029**(0.029)
Risk taker0.2357***(0.000)0.1980***(0.008)−0.0452(0.496)0.1665***(0.010)
Renovation0.1382***(0.003)0.0257(0.696)0.0648(0.205)−0.1454***(0.003)
Mother O-level0.0727(0.276)0.0814(0.345)−0.0643(0.422)
Father O-level0.0667(0.289)0.1437*(0.076)−0.1067(0.153)
Constant−0.3020***(0.003)−2.0829***(0.000)−1.1487***(0.000)1.0291***(0.000)

-values in parentheses: * , ** , *** .