About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Economics Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 278906, 16 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/278906
Research Article

Socioeconomic Conditions and Risk of Mental Depression: An Empirical Analysis for Brazilian Citizens

1Department of Economics, Ponta Grossa State University, Ponta Grossa, PR, Brazil
2PPGEA-ESALQ-University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
3Department of Economics, ESALQ-University of São Paulo, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil

Received 30 August 2011; Revised 8 December 2011; Accepted 16 January 2012

Academic Editor: Rati Ram

Copyright © 2012 Marcelo Justus dos Santos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. S. Becker, Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education, University of Chicago Press, 1964.
  2. WHO, “Mental health: new understanding, new hope,” in The World Health Report 2001, 2001, http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/definition/en/.
  3. D. E. Marcotte and V. Wilcox-Gök, “Estimating the employment and earnings costs of mental illness: recent developments in the United States,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 21–27, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. S. L. Ettner, R. C. Kessler, and R. G. Frank, “The impact of psychiatric disorders on labor market outcomes,” NBER working paper 5989, 1997.
  5. S. Lee, A. Tsang, Y.-Q. Huang et al., “Individual and societal impact on earnings associated with serious mental illness in metropolitan China,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 180, no. 2-3, pp. 132–136, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. R. Frank and P. Gertler, “An assessment of measurement error bias for estimating the effect of mental distress on income,” Journal of Human Resources, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 154–164, 1991.
  7. A. Cseh, “The effects of depressive symptoms on earnings,” Southern Economic Journal, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 383–409, 2008. View at Scopus
  8. M. Jofre-Bonet, S. H. Busch, T. A. Falba, and J. L. Sindelar, “Poor mental health and smoking: interactive impact on wages,” Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 193–203, 2005. View at Scopus
  9. D. P. Rice and L. S. Miller, “Health economics and cost implications of anxiety and other mental disorders in the United States,” British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 173, no. 34, supplement, pp. 4–9, 1998.
  10. P. Berto, D. DIlario, P. Ruffo, R. Di Virgilio, and F. Rizzo, “Depression: cost-ofillness studies in the international literature, a review,” The Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 3–10, 2003.
  11. R. C. Kessler, S. Heeringa, M. D. Lakoma et al., “Individual and societal effects of mental disorders on earnings in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication,” American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 6, pp. 703–711, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. A. Stoudemire, R. Frank, and N. Hedemark, “The economic burden of depression,” General Hospital Psychiatry, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 387–394, 1986.
  13. P. E. Greenberg, L. E. Stiglin, S. N. Finkelstein, and E. R. Berndt, “The economic burden of depression in 1990,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 405–418, 1993. View at Scopus
  14. J. Mirowsky and C. E. Ross, “Age and the effect of economic hardship on depression,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 132–149, 2001. View at Scopus
  15. J. Mirowsky, “Age and the gender gap in depression,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 362–380, 1996.
  16. A. Chevalier and L. Feinstein, “Sheepskin or prozac: the causal effect of education on mental health,” in Proceedings of the Séminaire Économique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium, 2006.
  17. C. E. Ross and J. Mirowski, “Sex differences in the effect of education on depression: resource multiplication or resource substitution?” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1400–1413, 2006.
  18. M. J. dos Santos and A. L. Kassouf, “Uma investigação dos determinantes socioeconômicos da depressão mental no Brasil com ênfase nos efeitos da educação,” Economia Aplicada, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 5–26, 2007. View at Scopus
  19. S. Rosenfield, “Sex differences in depression; do women always have higher rates?” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 33–42, 1980.
  20. J. Mirowsky, “Depression and marital power: an equity model,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 557–592, 1985.
  21. Z. Wu and R. Hart, “The effects of marital and nonmarital union transition on health,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 420–432, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. S. L. Brown, “The effect of union type on psychological well-being: depression among cohabitors versus marrieds,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 241–255, 2000.
  23. C. Dehle and R. L. Weiss, “Sex differences in prospective associations between marital quality and depressed mood,” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 60, no. 4, pp. 1002–1011, 1998.
  24. K. Barkow, W. Maier, T. B. Üstün, M. Gänsicke, H.-U. Wittchen, and R. Heun, “Risk factors for new depressive episodes in primary health care: an international prospective 12-month follow-up study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 595–607, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. S. Moussavi, S. Chatterji, E. Verdes, A. Tandon, V. Patel, and B. Ustun, “Depression, chronic diseases, and decrements in health: results from the World Health Surveys,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9590, pp. 851–858, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. C. S. Aneshensel, R. R. Frerichs, and V. A. Clark, “Family roles and sex differences in depression,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 379–393, 1981.
  27. J. P. Newmann, “Gender, life strains, and depression,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 161–178, 1986.
  28. T. Fryers, T. Brugha, Z. Morgan et al., “Prevalence of psychiatric disorder in Europe: the potential and reality of meta-analysis,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 39, no. 11, pp. 899–905, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. B. Mezuk, J. A. Rafferty, K. N. Kershaw et al., “Reconsidering the role of social disadvantage in physical and mental health: stressful life events, health behaviors, race, and depression,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 172, no. 11, pp. 1238–1249, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  30. S. A. Riolo, T. A. Nguyen, J. F. Greden, and C. A. King, “Prevalence of depression by race/ethnicity: findings from the national health and nutrition examination survey III,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 998–1000, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. S. Jackson, K. M. Knight, and J. A. Rafferty, “Race and unhealthy behaviors: chronic stress, the HPA Axis, and physical and mental health disparities over the life course,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 100, no. 5, pp. 933–939, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. E. S. Paykel, R. Abbott, R. Jenkins, T. S. Brugha, and H. Meltzer, “Urban-rural mental health differences in Great Britain: findings from the National Morbidity Survey,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 269–280, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. L. Wang, “Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of major depression and associated impairment,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 19–25, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. M. G. Harmatz, A. D. Well, C. E. Overtree, K. Y. Kawamura, M. Rosal, and I. S. Ockene, “Seasonal variation of depression and other moods: a longitudinal approach,” Journal of Biological Rhythms, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 344–350, 2000.
  35. N. M. F. Oyane, I. Bjelland, S. Pallesen, F. Holsten, and B. Bjorvatn, “Seasonality is associated with anxiety and depression: the Hordaland health study,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 105, no. 1–3, pp. 147–155, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. A. Magnusson, “An overview of epidemiological studies on seasonal affective disorder,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 101, no. 3, pp. 176–184, 2000. View at Scopus
  37. D. M. Clarke, “Depression and physical illness: more complex than simple comorbidity,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 190, no. 7, pp. S52–S53, 2009. View at Scopus
  38. C. S. Aneshensel, R. R. Frerichs, and G. J. Huba, “Depression and physical illness: a multiwave, nonrecursive causal model,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 350–371, 1984. View at Scopus
  39. E. Stover, W. Fenton, A. Rosenfeld, and T. R. Insel, “Depression and comorbid medical illness: the National Institute of Mental Health perspective,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 184–186, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. W. H. Greene, Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall, 5th edition, 2003.