Table 7: Description, mean and standard deviation of variables, by gender.

Variables DescriptionMenWomen
Mean Std. Dev. Mean Std. Dev.

Response variable
depress 1 if with depression 3.76 19.02 9.80 29.73
Economic and educational conditions
income(log) Logarithm monthly average family income in real values of 2008 662.21 1186.2 633.07 1029.5
income(i) 1 if is in the decile ( = 1,2,…,10)
school Years of study 6.74 4.56 7.63 4.69

Demographic characteristics
age Age in years (25 to 65 years) 41.25 10.99 41.63 11.09
white 1 if it is white 52.49 49.94 54.31 49.81
black 1 if it is black 7.08 25.64 6.58 24.79
asian 1 if it is Asian 0.57 7.58 0.60 7.74
mulatto 1 if it is mulatto 39.86 48.96 38.51 48.66

Family characteristics
married 1 if with spouse 74.64 43.51 67.16 46.96
headfam 1 if head of household 76.85 42.18 25.46 43.57
famsize Number of family members 3.74 1.57 3.67 1.53
child 1 if has some children living in the household 61.64 48.63 69.74 45.94

Geographic characteristics
urban 1 if resident in an urban area 82.83 37.71 85.49 35.22
south 1 if resident in the Southern region 16.12 36.77 15.81 36.49
north 1 if resident in the Northern region 5.82 23.41 5.55 22.89
central 1 if resident in the Midwestern region 7.36 26.11 7.19 25.84
seast 1 if resident in the Southeastern region 44.90 49.74 45.45 49.8
neast 1 if resident in the Northeastern region 25.8 43.82 26.00 43.79

Presence of chronic physical diseases
physd 1 if has a chronic physical disease 36.74 48.21 46.21 49.86
physd1 1 if has back problems 20.06 40.04 25.09 43.35
physd2 1 if has arthritis or rheumatism 5.86 23.51 11.57 31.99
physd3 1 if has cancer 0.37 6.09 0.64 7.96
physd4 1 if has diabetes 3.25 17.73 4.21 20.08
physd5 1 if has bronchitis or asthma 2.83 16.58 4.41 20.54
physd6 1 if has hypertension 14.86 35.57 21.44 41.04
physd7 1 if has heart disease 3.92 19.41 5.53 22.55
physd8 1 if has chronic kidney disease 2.61 15.93 2.84 16.60
physd9 1 if has tuberculosis 0.22 4.66 0.15 3.81
physd10 1 if has tendonitis or tenosynovitis 2.19 14.65 5.01 21.81
physd11 1 if has cirrhosis 0.32 5.66 0.095 3.08

Notes: The number of observations for men is 239,776 and for women, 262,169; **The variables have value 1 if the individual has the described characteristic, and 0 otherwise. Here, all the variables are scaled from 0 to 100, and the average family income is provided in Reals.