- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Economics Research International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 364715, 10 pages
Nonlinearity of the Relationship between Human Capital and Exportation in Brazil
1Department of Economics, State University of Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5.790-UEM, 87020-900 Maringa, PR, Brazil
2“Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Padua Dias 11, 13418-900 Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
Received 12 June 2012; Accepted 8 August 2012
Academic Editor: Almas Heshmati
Copyright © 2012 Gilberto Joaquim Fraga and Carlos José Caetano Bacha. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- A. S. Courakis, “Labour skills and human capital in the explanation of trade patterns,” Oxford Economic Papers, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 443–462, 1991.
- K. E. Maskus, C. D. Sveikauskas, and A. Webster, “The composition of the human capital stock and its relation to international trade: evidence from the US and Britain,” Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 50–76, 1994.
- F. Cörvers and A. De Grip, “Explaining trade in industrialized countries by country-specific human capital endowments,” Economic Modelling, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 395–416, 1997.
- A. L. Owen, “International trade and the accumulation of human capital,” Southern Economic Journal, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 61–81, 1999.
- Y. Chuang, “Human capital, exports, and economic growth: a causality analysis for Taiwan, 1952-1995,” Review of International Economics, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 712–720, 2000.
- A. Rodríguez-Clare, “Costa Rica’s development strategy based on human capital and technology: how it got there, the impact of Intel and lessons for other countries,” Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 311–324, 2001.
- B. Hasnat, “The impact of core labour standards on exports,” International Business Review, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 563–575, 2002.
- G. M. Grossman, “The distribution of talent and the pattern and consequences of international trade,” Journal of Political Economy, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 209–239, 2004.
- E. L. Brooks, “Why don't firms export more? Product quality and Colombian plants,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 80, no. 1, pp. 160–178, 2006.
- S. Bougheas and R. Riezman, “Trade and the distribution of human capital,” Journal of International Economics, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 421–433, 2007.
- F. J. Contractor and S. M. Mudambi, “The influence of human capital investment on the exports of services and goods: an analysis of the top 25 services outsourcing countries,” Management International Review, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 433–445, 2008.
- J. B. Jensen, “Trade in high-tech services,” Journal of Industry, Competition and Trade, vol. 8, no. 3-4, pp. 181–197, 2008.
- M. E. Waugh, “Human capital, product quality, and bilateral trade,” Mimeo, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, http://homepages.nyu.edu/~mw134/uploads/56836/PQHC_v4.pdf, 2008.
- A. Arora and S. Bagde, “Human capital and the Indian software industry,” NBER Working Paper Series 16167, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2010.
- I. Brambilla, D. Lederman, and G. Porto, “Exports, export destinations, and skillsno,” NBER Working Paper Series 15995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 2010.
- C. Lee and Y. Wang, “A new explanation of heterogeneous human capital and trade,” International Journal of Economics and Finance, vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 93–98, 2012.
- A. Dixit and A. Woodland, “The relationship between factor endowments and commodity trade,” Journal of International Economics, vol. 13, no. 3-4, pp. 201–214, 1982.
- Brazilian Ministry of Development, Industry and Foreign Trade Estatísticas de Comércio Exterior, http://www.desenvolvimento.gov.br/sitio/interna/interna.php?area=5&menu=1078&refr=1076, 2009.
- Brazilian Institute for Applied Economic Research. “IPEADATA”, http://www.ipeadata.gov.br/, 2009.
- Brazilian Ministry of Mining and Energy, Boletins Anuais de Consolidação do Mercado de Energia Elétrica e da Economia, http://www.epe.gov.br/mercado/Paginas/Mercado_9.aspx?CategoriaID=, 2009.
- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (PNAD), http://www.ibge.gov.br/, 2009.
- B. H. Baltagi, Econometric Analysis of Panel Data, Jhon Willey & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2005.
- J. A. Hausman, “Specification tests in econometrics,” Econometrica, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1251–1272, 1978.
- T. Breusch and A. Pagan, “The LM test and its applications to model specification in econometrics,” Review of Economic Studies, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 239–225, 1980.
- J. Wooldridge, Econometric Analysis of Cross Section and Panel Data, MIT Press, Cambridge, UK, 2002.
- D. M. Drukker, “Testing for serial correlation in linear panel-data models,” Stata Journal, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 168–177, 2003.
- W. H. Greene, Econometric Analysis, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 5th edition, 2003.
- B. H. Baltagi and Q. Li, “Testing AR(1) against MA(1) disturbances in an error component model,” Journal of Econometrics, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 133–151, 1995.
- B. H. Baltagi, P. O. Demetriades, and S. H. Law, “Financial development and openness: evidence from panel data,” Journal of Development Economics, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 285–296, 2009.
- J. S. Arbache and J. A. De Negri, “The determinants of brazilian manufacturing exports,” Working Paper Series CBS-42, Oxford University, Oxford, UK, 2003.
- J. L. M. Silva and A. B. Hidalgo, “Composição e diversificação do setor exportador brasileiro: uma analise do perfil das exportações,” in VII Encontro Nacional da Associação Brasileira de Estudos Regionais e Urbanos, ABER, São Paulo, Brazil, 2009.
- A. Woodland, “Direct and indirect trade utility functions,” Review of Economics Studies, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 907–926, 1980.
- R. C. Feenstra, Advanced International Trade: Theory and Evidence, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 2003.
- A. B. Krueger and M. Lindahl, “Education for growth: why and for whom?” Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1101–1136, 2001.
- M. Arellano and O. Bover, “Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models,” Journal of Econometrics, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 29–51, 1995.
- R. Blundell and S. Bond, “Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models,” Journal of Econometrics, vol. 87, no. 1, pp. 115–143, 1998.