Table 1: Descriptive statistics.

III
Sample1970–19851985–1999
MeanStd errorMeanStd Error

GDP5591614597519856GDP per capita at the beginning of the period in 1995 US$
FER3.871.652.801.41Number of children per women (average rate for 1970–1985)
GOVT13.924.4715.816.18Average government expenditures as a percentage of GDP
PRIM95.7622.1698.6915.22Primary school enrollment (time period average per 100 school age children)
SEC45.0325.4264.8929.61Secondary school enrollment (average per 100 school age children)
TER10.6011.2419.4014.93Tertiary school enrollment (average per 100 school age children)
VOL3.531.493.222.06Standard error of average growth rate of GDP per capita
GROWTH2.130.862.041.83Average growth rate of GDP per capita
GINI42.2910.3137.469.13Gini coefficient at the beginning of the period
Q10.050.020.060.02Share of 1st quintile at the beginning of the period
Q20.100.030.110.03Share of 2nd quintile at the beginning of the period
Q30.150.030.160.02Share of 3rd quintile at the beginning of the period
Q40.220.030.220.02Share of 4th quintile at the beginning of the period
Q50.490.090.450.08Share of 5th quintile at the beginning of the period
Q5/Q112.338.658.656.01At the beginning of the period
Q5/(Q1 + Q2)3.952.472.861.52At the beginning of the period
Q2 + Q30.240.050.270.05At the beginning of the period
GINI*37.628.8637.929.46Gini coefficient at the end of the period
Q5/Q1*8.104.498.185.29At the end of the period
Q5/(Q1 + Q2)*2.771.392.851.47At the end of the period
Q2 + Q3*0.270.050.260.05At the end of the period
AFRICA0.150.370.130.331 for countries in Africa
LATIN0.230.430.150.361 for countries in Latin America

Sample 1 (1970–1985; 42 observations): Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Fiji, France, Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Ireland, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sierra Leone, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Thailand, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela, Republic of Korea.
Sample 2 (1985–1999; 49 observations): Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Finland, France, Guatemala, Hong Kong, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Lesotho, Luxembourg, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Morocco, Nepal, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Rwanda, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Venezuela.