Table 8
(a) Regression estimates for machinists in 1990

Model(1)(2)(3)(4)

WC benefit
 OLS with individual-specific temporary weekly benefit0.0038*** (38.25)
 OLS with individual-specific temporary weekly benefit ratio (i.e., benefit/weekly wage)−1.9728*** (−31.82)
 2SLS with individual-specific temporary weekly benefit ratio (i.e., benefit/weekly wage)−0.4544*** (−3.34)
 2SLS with individual-specific temporary weekly benefit0.0015*** (7.05)
 NO HS−0.0244 (−1.25)−0.0623*** (−2.95)−0.0760*** (−3.07)−0.0580*** (−2.56)
 Some college0.0505*** (3.47)0.0718*** (4.57)0.1004*** (5.41)0.0857*** (5.03)
 College−0.0488 (−1.16)−0.0324 (−0.71)−0.0486 (−0.91)−0.0517 (−1.06)
 Overtime−0.1620*** (−13.03)−0.1531*** (−11.37)−0.1019*** (−6.27)−0.1166*** (−7.88)
 Experience0.0123*** (6.01)0.0220*** (10.12)0.0298*** (11.41)0.0242*** (9.53)
 Experience2−0.0002*** (−3.89)−0.0003*** (−6.90)−0.0004*** (−7.81)−0.0003*** (−6.65)
 Farm0.0111 (0.23)0.0085 (0.16)0.0337 (0.54)0.0293 (0.52)
 City0.0298** (2.14)0.0694*** (4.64)0.0953*** (5.40)0.0739*** (4.50)
 Black0.0279 (0.83)−0.0917*** (−2.54)−0.0696 (−1.64)−0.0268 (−0.69)
 Indian−0.0048 (−0.06)0.0002 (0.00)−0.0150 (−0.14)−0.0137 (−0.14)
 North east−0.1841*** (−8.84)0.1744*** (7.64)0.0287 (0.99)−0.0822*** (−3.24)
 North central−0.2242*** (−11.11)0.2226*** (10.11)0.0525* (1.82)−0.0882*** (−3.44)
 South−0.1223*** (−5.90)−0.0501** (−2.21)−0.1211*** (−4.48)−0.1344*** (−5.62)
 Constant1.3132*** (41.74)3.0077*** (60.29)2.0595*** (22.26)1.5918*** (37.48)
 Adjusted- 0.590.510.330.45

Dependent variable is natural logarithm of real hourly wage. Omitted dummy variables include WEST and HS.
(b) Regression estimates for machinists in 1990

Model(5)(6)(7)(8)

WC benefit
 OLS with state-specific temporary weekly benefit index0.0000 (−0.09)
 Modified Heckman for “middle-” wage workers based upon state-specific temporary weekly benefit ratio (i.e., benefit/weekly wage)−0.8508** (−2.14)
 Modified Heckman for “high-” wage workers based upon state-specific temporary weekly benefit0.0018*** (10.55)
 OLS with state-specific comprehensive annualized benefit index°1.7481** (1.99)
 NO HS−0.0803*** (−3.00)−0.0727** (−2.28)−0.0027 (−0.09)−1502.7170*** (−6.65)
 Some college0.1089*** (5.44)0.0970*** (4.17)0.0812*** (3.63)1475.9650*** (5.23)
 College−0.0535 (−0.69)−0.1805*** (−2.51)−0.0181 (−0.30)192.7681 (0.26)
 Overtime−0.0866*** (−5.08)−0.1535*** (−6.74)−0.1564*** (−7.03)2794.0870*** (15.56)
 Experience0.0321*** (12.25)0.0194*** (5.48)0.0161*** (3.77)580.9895*** (21.57)
 Experience2−0.0005*** (−8.38)−0.0002*** (−3.41)−0.0003*** (−3.45)−9.0561*** (−16.92)
 Farm0.0413 (0.57)0.0436 (0.62)0.0826 (0.93)94.8393 (0.16)
 City0.1031*** (5.35)0.0864*** (3.97)0.0129 (0.54)1736.6110*** (7.39)
 Black−0.0632 (−1.39)−0.1220** (−2.23)0.0404 (0.83)−2245.9350*** (−3.84)
 Indian−0.0199 (−0.25)0.0205 (0.17)−0.0038 (−0.03)−598.5831 (−0.46)
 North east−0.0140 (−0.45)0.2409*** (5.09)−0.0408 (−1.07)
 North central0.0026 (0.08)0.2518*** (5.58)−0.0590 (−1.49)
 South−0.1428*** (−4.70)0.0246 (0.60)−0.1489*** (−5.28)
 Constant1.7864*** (14.70)2.1251*** (7.94)1.9162*** (21.26)9197.6540*** (18.37)
 Lambda0.077 (1.18)−0.057 (−1.04)

Dependent variable is natural logarithm of real hourly wage, except for (8) where the dependent variable is real annual wage. Omitted dummy variables include WEST and HS.
°Annualized comprehensive index model (8) includes state-fixed effects in lieu of all regional dummies and year dummies, and thus the coefficients are not directly comparable.
(c) First-stage probit estimates from modified Heckman for machinists in 1990

Model(6)(7)

Modified Heckman for “middle-” wage workers based upon state-specific temporary weekly benefit ratio (i.e., benefit/weekly wage)Modified Heckman for “high-” wage workers based upon state-specific temporary weekly benefit
Single0.348*** (3.85)−0.359*** (−3.95)
Family size−0.037 (−1.15)0.037 (1.15)
% union−0.007* (−1.89)0.187*** (4.89)
% mining−0.188*** (−4.92)0.008** (2.23)
Earnings 5*** (−2.60) 5*** (2.55)
Accidents−0.007 (−0.69)0.007 (0.62)
No HS0.242** (2.27)−0.247** (−2.31)
Some college−0.066 (−0.84)0.079 (0.99)
College−0.069 (−0.31)0.077 (0.34)
Overtime−0.326*** (−4.88)0.323*** (4.80)
Experience−0.046*** (−3.88)0.049*** (4.03)
Experience20.001** (2.19)−0.001** (−2.27)
Farm0.197 (0.71)−0.172 (−0.62)
City−0.178** (−2.32)0.197*** (2.55)
Black0.026 (0.15)−0.026 (−0.15)
Indian0.523 (1.10)−0.516 (−1.09)
North east0.897*** (6.83)−0.920*** (−6.98)
North central0.743*** (5.87)−0.772*** (−6.05)
South0.345*** (2.59)−0.321*** (−2.40)
Constant2.431*** (2.96)−2.465*** (−2.99)

Dependent variable is REGIME, the zero-one indicator that equals one if worker is “high-” wage and zero otherwise. Omitted dummy variables include WEST and HS.