Table 1: Definitions of dependent and independent variables.

VariableDefinition

Dependent variables
Outpatient servicesDummy variable = 1 if respondent received outpatient care, otherwise = 0
Number of outpatient servicesThe number of times outpatient care received per respondent
Inpatient servicesDummy variable = 1 if respondent received inpatient care, otherwise = 0
Number of inpatient servicesThe number of times inpatient care received per respondent

Independent variables
Additive Factor
Drinking every week and deep drunkDummy variable = 1 if respondent drinks every week and gets drunk, otherwise = 0
Former smokerDummy variable = 1 if respondent smokes at least 20 cigarettes every day, otherwise = 0
Chewing betel nutDummy variable = 1 if respondent chews betel nut at least one or two days per week, otherwise = 0
No addictive factorsDummy variable = 1 if respondent is without addictive factors, otherwise = 0

Socio-demographic variables
MaleDummy variable = 1 if respondent is male, otherwise = 0
Age (year)
 12–20   (Respondent’s age in this range is the reference category)
 21–35Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0
 36–50Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0
 51–64Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0
MarriedDummy variable = 1 if respondent has married, otherwise = 0
Education level
 Primary school and belowDummy variable = 1 if respondent finished primary school and below, otherwise = 0
 Junior highDummy variable = 1 if respondent finished junior high school, otherwise = 0
 Senior highDummy variable = 1 if respondent finished senior high school, otherwise = 0
 College and above   (College and above is the reference category)
Individual monthly income
 NT $ 0Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0
 NT $ 1–19,999Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0
 NT $ 20,000–39,999Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0
 NT $ 40,000–59,999Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0
 NT $ ≥ 60,000  (Individual’s monthly income in this range is the reference category)

Health status
BMIThe number of respondent’s body mass index (BMI)
Heart diseaseDummy variable = 1 if respondent has heart disease, otherwise = 0
HypertensionDummy variable = 1 if respondent has hypertension, otherwise = 0
DiabetesDummy variable = 1 if respondent has diabetes, otherwise = 0
CholesterolDummy variable = 1 if respondent has cholesterol, otherwise = 0
StrokeDummy variable = 1 if respondent has stroke, otherwise = 0

Geographical variables
Residential locations
NorthernDummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taipei Hsien, Keelung City, Ilan Hsien, Taoyuan Hsien, Hsinchu Hsien, Miaoli Hsien, and Taipei Municipality (north is the reference category)
CentralDummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taichung Hsien, Changhua Hsien, Nantou Hsien, Yunlin Hsien, and Taichung City
SouthernDummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Chiayi Hsien, Tainan Hsien, Kaohsiung Hsien, Pingtung Hsien, Kaohsiung Municipality, Chiayi City, and Tainan City
EasternDummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taitung Hsien, Hualien Hsien, Penghu Hsien