
Variable  Definition 

Dependent variables  
Outpatient services  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent received outpatient care, otherwise = 0 
Number of outpatient services  The number of times outpatient care received per respondent 
Inpatient services  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent received inpatient care, otherwise = 0 
Number of inpatient services  The number of times inpatient care received per respondent 

Independent variables  
Additive Factor  
Drinking every week and deep drunk  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent drinks every week and gets drunk, otherwise = 0 
Former smoker  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent smokes at least 20 cigarettes every day, otherwise = 0 
Chewing betel nut  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent chews betel nut at least one or two days per week, otherwise = 0 
No addictive factors  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent is without addictive factors, otherwise = 0 

Sociodemographic variables  
Male  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent is male, otherwise = 0 
Age (year)  
12–20  (Respondent’s age in this range is the reference category) 
21–35  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 
36–50  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 
51–64  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent’s age is in this range, otherwise = 0 
Married  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has married, otherwise = 0 
Education level  
Primary school and below  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished primary school and below, otherwise = 0 
Junior high  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished junior high school, otherwise = 0 
Senior high  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent finished senior high school, otherwise = 0 
College and above  (College and above is the reference category) 
Individual monthly income  
NT $ 0  Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 
NT $ 1–19,999  Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 
NT $ 20,000–39,999  Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 
NT $ 40,000–59,999  Dummy variable = 1 if individual’s monthly income is in this range, otherwise = 0 
NT $ ≥ 60,000  (Individual’s monthly income in this range is the reference category) 

Health status  
BMI  The number of respondent’s body mass index (BMI) 
Heart disease  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has heart disease, otherwise = 0 
Hypertension  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has hypertension, otherwise = 0 
Diabetes  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has diabetes, otherwise = 0 
Cholesterol  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has cholesterol, otherwise = 0 
Stroke  Dummy variable = 1 if respondent has stroke, otherwise = 0 

Geographical variables  
Residential locations  
Northern  Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taipei Hsien, Keelung City, Ilan Hsien, Taoyuan Hsien, Hsinchu Hsien, Miaoli Hsien, and Taipei Municipality (north is the reference category) 
Central  Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taichung Hsien, Changhua Hsien, Nantou Hsien, Yunlin Hsien, and Taichung City 
Southern  Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Chiayi Hsien, Tainan Hsien, Kaohsiung Hsien, Pingtung Hsien, Kaohsiung Municipality, Chiayi City, and Tainan City 
Eastern  Dummy variable = 1 if the household is located in Taitung Hsien, Hualien Hsien, Penghu Hsien 
