Table 4: Estimation results of addictive factors on outpatient service utilization.
(a) Likelihood of outpatient services ( )

Model 1aModel 2b
Odds ratioStandard errorOdds ratioStandard error

DD0.505***0.0800.743+0.122
SM0.9360.1711.1250.211
CBN0.425***0.0460.635***0.074
2.1052.1483.0783.158
0.326***0.0510.500***0.083
1.5161.5582.0692.139
No addictive factorsReference categoryReference category

(b) Frequency of outpatient visits ( )

Model 1aModel 2b
CoefficientStandard errorCoefficientStandard error

DD −0.187**0.060 −0.141***0.055
SM 0.393***0.052 0.310***0.047
CBN −0.086*0.043 −0.074+0.040
0.0990.200 0.0450.180
−0.281***0.072 −0.308***0.066
0.1600.235 0.0490.211
No addictive factorsReference categoryReference category

DD: deep drunk; SM: smoking cigarettes; CBN: chewing betel nut.
*** , ** , * , +
aUnadjusted model.
bFully adjusted model controlling for socio-demographic, health status, and geographical factors.