Table 5: Estimation result of addictive factors on inpatient services utilization.
(a) Likelihood of inpatient services ( )

Model 1aModel 2b
Odds ratioStandard errorOdds ratioStandard error

DD1.711**0.3161.870**0.360
SM1.860***0.3051.722**0.302
CBN1.296+0.1901.1940.189
Two-factor1.2780.2811.2500.287
No addictive factorsReference categoryReference category

(b) Frequency of inpatient visits ( ).

Model 1aModel 2b
CoefficientStandard errorCoefficientStandard error

DD −0.1470.403 -0.1040.447
SM 1.318***0.313 1.213***0.356
CBN −0.1820.326 −0.3410.387
Two-factor 0.1950.459 0.1490.506
No addictive factorsreference categoryreference category

DD: deep drunk; SM: smoking cigarettes; CBN: chewing betel nut.
*** , ** , * , +
aUnadjusted model.
bFully-adjusted model controlling for socio-demographic, health status, and geographical factors.