Table 1: Phillip-Perron stationarity test.
(a) Stationarity test in levels

VariablePP statisticPP critical value (5%)

Death rate−1.1822−3.4904
Unemployment rate−1.9982−2.9737
Real GDP per capita−2.2823−3.4904
Real health expenditure per capita−1.7556−3.4904
Female death rate−2.4057−3.4904
Male death rate−2.0220−3.4904

(b) Stationarity test in first difference

VariablePP statisticPP critical value (5%)

Death rate−7.9970−2.9146
Unemployment rate−5.8568−2.9146
Real GDP per capita−5.4436−2.9146
Real health expenditure per capita−5.3781−2.9146
Female death rate−9.3015−2.9146
Male death rate−5.9515−2.9146