About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Emergency Medicine International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 734506, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/734506
Review Article

Pediatric Stroke: A Review

1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, NY 10032, USA
2Department of Emergency Medicine and Pediatrics, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02903, USA

Received 3 July 2011; Accepted 16 September 2011

Academic Editor: Walter Mauritz

Copyright © 2011 Daniel S. Tsze and Jonathan H. Valente. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. J. Earley, S. J. Kittner, B. R. Feeser et al., “Stroke in children and sickle-cell disease: Baltimore-Washington cooperative young stroke study,” Neurology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 169–176, 1998. View at Scopus
  2. K. S. Carvalho and B. P. Garg, “Arterial strokes in children,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 1079–1100, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. Lanthier, L. Carmant, M. David, A. Larbrisseau, and G. de Veber, “Stroke in children: the coexistence of multiple risk factors predicts poor outcome,” Neurology, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 371–378, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. A. R. Riela and E. S. Roach, “Etiology of stroke in children,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 201–220, 1993. View at Scopus
  5. G. A. DeVeber, D. MacGregor, R. Curtis, and S. Mayank, “Neurologic outcome in survivors of childhood arterial ischemic stroke and sinovenous thrombosis,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 316–324, 2000. View at Scopus
  6. G. DeVeber, “In pursuit of evidence-based treatments for paediatric stroke: the UK and Chest guidelines,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 432–436, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  7. B. Chung and V. Wong, “Pediatric stroke among Hong Kong Chinese subjects,” Pediatrics, vol. 114, no. 2, pp. e206–e212, 2004. View at Scopus
  8. B. S. Schoenberg, J. F. Mellinger, and D. G. Schoenberg, “Cerebrovascular disease in infants and children: a study of incidence, clinical features, and survival,” Neurology, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 763–768, 1978. View at Scopus
  9. J. Broderick, G. T. Talbot, E. Prenger, A. Leach, and T. Brott, “Stroke in children within a major metropolitan area: the surprising importance of intracerebral hemorrhage,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 250–255, 1993. View at Scopus
  10. O. Eeg-Olofsson and Y. Ringheim, “Stroke in children. Clinical characteristics and prognosis,” Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 391–395, 1983. View at Scopus
  11. J. K. Lynch, D. G. Hirtz, G. DeVeber, and K. B. Nelson, “Report of the national institute of neurological disorders and stroke workshop on perinatal and childhood stroke,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 1, pp. 116–123, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. K. Lynch, “Cerebrovascular disorders in children,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 129–138, 2004. View at Scopus
  13. M. Giroud, M. Lemesle, J. B. Gouyon, J. L. Nivelon, C. Milan, and R. Dumas, “Cerebrovascular disease in children under 16 years of age in the city of Dijon, France: a study of incidence and clinical features from 1985 to 1993,” Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 1343–1348, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. B. Zahuranec, D. L. Brown, L. D. Lisabeth, and L. B. Morgenstern, “Is it time for a large, collaborative study of pediatric stroke?” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 9, pp. 1825–1829, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. H. J. Fullerton, Y. W. Wu, S. Zhao, and S. C. Johnston, “Risk of stroke in children: ethnic and gender disparities,” Neurology, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 189–194, 2003. View at Scopus
  16. K. P. J. Braun, L. J. Kappelle, F. J. Kirkham, and G. DeVeber, “Diagnostic pitfalls in paediatric ischaemic stroke,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 48, no. 12, pp. 985–990, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. L. V. Gabis, R. Yangala, and N. J. Lenn, “Time lag to diagnosis of stroke in children,” Pediatrics, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 924–928, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. G. DeVeber, E. S. Roach, A. R. Riela, and M. Wiznitzer, “Stroke in children: recognition, treatment, and future directions,” Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 309–317, 2000. View at Scopus
  19. S. Satoh, R. Shirane, and T. Yoshimoto, “Clinical survey of ischemic cerebrovascular disease in children in a district of Japan,” Stroke, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 586–589, 1991. View at Scopus
  20. D. Nagaraja, A. Verma, A. B. Taly, M. V. Kumar, and P. N. Jayakumar, “Cerebrovascular disease in children,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 90, no. 4, pp. 251–255, 1994. View at Scopus
  21. W. Zenz, Z. Bodó, J. Plotho et al., “Factor V Leiden and prothrombin gene G 20210 a variant in children with ischemic stroke,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 80, no. 5, pp. 763–766, 1998. View at Scopus
  22. A. Dusser, F. Goutières, and J. Aicardi, “Ischemic strokes in children,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 131–136, 1986. View at Scopus
  23. D. P. Younkin, “Diagnosis and treatment of ischemic pediatric stroke,” Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 18–24, 2002. View at Scopus
  24. V. Ganesan, M. Prengler, M. A. McShane, A. M. Wade, and F. J. Kirkham, “Investigation of risk factors in children with arterial ischemic stroke,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 53, no. 2, pp. 167–173, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  25. H. Bouza, M. Rutherford, D. Acolet, J. M. Pennock, and L. M. S. Dubowitz, “Evolution of early hemiplegic signs in full-term infants with unilateral brain lesions in the neonatal period: a prospective study,” Neuropediatrics, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 201–207, 1994. View at Scopus
  26. A. D. Meyer-Heim and E. Boltshauser, “Spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage in children: aetiology, presentation and outcome,” Brain and Development, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 416–421, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. C. S. Lin, J. Tsai, P. Woo, and H. Chang, “Prehospital delay and emergency department management of ischemic stroke patients in Taiwan, R.O.C,” Prehospital Emergency Care, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 194–200, 1999. View at Scopus
  28. A. Al-Jarallah, M. T. Al-Rifai, A. R. Riela, and E. S. Roach, “Nontraumatic brain hemorrhage in children: etiology and presentation,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 284–289, 2000. View at Scopus
  29. B. J. P. Delsing, C. E. Catsman-Berrevoets, and I. M. Appel, “Early prognostic indicators of outcome in ischemic childhood stroke,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 283–289, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. F. J. Kirkham, “Stroke in childhood,” Archives of Disease in Childhood, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 85–89, 1999.
  31. K. S. Carvalho, J. B. Bodensteiner, P. J. Connolly, and B. P. Garg, “Cerebral venous thrombosis in children,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 574–580, 2001. View at Scopus
  32. T. F. Barron, D. A. Gusnard, R. A. Zimmerman, and R. R. Clancy, “Cerebral venous thrombosis in neonates and children,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 112–116, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. W. K. Imai, F. R. Everhart Jr., and J. M. Sanders Jr., “Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: report of a case and review of the literature,” Pediatrics, vol. 70, no. 6, pp. 965–970, 1982. View at Scopus
  34. M. I. Shevell, K. Silver, A. M. O'Gorman, G. V. Watters, and J. L. Montes, “Neonatal dural sinus thrombosis,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 161–165, 1989. View at Scopus
  35. K. Calder, P. Kokorowski, T. Tran, and S. Henderson, “Emergency department presentation of pediatric stroke,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 320–328, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. V. Ganesan, A. Hogan, N. Shack, A. Gordon, E. Isaacs, and F. J. Kirkham, “Outcome after ischaemic stroke in childhood,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 455–461, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. A. P. Gold and S. Carter, “Acute hemiplegia of infancy and childhood,” Pediatric Clinics of North America, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 413–433, 1976. View at Scopus
  38. S. Sen and S. Oppenheimer, “Bedside assessment of stroke and stroke mimics,” Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. S4–S11, 2008. View at Scopus
  39. S. G. Pavlakis, P. B. Kingsley, and M. G. Bialer, “Stroke in children: genetic and metabolic issues,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 308–315, 2000. View at Scopus
  40. M. W. I. Webster, H. J. Smith, D. N. Sharpe et al., “Patent foramen ovale in young stroke patients,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8601, pp. 11–12, 1988. View at Scopus
  41. W. S. Ball Jr., “Cerebrovascular occlusive disease in childhood,” Neuroimaging Clinics of North America, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 393–421, 1994. View at Scopus
  42. D. Powars, B. Wilson, C. Imbus, C. Pegelow, and J. Allen, “The natural history of stroke in sickle cell disease,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 461–471, 1978. View at Scopus
  43. L. E. Walsh and B. P. Garg, “Ischemic strokes in children,” Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 613–623, 1997. View at Scopus
  44. B. Balkaran, G. Ghar, J. S. Morris, P. W. Thomas, B. E. Serjeant, and G. R. Serjeant, “Stroke in a cohort of patients with homozygous sickle cell disease,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 120, no. 3, pp. 360–366, 1992. View at Scopus
  45. G. J. Kato, R. P. Hebbel, M. H. Steinberg, and M. T. Gladwin, “Vasculopathy in sickle cell disease: biology, pathophysiology, genetics, translational medicine, and new research directions,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 618–625, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  46. E. Nestoridi, F. S. Buonanno, R. M. Jones et al., “Arterial ischemic stroke in childhood: the role of plasma-phase risk factors,” Current Opinion in Neurology, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 139–144, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. F. J. Kirkham, “Is there a genetic basis for pediatric stroke?” Current Opinion in Pediatrics, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 547–558, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. DeVeber, M. Andrew, C. Adams et al., “Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis in children,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 6, pp. 417–423, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. M. Bonduel, G. Sciuccati, M. Hepner, A. F. Torres, G. Pieroni, and J. P. Frontroth, “Prethrombotic disorders in children with arterial ischemic stroke and sinovenous thrombosis,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 56, no. 8, pp. 967–971, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. N. Schlegel, “Thromboembolic risks and complications in nephrotic children,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 271–280, 1997.
  51. R. Gruppo, A. DeGrauw, H. Fogelson, T. Glauser, V. Balasa, and P. Gartside, “Protein C deficiency related to valproic acid therapy: a possible association with childhood stroke,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 714–718, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  52. G. L. Bray and N. L. C. Luban, “Hemophilia presenting with intracranial hemorrhage. An approach to the infant with intracranial bleeding and coagulopathy,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 141, no. 11, pp. 1215–1217, 1987. View at Scopus
  53. M. Ries, D. Wolfel, and B. Maier-Brandt, “Severe intracranial hemorrhage in a newborn infant with transplacental transfer of an acquired factor VIII: C inhibitor,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 649–650, 1995. View at Scopus
  54. D. S. Hartfield, N. J. Lowry, D. L. Keene, and J. Y. Yager, “Iron deficiency: a cause of stroke in infants and children,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 50–53, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. L. Maguire, G. Deveber, and P. C. Parkin, “Association between iron-deficiency anemia and stroke in young children,” Pediatrics, vol. 120, no. 5, pp. 1053–1057, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  56. R. Askalan, S. Laughlin, S. Mayank et al., “Chickenpox and stroke in childhood: a study of frequency and causation,” Stroke, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1257–1262, 2001. View at Scopus
  57. G. Sébire, L. Meyer, and S. Chabrier, “Varicella as a risk factor for cerebral infarction in childhood: a case- control study,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 679–680, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. D. Park, A. L. Belman, T. S. Kim et al., “Stroke in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 303–311, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  59. D. M. Moriarty, J. O. Haller, J. P. Loh, and S. Fikrig, “Cerebral infarction in pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 24, no. 8, pp. 611–612, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. S. Hutchison, R. Ichord, A. M. Guerguerian, and G. DeVeber, “Cerebrovascular disorders,” Seminars in Pediatric Neurology, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 139–146, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. A. M. Salih, A. G. M. Abdel-Gader, A. A. Al-Jarallah et al., “Infectious and inflammatory disorders of the circulatory system as risk factors for stroke in Saudi children,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 27, supplement 1, pp. S41–S52, 2006. View at Scopus
  62. T. M. Carlin and A. Chanmugam, “Stroke in children,” Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 671–685, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. J. Wityk, C. Zanferrari, and S. Oppenheimer, “Neurovascular complications of Marfan syndrome: a retrospective, hospital-based study,” Stroke, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 680–684, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. P. J. Kelly, K. L. Furie, J. P. Kistler et al., “Stroke in young patients with hyperhomocysteinemia due to cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency,” Neurology, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 275–279, 2003. View at Scopus
  65. G. N. Welch and J. Loscalzo, “Homocysteine and atherothrombosis,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 338, no. 15, pp. 1042–1050, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. J. Grotta, “Cerebrovascular disease in young patients,” Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 1997. View at Scopus
  67. L. S. Williams, B. P. Garg, M. Cohen, J. D. Fleck, and J. Biller, “Subtypes of ischemic stroke in children and young adults,” Neurology, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 1541–1545, 1997. View at Scopus
  68. S. R. Daniels, S. Bates, R. R. Lukin, C. Benton, J. Third, and C. J. Glueck, “Cerebrovascular arteriopathy (arteriosclerosis) and ischemic childhood stroke,” Stroke, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 360–365, 1982.
  69. C. J. Glueck, S. R. Daniels, S. Bates, C. Benton, T. Tracy, and J. L. Third, “Pediatric victims of unexplained stroke and their families: familial lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities,” Pediatrics, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 308–316, 1982.
  70. A. Lopez-Yunez and B. Garg, “Noninfectious cerebral vasculitis in children,” Seminars in Cerebrovascular Disease and Stroke, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 249–263, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  71. D. K. Sokol, J. A. McIntyre, R. A. Short et al., “Henoch-Schonlein purpura and stroke: antiphosphatidylethanolamine antibody in CSF and serum,” Neurology, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1379–1381, 2000. View at Scopus
  72. E. B. Blau, R. F. Morris, and E. J. Yunis, “Polyarteritis nodosa in older children,” Pediatrics, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 227–234, 1977. View at Scopus
  73. Y. Uziel, R. M. Laxer, S. Blaser, M. Andrew, R. Schneider, and E. D. Silverman, “Cerebral vein thrombosis in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus,” Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 126, no. 5, pp. 722–727, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Wiznitzer and T. J. Masaryk, “Cerebrovascular abnormalities in pediatric stroke: assessment using parenchymal and angiographic magnetic resonance imaging,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 585–589, 1991. View at Scopus
  75. M. Uszynski, M. Osinska, E. Zekanowska, and E. Ziolkowska, “Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: is there any subgroup of children without elevated thrombin generation? A preliminary study utilizing measurements of thrombin-antithrombin III complexes,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 108–111, 2000. View at Scopus
  76. U. Nowak-Göttl, A. Heinecke, R. von Kries, W. Nürnberger, N. Münchow, and R. Junker, “Thrombotic events revisited in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia—impact of concomitant Escherichia coli asparaginase/prednisone administration,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 103, no. 3, pp. 165–172, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  77. M. Fouladi, J. Langston, R. Mulhern et al., “Silent lacunar lesions detected by magnetic resonance imaging of children with brain tumors: a late sequela of therapy,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 824–831, 2000. View at Scopus
  78. M. Omura, N. Aida, K. Sekido, M. Kakehi, and S. Matsubara, “Large intracranial vessel occlusive vasculopathy after radiation therapy in children: clinical features and usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging,” International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 241–249, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. A. Peñagarícano, M. E. Linskey, and V. Ratanatharathorn, “Accelerated cerebral vasculopathy after radiation therapy to the brain,” Neurology India, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 482–486, 2004. View at Scopus
  80. H. J. Fullerton, S. C. Johnston, and W. S. Smith, “Arterial dissection and stroke in children,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 1155–1160, 2001. View at Scopus
  81. G. Borges, L. Bonilha, S. F. Santos et al., “Thrombosis of the internal carotid artery secondary to soft palate injury in children and childhood: report of two cases,” Pediatric Neurosurgery, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 150–153, 2000. View at Scopus
  82. C. J. Graham, J. E. Schwartz, and T. Stacy, “Stroke following oral trauma in children,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1029–1031, 1991. View at Scopus
  83. S. E. Kasner, “Stroke treatment—specific considerations,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 399–417, 2000. View at Scopus
  84. S. H. Kim, E. Kosnik, C. Madden, J. Rusin, D. Wack, and H. Bartkowski, “Cerebellar infarction from a traumatic vertebral artery dissection in a child,” Pediatric Neurosurgery, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 71–77, 1997. View at Scopus
  85. M. A. Sloan, S. J. Kittner, B. R. Feeser et al., “Illicit drug-associated ischemic stroke in the Baltimore-Washington young stroke study,” Neurology, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1688–1693, 1998. View at Scopus
  86. D. S. Buchanan and J. H. Brazinsky, “Dural sinus and cerebral venous thrombosis. Incidence in young women receiving oral contraceptives,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 440–444, 1970. View at Scopus
  87. E. A. W. V. D. Heijden, H. Rahimtoola, H. G. M. Leufkens, C. C. Tijssen, and A. C. G. Egberts, “Risk of ischemic complications related to the intensity of triptan and ergotamine use,” Neurology, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 1128–1134, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  88. E. S. Roach, M. R. Golomb, R. Adams et al., “Management of stroke in infants and children: a scientific statement from a special writing group of the American heart association stroke council and the council on cardiovascular disease in the young,” Stroke, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 2644–2691, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  89. J. A. Edlow, P. D. Panagos, S. A. Godwin, T. L. Thomas, and W. W. Decker, “Clinical policy: critical issues in the evaluation and management of adult patients presenting to the emergency department with acute headache,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 407–436, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. R. L. Byyny, W. R. Mower, N. Shum, G. Z. Gabayan, S. Fang, and L. J. Baraff, “Sensitivity of noncontrast cranial computed tomography for the emergency department diagnosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 697–703, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. C. S. Kidwell, J. A. Chalela, J. L. Saver et al., “Comparison of MRI and CT for detection of acute intracerebral hemorrhage,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 292, no. 15, pp. 1823–1830, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  92. G. DeVeber, “Arterial ischemic strokes in infants and children: an overview of current approaches,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 567–573, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  93. B. Husson and P. Lasjaunias, “Radiological approach to disorders of arterial brain vessels associated with childhood arterial stroke—a comparison between MRA and contrast angiography,” Pediatric Radiology, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 10–15, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  94. S. A. Mayer, N. C. Brun, K. Begtrup et al., “Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 20, pp. 2127–2137, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  95. K. Prasad, A. D. Mendelow, and B. Gregson, “Surgery for primary supratentorial intracerebral hematoma: a meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials,” Stroke, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. e624–e626, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  96. R. Mobbs and P. Khong, “Endoscopic-assisted evacuation of subdural collections,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 701–704, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  97. R. O. Sanchez-Mejia, M. W. McDermott, J. Tan, H. Kim, W. L. Young, and M. Lawton, “Radiosurgery facilitates resection of brain arteriovenous malformations and reduces surgical morbidity,” Neurosurgery, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 231–238, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  98. J. Huang, M. J. McGirt, P. Gailloud, and R. J. Tamargo, “Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population: case series and literature review,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 424–432, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  99. P. Bolton-Maggs, “Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura: to treat or not to treat?” Hamostaseologie, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 74–75, 2009. View at Scopus
  100. K. Firozvi, R. A. E. Deveras, and C. M. Kessler, “Reversal of low-molecular-weight heparin-induced bleeding in patients with pre-existing hypercoagulable states with human recombinant activated factor VII concentrate,” American Journal of Hematology, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 582–589, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  101. S. V. Jain and L. D. Morton, “Ischemic stroke and excellent recovery after administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 126–129, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  102. E. A. Noser, R. A. Felberg, and A. V. Alexandrov, “Thrombolytic therapy in an adolescent ischemic stroke,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 286–288, 2001. View at Scopus
  103. S. S. Thirumalai and R. A. Shubin, “Successful treatment for stroke in a child using recombinant tissue plasminogen activator,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 15, no. 8, p. 558, 2000. View at Scopus
  104. M. D. Carlson, S. Leber, J. Deveikis, and F. S. Silverstein, “Successful use of rt-PA in pediatric stroke,” Neurology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 157–158, 2001. View at Scopus
  105. N. Janjua, A. Nasar, J. K. Lynch, and A. I. Qureshi, “Thrombolysis for ischemic stroke in children: data from the nationwide inpatient sample,” Stroke, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 1850–1854, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  106. P. Monagle, A. Chan, P. Massicotte, E. Chalmers, and A. D. Michelson, “Antithrombotic therapy in children: the seventh ACCP conference on antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy,” Chest, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 645S–687S, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. C. Amlie-Lefond, A. K. C. Chan, A. Kirton et al., “Thrombolysis in acute childhood stroke: design and challenges of the thrombolysis in pediatric stroke clinical trial,” Neuroepidemiology, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 279–286, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  108. A. A. Mallouh and J. A. Hamdan, “Intracranial hemorrhage in patients with sickle cell disease,” American Journal of Diseases of Children, vol. 140, no. 6, pp. 505–506, 1986. View at Scopus
  109. S. Kuhle, L. Mitchell, M. Andrew et al., “Urgent clinical challenges in children with ischemic stroke: analysis of 1065 patients from the 1-800-NOCLOTS pediatric stroke telephone consultation service,” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 116–122, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  110. J. S. Li, Y. Eric, K. Y. Berezny et al., “Dosing of clopidogrel for platelet inhibition in infants and young children: primary results of the Platelet Inhibition in Children On cLOpidogrel (PICOLO) trial,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 4, pp. 553–559, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus