- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Emergency Medicine International
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 637171, 11 pages
Sedation in Traumatic Brain Injury
1University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2Department of Intensive Care, Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney, NSW 2065, Australia
Received 8 March 2012; Revised 16 May 2012; Accepted 22 June 2012
Academic Editor: William A. Knight IV
Copyright © 2012 Oliver Flower and Simon Hellings. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- “Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 24, supplement 1, pp. S1–S106, 2007.
- M. R. Fearnside, R. J. Cook, P. McDougall, and R. J. McNeil, “The Westmead Head Injury Project outcome in severe head injury. A comparative analysis of pre-hospital, clinical and CT variables,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 267–279, 1993.
- R. M. Chesnut, L. F. Marshall, M. R. Klauber et al., “The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury,” Journal of Trauma, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 216–222, 1993.
- D. J. Roberts, R. I. Hall, A. H. Kramer, et al., “Sedation for critically ill adults with severe traumatic brain injury: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 12, pp. 2743–2751, 2011.
- C. Barash, R. K. Stoelting, M. Cahalan, and M. C. Stock, Eds., Clinical Anesthesia, Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, Philadephia, PA, USA, 2009.
- A. Turcant, A. Delhumeau, and A. Premel-Cabic, “Thiopental pharmacokinetics under conditions of long-term infusion,” Anesthesiology, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 50–54, 1985.
- S. Khan, N. Stannard, and J. Greijn, “Precipitation of thiopental with muscle relaxants: a potential hazard,” JRSM Short Reports, vol. 2, no. 7, article 58, 2011.
- M. Pinaud, J. N. Lelausque, A. Chetanneau, N. Fauchoux, D. Menegalli, and R. Souron, “Effects of propofol on cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in patients with brain trauma,” Anesthesiology, vol. 73, no. 3, pp. 404–409, 1990.
- P. A. Farling, J. R. Johnston, and D. L. Coppel, “Propofol infusion for sedation of patients with head injury in intensive care. A preliminary report,” Anaesthesia, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 222–226, 1989.
- K. P. Ronan, T. J. Gallagher, B. George, and B. Hamby, “Comparison of propofol and midazolam for sedation in intensive care unit patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 286–293, 1995.
- A. G. Mustafa, I. N. Singh, J. Wang, K. M. Carrico, and E. D. Hall, “Mitochondrial protection after traumatic brain injury by scavenging lipid peroxyl radicals,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 271–280, 2010.
- A. R. Jayakumar, K. V. Rao, K. S. Panickar, et al., “Trauma-induced cell swelling in cultured astrocytes,” Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol. 67, no. 5, pp. 417–427, 2008.
- M. Tanguy, P. Seguin, B. Laviolle, et al., “Cerebral microdialysis effects of propofol versus midazolam in severe traumatic brain injury,” Journal of Neurotrauma, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 1105–1110, 2012.
- M. J. Junttila, M. Gonzalez, E. Lizotte et al., “Induced brugada-type electrocardiogram, a sign for imminent malignant arrhythmias,” Circulation, vol. 117, no. 14, pp. 1890–1893, 2008.
- O. L. Cremer, K. G. M. Moons, E. A. C. Bouman, J. E. Kruijswijk, A. M. G. A. De Smet, and C. J. Kalkman, “Long-term propofol infusion and cardiac failure in adult head-injured patients,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9250, pp. 117–118, 2001.
- L. C. Otterspoor, C. J. Kalkman, and O. L. Cremer, “Update on the propofol infusion syndrome in ICU management of patients with head injury,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 544–551, 2008.
- A. Donmez, G. Arslan, A. Pirat, and B. Demirhan, “Is pancreatitis a complication of propofol infusion?” European Academy of Anaesthesiology, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 367–370, 1999.
- P. B. Langevin, N. Gravenstein, T. J. Doyle et al., “Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Diprivan and Intralipid: implications on the pathogenesis of infections,” Anesthesiology, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1394–1400, 1999.
- B. P. Hodkinson, R. W. Frith, and E. W. Mee, “Proprofol and the electroencephalogram,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8574, p. 1518, 1987.
- M. J. Sutherland and P. Burt, “Propofol and seizures,” Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 733–737, 1994.
- S. Carley and I. Crawford, “Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Propofol for resistant status epilepticus,” Emergency medicine Journal, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 143–144, 2002.
- U. M. Illievich, W. Petricek, W. Schramm, M. Weindlmayr-Goettel, T. Czech, and C. K. Spiss, “Electroencephalographic burst suppression by propofol infusion in humans: hemodynamic consequences,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 155–160, 1993.
- J. M. Wong, “Propofol infusion syndrome,” American Journal of Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 487–491, 2010.
- B. Matta and D. Menon, “Severe head injury in the United Kingdom and Ireland: a survey of practice and implications for management,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1743–1748, 1996.
- D. H. Rhoney and D. Parker, “Use of sedative and analgesic agents in neurotrauma patients: effects on cerebral physiology,” Neurological Research, vol. 23, no. 2-3, pp. 237–259, 2001.
- S. C. Urwin and D. K. Menon, “Comparative tolerability of sedative agents in head-injured adults,” Drug Safety, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 107–133, 2004.
- H. Allonen, G. Ziegler, and U. Klotz, “Midazolam kinetics,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 653–661, 1981.
- L. Papazian, J. Albanese, X. Thirion, G. Perrin, O. Durbec, and C. Martin, “Effect of bolus doses of midazolam on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with severe head injury,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 267–271, 1993.
- J. E. Fleischer, J. H. Milde, T. P. Moyer, and J. D. Michenfelder, “Cerebral effects of high-dose midazolam and subsequent reversal with Ro 15–1788 in dogs,” Anesthesiology, vol. 68, no. 2, pp. 234–242, 1988.
- B. Mets, A. Horsell, and D. M. Linton, “Midazolam-induced benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome,” Anaesthesia, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 28–29, 1991.
- P. Pandharipande, B. A. Cotton, A. Shintani et al., “Prevalence and risk factors for development of delirium in surgical and trauma intensive care unit patients,” The Journal of Trauma, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 34–41, 2008.
- A. Morandi and J. C. Jackson, “Delirium in the intensive care unit: a review,” Neurologic Clinics, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 749–763, 2011.
- A. S. Camps, J. A. Sanchez-Izquierdo Riera, D. T. Vazquez, M. Sa Borges, J. P. Rodriguez, and E. A. Lopez, “Midazolam and 2% propofol in long-term sedation of traumatized, critically ill patients: efficacy and safety comparison,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 3612–3619, 2000.
- K. A. Ghori, D. C. Harmon, A. Elashaal et al., “Effect of midazolam versus propofol sedation on markers of neurological injury and outcome after isolated severe head injury: a pilot study,” Critical Care and Resuscitation, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 166–171, 2007.
- I. Egerod, M. B. Jensen, S. F. Herling, and K. L. Welling, “Effect of an analgo-sedation protocol for neurointensive patients: a two-phase interventional non-randomized pilot study,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 2, article R71, 2010.
- R. J. Osborne, S. P. Joel, and M. L. Slevin, “Morphine intoxication in renal failure: the role of morphine-6-glucuronide,” British Medical Journal, vol. 292, no. 6535, pp. 1548–1549, 1986.
- J. Scholz, M. Steinfath, and M. Schulz, “Clinical pharmacokinetics of alfentanil, fentanyl and sufentanil. An update,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 275–292, 1996.
- N. T. Smith, J. L. Benthuysen, R. G. Bickford et al., “Seizures during opioid anesthetic induction—are they opioid-induced rigidity?” Anesthesiology, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 852–862, 1989.
- T. D. Egan, H. J. M. Lemmens, P. Fiset et al., “The pharmacokinetics of the new short-acting opioid remifentanil (GI87084B) in healthy adult male volunteers,” Anesthesiology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 881–892, 1993.
- A. Karabinis, K. Mandragos, S. Stergiopoulos et al., “Safety and efficacy of analgesia-based sedation with remifentanil versus standard hypnotic-based regimens in intensive care unit patients with brain injuries: a randomised, controlled trial [ISRCTN50308308],” Critical Care, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. R268–280, 2004.
- D. R. Jeevaratnam and D. K. Menon, “Survey of intensive care of severely head injured patients in the United Kingdom,” British Medical Journal, vol. 312, no. 7036, pp. 944–947, 1996.
- W. J. Stept and P. Safar, “Rapid induction-intubation for prevention of gastric-content aspiration,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 633–636, 1970.
- I. Roberts, “Barbiturates for acute traumatic brain injury,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 2, Article ID CD000033, 2000.
- J. M. Gooding, J. T. Weng, and R. A. Smith, “Cardiovascular and pulmonary responses following etomidate induction of anesthesia in patients with demonstrated cardiac disease,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 40–41, 1979.
- M. J. Van Hamme, M. M. Ghoneim, and J. J. Ambre, “Pharmacokinetics of etomidate, a new intravenous anesthetic,” Anesthesiology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 274–277, 1978.
- E. Moss, D. Powell, R. M. Gibson, and D. G. McDowall, “Effect of etomidate on intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion pressure,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 347–352, 1979.
- P. A. Modica and R. Tempelhoff, “Intracranial pressure during induction of anaesthesia and tracheal intubation with etomidate-induced EEG burst suppression,” Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 236–241, 1992.
- I. Watt and L. I. McA, “Mortality amongst multiple trauma patients admitted to an intensive therapy unit,” Anaesthesia, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 973–981, 1984.
- G. Malerba, F. Romano-Girard, A. Cravoisy et al., “Risk factors of relative adrenocortical deficiency in intensive care patients needing mechanical ventilation,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 388–392, 2005.
- Z. Ding and P. F. White, “Anesthesia for electroconvulsive therapy,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 1351–1364, 2002.
- S. A. Forman, “Clinical and molecular pharmacology of etomidate,” Anesthesiology, vol. 114, no. 3, pp. 695–707, 2011.
- Y. Filanovsky, P. Miller, and J. Kao, “Myth: ketamine should not be used as an induction agent for intubation in patients with head injury,” Canadian Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 154–201, 2010.
- J. M. Gibbs, “The effect of intravenous ketamine on cerebrospinal fluid pressure,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 44, no. 12, pp. 1298–1302, 1972.
- J. Evans, M. Rosen, R. D. Weeks, and C. Wise, “Ketamine in neurosurgical procedures,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 7688, pp. 40–41, 1971.
- H. M. Shapiro, S. R. Wyte, and A. B. Harris, “Ketamine anaesthesia in patients with intracranial pathology,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1200–1204, 1972.
- A. Bourgoin, J. Albanèse, M. Léone, E. Sampol-Manos, X. Viviand, and C. Martin, “Effects of sufentanil or ketamine administered in target-controlled infusion on the cerebral hemodynamics of severely brain-injured patients,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1109–1113, 2005.
- A. Lele and W. C. Ziai, “Target-controlled infusion for sedation of traumatic brain-injured patients: role uncertain,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 1172–1174, 2005.
- P. P. Pandharipande, R. D. Sanders, T. D. Girard et al., “Effect of dexmedetomidine versus lorazepam on outcome in patients with sepsis: an a priori-designed analysis of the MENDS randomized controlled trial,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 2, article R38, 2010.
- R. D. Sheth and B. E. Gidal, “Refractory status epilepticus: response to ketamine,” Neurology, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1765–1766, 1998.
- G. Bar-Joseph, Y. Guilburd, A. Tamir, and J. N. Guilburd, “Effectiveness of ketamine in decreasing intracranial pressure in children with intracranial hypertension: clinical article,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2009.
- D. S. Carollo, B. D. Nossaman, and U. Ramadhyani, “Dexmedetomidine: a review of clinical applications,” Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 457–461, 2008.
- E. Martin, G. Ramsay, J. Mantz, and S. T. J. Sum-Ping, “The role of the α2-adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine in postsurgical sedation in the intensive care unit,” Journal of Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 29–41, 2003.
- R. R. Riker, Y. Shehabi, P. M. Bokesch et al., “Dexmedetomidine vs midazolam for sedation of critically Ill patients A randomized trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 301, no. 5, pp. 489–499, 2009.
- Y. Shehabi, P. Grant, H. Wolfenden et al., “Prevalence of delirium with dexmedetomidine compared with morphine based therapy after cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial (DEXmedetomidine compared to morphine-DEXCOM study),” Anesthesiology, vol. 111, no. 5, pp. 1075–1084, 2009.
- H. E. Aryan, K. W. Box, D. Ibrahim, U. Desiraju, and C. P. Ames, “Safety and efficacy of dexmedetomidine in neurosurgical patients,” Brain Injury, vol. 20, no. 8, pp. 791–798, 2006.
- T. M. Grof and K. A. Bledsoe, “Evaluating the use of dexmedetomidine in neurocritical care patients,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 356–361, 2010.
- P. Allely, “What Is Brugada Syndrome?” 2009, http://lifeinthefastlane.com/2009/09/what-is-brugada-syndrome/.