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Enzyme Research
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 537821, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/537821
Review Article

Protein Kinase C and Toll-Like Receptor Signaling

1Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA
2Center for Cell Biology and Cancer Research, Albany Medical College, 47 New Scotland Avenue, Albany, NY 12208, USA

Received 2 March 2011; Accepted 31 May 2011

Academic Editor: Hong-Jian Zhu

Copyright © 2011 Daniel J. Loegering and Michelle R. Lennartz. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of kinases that are implicated in a plethora of diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease. PKC isoforms can have different, and sometimes opposing, effects in these disease states. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern recognition receptors that bind pathogens and stimulate the secretion of cytokines. It has long been known that PKC inhibitors reduce LPS-stimulated cytokine secretion by macrophages, linking PKC activation to TLR signaling. Recent studies have shown that PKC-α, -δ, -ε, and -ζ are directly involved in multiple steps in TLR pathways. They associate with the TLR or proximal components of the receptor complex. These isoforms are also involved in the downstream activation of MAPK, RhoA, TAK1, and NF-κB. Thus, PKC activation is intimately involved in TLR signaling and the innate immune response.