- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Advance Access ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Articles in Press ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 403592, 8 pages
Epileptic Encephalopathies: An Overview
1Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Prince Sultan Military Medical City, P.O. Box 7897, Riyadh 11159, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Pediatrics, University of Dammam and King Fahad Specialist Hospital, P.O. Box 2435, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia
Received 25 February 2012; Accepted 12 September 2012
Academic Editor: Nicola Specchio
Copyright © 2012 Sonia Khan and Raidah Al Baradie. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- J. Engel Jr., “A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and with epilepsy: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology,” Epilepsia, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 796–803, 2001.
- Y. Yamatogi and S. Ohtahara, “Multiple independent spike foci and epilepsy, with special reference to a new epileptic syndrome of 'severe epilepsy with multiple independent spike foci',” Epilepsy research., vol. 70, pp. S96–104, 2006.
- J. F. Donat, “The age-dependent epileptic encephalopathies,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 7–21, 1992.
- J. Aicardi and S. Ohtahara, “Severe neonatal epilepsies with suppression-burst pattern,” in Epileptic Syndromes in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence, J. Roger, M. Bureau, C. H. Dravet, P. Genton, C. A. Tassinari, and P. Wolf, Eds., pp. 33–44, John Libbey, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2002.
- L. Fusco, C. Pachatz, M. Di Capua, and F. Vigevano, “Video/EEG aspects of early-infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-bursts (Ohtahara syndrome),” Brain and Development, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 708–714, 2001.
- N. Murakami, Y. Ohtsuka, and S. Ohtahara, “Early infantile epileptic syndromes with suppression-bursts: early myoclonic encephalopathy vs. Ohtahara syndrome,” Japanese Journal of Psychiatry and Neurology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 197–200, 1993.
- H. Komaki, K. Sugai, M. Sasaki et al., “Surgical treatment of a case of early infantile epileptic encephalopathy with suppression-bursts associated with focal cortical dysplasia,” Epilepsia, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 365–369, 1999.
- J. Aicardi and S. Ohtahara, “Severe neonatal epilepsies with suppression-burst pattern,” in Epileptic Syndromes in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence, M. Bureau, C. H. Dravet, P. Genton, C. A. Tassinari, and P. Wolf, Eds., pp. 33–44, John Libbey, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2002.
- B. D. Bernardina, O. Dulac, and N. Fejerman, “Early myoclonic epileptic encephalopathy (E.M.E.E.),” European Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. 3, pp. 248–252, 1983.
- S. Ohtahara and Y. Yamatogi, “Epileptic encephalopathies in early infancy with suppression-burst,” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 398–407, 2003.
- M. T. Mackay, S. K. Weiss, T. Adams-Webber et al., “Practice parameter: medical treatment of infantile spasms: report of the American Academy of Neurology and the Child Neurology Society,” Neurology, vol. 62, no. 10, pp. 1668–1681, 2004.
- R. Caraballo, M. Vacarezza, R. Cersósimo et al., “Long-term follow-up of the ketogenic diet for refractory epilepsy: multicenter Argentinean experience in 216 pediatric patients,” Seizure, 2011.
- F. Vigevano, L. Fusco, R. Cusmai et al., “The idiopathic form of West syndrome,” Epilepsia, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 743–746, 1993.
- G. Coppola, “Malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy: an epilepsy syndrome of unknown etiology,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, supplement 5, pp. 49–51, 2009.
- B. D. Bernardina, E. Fontana, and F. Darra, “Myoclonic status in non progressive encephalopathies,” in Advances in Neurology, A. Delgado-Escueta, R. Guerrini, M. T. Medina, P. Genton, M. Bureau, and C. Dravet, Eds., vol. 95 of Myoclonic Epilepsies, pp. 59–70, 2005.
- R. Guerrini, L. Parmeggiani, A. Kaminska, and O. Dulac, “Myoclonic astatic epilepsy,” in Epilepsy Syndromes in Infancy, Childhood and Adolescence, J. Roger, M. Bureau, C. H. Dravet, P. Genton, C. A. Tassinari, and P. Wolf, Eds., pp. 106–112, John Libbey, London, UK, 3rd edition, 2002.
- R. Guerrini, C. Dravet, P. Genton, A. Belmonte, A. Kaminska, and O. Dulac, “Lamotrigine and seizure aggravation in severe myoclonic epilepsy,” Epilepsia, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 508–512, 1998.
- A. Arzimanoglou, J. French, W. T. Blume et al., “Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: a consensus approach on diagnosis, assessment, management, and trial methodology,” The Lancet Neurology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 82–93, 2009.
- H. Heiskala, “Community-based study of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome,” Epilepsia, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 526–531, 1997.
- K. van Rijckevorsel, “Treatment of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: overview and recent findings,” Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 1001–1019, 2008.
- G. Kluger, G. Kurlemann, E. Haberlandt et al., “Effectiveness and tolerability of rufinamide in children and adults with refractory epilepsy: first European experience,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 491–495, 2009.
- C. A. Tassinari, “The problems of 'continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep' or 'electrical status epilepsticus during slow sleep' today,” in Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep, A. Beaumanoir, M. Bereau, T. Deonna, L. Mira, and C. A. Tssinari, Eds., pp. 251–255, John Libbey, London, UK, 1995.
- M. Bureau, “Continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS): definition of the syndrome,” in Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep or ESES, A. Beaumanoir, M. Bureau, T. Deonna, L. Mira, and C. A. Tassinari, Eds., pp. 17–26, John Libbey, London, UK, 1995.
- K. Kobayashi, N. Nishibayoshi, Y. Ohtsuka, E. Oka, and S. Ohtahara, “Epilepsy with electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep and secondary bilateral synchrony.,” Epilepsia, vol. 35, pp. 1097–1103, 1994.
- F. Morrell, “Electrophysiology of CSWS in Landau-Kleffner syndrome,” in Continuous Spikes and Waves during Slow Sleep, A. Beaumanoir, M. Bureau, T. Deonna, L. Mira, and C. A. Tassinari, Eds., pp. 77–90, John Libbey, London, UK, 1995.
- T. Morikawa, M. Seino, Y. Watanabe, M. Watanabe, and K. Yagi, “Clinical relevance of continuous spike-waves during slow-wave sleep,” in Proceedings of the 17th Epilepsy International Symposium on Advances in Epileptology, J. Manelis, E. Bental, J. N. Loeber, and F. E. Dreifuss, Eds., pp. 359–363, Raven Press, New York, NY, USA.
- M. De Negri, “Electrical status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Different clinical syndromes: towards a unifying view?” Brain and Development, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 447–451, 1997.
- C. J. Feekery, B. Parry-Fielder, and I. J. Hopkins, “Landau-Kleffner syndrome: six patients including discordant monozygotic twins,” Pediatric Neurology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 1993.
- M. H. C. Duran, C. A. Guimarães, L. L. Medeiros, and M. M. Guerreiro, “Landau-Kleffner syndrome: long-term follow-up,” Brain and Development, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 58–63, 2009.
- W. F. M. Arts, F. K. Aarsen, M. Scheltens-De Boer, and C. E. Catsman-Berrevoets, “Landau-Kleffner syndrome and CSWS syndrome: treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins,” Epilepsia, vol. 50, supplement 7, pp. 55–58, 2009.
- J. J. Riviello, “The Boston Children's Hospital experience with ESES and LKS course,” in Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society, San Diego, Calif, December 2006.
- C. von Stülpnagel, G. Kluger, S. Leiz, and H. Holthausen, “Levetiracetam as add-on therapy in different subgroups of 'benign' idiopathic focal epilepsies in childhood,” Epilepsy and Behavior, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 193–198, 2010.