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Epilepsy Research and Treatment
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 156815, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/156815
Clinical Study

Investigation of Anti-Toxocara Antibodies in Epileptic Patients and Comparison of Two Methods: ELISA and Western Blotting

1Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 381351698, Khorramabad, Iran
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 8715988141, Kashan, Iran
3Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 381351698, Khorramabad, Iran
4Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 713451735, Shiraz, Iran

Received 17 July 2012; Revised 14 January 2013; Accepted 14 January 2013

Academic Editor: Raffaele Manni

Copyright © 2013 Mohammad Zibaei et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The relationship between Toxocara infection and epilepsy was previously demonstrated by several case-control studies and case reports. These previous studies were often based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, which are not specific due to cross-reactivity with other parasitic infections such as ascariasis, trichuriasis, and anisakiasis. An immunoblot analysis is highly specific and can detect low levels of Toxocara antibodies. Therefore, this assay may be useful in the identification of toxocariasis in epileptic patients. We examined patients who had epilepsy and healthy subjects for seropositivity for Toxocara infection by ELISA and Western blotting. Out of 85 epileptic patients, 10 (11.8%) and 3 (3.5%) persons exhibited Toxocara immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies responses by ELISA and by both techniques, respectively. Moreover, in the healthy group ( ), 3 (3.5%) persons were positive by ELISA, but none was detected by Western blotting. This study indicates that Toxocara infection is a risk factor for epilepsy in Iran. These findings strongly suggest the need to perform Western blotting immunodiagnosis, as well as the ELISA using Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens, to improve diagnosis of human toxocariasis in patients with epilepsy.