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Figure 8: Schematic representation of arousal (blue) and sleep (red) network, according to Itier and Bertrand [18] using the Steriade’s drowing [19]. In the inserts the thalamocortical transmitting mode is shown: in red frame the burst-firing mode during NREM sleep and in blue frame the tonic mode conveying continuous impulses from the thalamus to the cortex. The below other two inserts show how cholinergic arousal system inhibits the thalamic reticular activity which in the burst-firing mode provides recurrent inhibition of the thalamic relay neurons (big red arrow). The other influence of the arousal system fuels the cortical arousal through the thalamic relay cells.