Table 1: Influence of anticonvulsant medications on sleep cycle architecture.

Sleep latency ArousalsStage 2/N2Slow wave sleepRapid eye movement sleepSleep efficiency

BDZ
BRB
PBT↑ or
PHT (acute)
PHT (chronic)↑ or − or − or
CBZ (single dose)↑ or −↑ or
CBZ (chronic)− or − or
VPA↑ or −− or
FBM
LTG+
LEV
ZNS+
TPM
GBP
GBP+
PGB
TGB
ETX
VGB− or
LCM
OXC
PPN

BDZ: benzodiazepine, BRB: barbiturate, PBT: phenobarbital, PHT: phenytoin, CBZ: carbamazepine, VPA: valproate, FBM: felbamate, LTG: lamotrigine, LEV: levetiracetam, ZNS: zonisamide, TPM: topiramate, GBP: gabapentin, PGB: pregabalin, TGB: tiagabine, ETX: ethosuximide, VGB: vigabatrin, LCM: lacosamide, OXC: oxcarbazepine, and PPN: perampanel; +: add-on therapy; −: no changes; empty square: no data available.