Epilepsy Research and Treatment http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Prevalence of Different Combinations of Antiepileptic Drugs and CNS Drugs in Elderly Home Care Service and Nursing Home Patients in Norway Wed, 20 Jul 2016 09:36:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/5153093/ Introduction. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used to treat different conditions in elderly patients and are among the drug classes most susceptible to be involved in drug-drug interactions (DDI). The aim of the study was to describe and compare use of AEDs between home care service and nursing home patients, as these patients are not included in nationwide databases of drug utilization. In the combined population, we investigate DDI of AEDs with other central nervous system- (CNS-) active drugs and DDIs involving AEDs in general. Materials and Methods. Point-prevalence study of Norwegian patients in home care services and nursing homes in 2009. At the patient level, we screened for different DDIs involving AEDs. Results. In total, 882 patients (7.8%) of 11,254 patients used AEDs and number of users did not differ between home care services and nursing homes (8.2% versus 7.7%). In the combined population, we identified 436 potential DDIs in 45% of the patients. Conclusions. In a large population of elderly, home care service and nursing home patients do not differ with respect to exposure of AEDs but use more AEDs as compared to the general population of similar age. The risk of DDIs with AEDs and other CNS-active drugs should be taken into consideration and individual clinical evaluations are assessed in this population. Kjell H. Halvorsen, Cecilie Johannessen Landmark, and Anne Gerd Granas Copyright © 2016 Kjell H. Halvorsen et al. All rights reserved. Relation of Perceived Stigma to Adverse Events of Medications in Patients with Epilepsy Wed, 16 Mar 2016 10:10:15 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/5362806/ Purpose. We aimed to assess the influence of adverse events (AEs) of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) on perceived stigma of Bulgarian patients with epilepsy. Methods. Our study was based on questionnaires (Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LAEP) and stigma scale), information from medical documentation, and an interview on clinical factors of 153 consecutive patients with epilepsy. Results. Perceived stigma was observed in 64.71% of the study participants. There was a significant association between perceived stigma and the total LAEP score (, ). Patients who reported AEs had an increased risk of perceiving stigma compared to those who did not experience AEs. A significant correlation between perceived stigma and the presence of neurological and psychiatric AEs (, ) and a mild correlation between perceived stigma and the presence of nonneurological AEs (, ) were verified. In a multivariate regression analysis the only predictors of perceived stigma were AED polytherapy and the presence of neurological and psychiatric AEs. Conclusions. AEs of AEDs in patients with epilepsy significantly correlate with perceived stigma. Our study results will be useful in the campaign to overcome stigma predictors. Ekaterina Viteva Copyright © 2016 Ekaterina Viteva. All rights reserved. Predictors of Postoperative Seizure Recurrence: A Longitudinal Study of Temporal and Extratemporal Resections Wed, 16 Mar 2016 09:58:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/7982494/ Objective. We investigated the longitudinal outcome of resective epilepsy surgery to identify the predictors of seizure recurrence. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed patients who underwent resections for intractable epilepsy over a period of 7 years. Multiple variables were investigated as potential predictors of seizure recurrence. The time to first postoperative seizure was evaluated using survival analysis and univariate analysis at annual intervals. Results. Among 70 patients, 54 (77%) had temporal and 16 (23%) had extratemporal resections. At last follow-up (mean 48 months; range 24–87 months), the outcome was Engel class I in 84% () of patients. Seizure recurrence followed two patterns: recurrence was “early” (within 2 years) in 82% of patients, of whom 83% continued to have seizures despite optimum medical therapy; recurrence was “late” (after 2 years) in 18%, of whom 25% continued to have seizures subsequently. Among the variables of interest, only resection site and ictal EEG remained as independent predictors of seizure recurrence over the long term (). Extratemporal resection and discordance between ictal EEG and resection area were associated with 4.2-fold and 5.6-fold higher risk of seizure recurrence, respectively. Conclusions. Extratemporal epilepsy and uncertainty in ictal EEG localization are independent predictors of unfavorable outcome. Seizure recurrence within two years of surgery indicates poor long-term outcome. Hai Chen, Pradeep N. Modur, Niravkumar Barot, Paul C. Van Ness, Mark A. Agostini, Kan Ding, Puneet Gupta, Ryan Hays, and Bruce Mickey Copyright © 2016 Hai Chen et al. All rights reserved. Cerebral Hemispheric Lateralization Associated with Hippocampal Sclerosis May Affect Interictal Cardiovascular Autonomic Functions in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Wed, 24 Feb 2016 06:48:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/7417540/ It is well established that the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is linked to the autonomic nervous system dysfunctions. Seizures alter the function of different systems such as the respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems. The aim of this work was to evaluate the possible factors which may be involved in interictal cardiovascular autonomic function in temporal lobe epilepsy with complex partial seizures, and with particular attention to hippocampal sclerosis. The study was conducted in 30 patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (19 with left hippocampal sclerosis, 11 with right hippocampal sclerosis). All subjects underwent four tests of cardiac autonomic function: heart rate changes in response to deep breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure variations throughout resting activity and during hand grip, mental stress, and orthostatic tests. Our results show that the right cerebral hemisphere predominantly modulates sympathetic activity, while the left cerebral hemisphere mainly modulates parasympathetic activity, which mediated tachycardia and excessive bradycardia counterregulation, both of which might be involved as a mechanism of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy patients (SUDEP). Rokia Ghchime, Halima Benjelloun, Hajar Kiai, Halima Belaidi, Fatiha Lahjouji, and Reda Ouazzani Copyright © 2016 Rokia Ghchime et al. All rights reserved. Neuromodulation Therapy with Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy: A 2-Year Efficacy Analysis Study in Patients under 12 Years of Age Wed, 10 Feb 2016 13:11:03 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/9709056/ To study the efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) therapy as an adjunctive treatment for intractable epilepsy in patients under 12 years of age, we analyzed 2-year postimplant data of 35 consecutive patients. Of the 35 patients, 18 (51.4%) at 6 months, 18 (51.4%) at 12 months, and 21 (60.1%) at 24 months showed ≥50% reduction in seizure frequency (responders). Although incremental seizure freedom was noted, no patient remained seizure-free throughout the 3 study periods. Partial response (≥50% seizure reduction in 2 or less study periods) was seen in 8 (22.9%) patients. Twelve patients (34.3%) were nonresponders. Out of 29 patients with primary generalized epilepsy, 20 (68.9%) and, out of 6 patients with focal epilepsy, 3 (50%) had ≥50% seizure control in at least one study period. No major complications or side effects requiring discontinuation of VNS therapy were encountered. We conclude that (1) patients with intractable primary generalized epilepsy respond better to VNS therapy, (2) cumulative effect of neuromodulation with improving responder rate to seizure freedom with continuation of VNS therapy is noted, and (3) VNS therapy is safe and is well tolerated in children receiving implant under 12 years of age. Suresh Gurbani, Sirichai Chayasirisobhon, Leslie Cahan, SooHo Choi, Bruce Enos, Jane Hwang, Meei Lin, and Jeffrey Schweitzer Copyright © 2016 Suresh Gurbani et al. All rights reserved. Epidemiology of Acute Symptomatic Seizures among Adult Medical Admissions Sun, 24 Jan 2016 07:28:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2016/4718372/ Acute symptomatic seizures are seizures occurring in close temporal relationship with an acute central nervous system (CNS) insult. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency of presentation and etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures among adult medical admissions. It was a two-year retrospective study of the medical files of adults patients admitted with acute symptomatic seizures as the first presenting event. There were 94 cases of acute symptomatic seizures accounting for 5.2% (95% CI: 4.17–6.23) of the 1,802 medical admissions during the period under review. There were 49 (52.1%) males and 45 (47.9%) females aged between 18 years and 84 years. The etiological risk factors of acute symptomatic seizures were infections in 36.2% () of cases, stroke in 29.8% (), metabolic in 12.8% (), toxic in 10.6% (), and other causes in 10.6% (). Infective causes were more among those below fifty years while stroke was more in those aged fifty years and above. CNS infections and stroke were the prominent causes of acute symptomatic seizures. This is an evidence of the “double tragedy” facing developing countries, the unresolved threat of infectious diseases on one hand and the increasing impact of noncommunicable diseases on the other one. Paul Osemeke Nwani, Maduaburochukwu Cosmas Nwosu, and Monica Nonyelum Nwosu Copyright © 2016 Paul Osemeke Nwani et al. All rights reserved. The Relationship between Self-Efficacy and Psychosocial Care in Adolescents with Epilepsy Thu, 31 Dec 2015 05:39:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/756849/ Introduction. Studies about epilepsy are more associated with physiological aspects and drug therapy and far too little attention has been paid to psychological and social care, especially in teens. Hence, the present study aimed to assess relationship between self-efficacy and psychosocial care in adolescents with epilepsy. Methods. A cross-sectional association study was conducted on 74 consecutive adolescents aged 10 to 18 years with general attacks of epilepsy referred to Pediatric Neurology Clinics affiliated with the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Data were collected by interview using multisegment tools including demographic characteristics, self-efficacy scaling in children with epilepsy, and reporting tools for children psychosocial care. Results. Our study showed a significant association of self-efficacy with “information received’’ () and also with “need for information or support’’ () as well as “concerns and fears’’ (). The comments of doctor or nurse were directly associated with higher self-efficacy and patients’ information needs were inversely associated with higher self-efficacy. Conclusion. For adolescents with epilepsy, providing educational materials such as pamphlets and booklets, designing especial websites, and setting especial meetings with and without parents separately are recommended. Scheduling psychosocial supports and collecting more information about this disorder for adolescents will be helpful. Masoomeh Akbarbegloo, Leila Valizadeh, Vahid Zamanzadeh, and Faranak Jabarzadeh Copyright © 2015 Masoomeh Akbarbegloo et al. All rights reserved. Efficacy and Safety of Levetiracetam and Carbamazepine as Monotherapy in Partial Seizures Sun, 20 Dec 2015 06:28:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/415082/ Introduction. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a newer antiepileptic drug with better pharmacokinetic profile. Currently, it is frequently used for the treatment of partial seizures. The present study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of LEV and Carbamazepine (CBZ) in partial epilepsy. Methods. This was a prospective, open labeled, randomized study. It was conducted in participants suffering from partial seizures after the approval of ethics committee and written informed consent. The first group received Tab LEV (500 to 3000 mg/day) and the second group received Tab CBZ (300 to 600 mg/day). The primary outcomes were efficacy and safety. The secondary outcome was the Quality of Life (QOL). Efficacy was assessed by comparing the seizure freedom rates at the end of 6 months. Safety profile was evaluated by comparing the adverse effects. QOL was assessed by QOLIE-10 scale. Results. The overall seizure freedom rate at the end of 6 months was 71.42% in CBZ group compared to 78.57% in LEV group (). Both LEV and CBZ reported a similar incidence of adverse reactions. LEV group reported more behavioral changes like increased aggression and anxiety. Also, it showed better QOL compared to the CBZ group. Conclusion. LEV monotherapy and CBZ monotherapy demonstrated similar efficacy for treatment of partial epilepsy and were found to be well tolerated. Swaroop Hassan Suresh, Ananya Chakraborty, Akash Virupakshaiah, and Nithin Kumar Copyright © 2015 Swaroop Hassan Suresh et al. All rights reserved. Bridging the Gap between Evidence and Practice for Adults with Medically Refractory Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Is a Change in Funding Policy Needed to Stimulate a Shift in Practice? Mon, 07 Dec 2015 13:48:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/675071/ Objective. Surgery for medically refractory epilepsy (MRE) in adults has been shown to be effective but underutilized. Comprehensive health economic evaluations of surgery compared with continued medical management are limited. Policy changes may be necessary to influence practice shift. Methods. A critical review of the literature on health economic analyses for adults with MRE was conducted. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CRD, and EconLit databases were searched using relevant subject headings and keywords pertaining to adults, epilepsy, and health economic evaluations. The screening was conducted independently and in duplicate. Results. Four studies were identified (1 Canadian, 2 American, and 1 French). Two were cost-utility analyses and 2 were cost-effectiveness evaluations. Only one was conducted after the effectiveness of surgery was established through a randomized trial. All suggested surgery to be favorable in the medium to long term (7-8 years and beyond). The reduction of medication use was the major cost-saving parameter in favor of surgery. Conclusions. Although updated evaluations that are more generalizable across settings are necessary, surgery appears to be a favorable option from a health economic perspective. Given the limited success of knowledge translation endeavours, funder-level policy changes such as quality-based purchasing may be necessary to induce a shift in practice. Alireza Mansouri, Abdulrahman Aldakkan, Magda J. Kosicka, Jean-Eric Tarride, and Taufik A. Valiante Copyright © 2015 Alireza Mansouri et al. All rights reserved. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Status Epilepticus Sun, 22 Nov 2015 11:12:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/678074/ Background. Our goal was to perform a systematic review on the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and refractory status epilepticus (RSE). Methods. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Healthstar, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, clinicaltrials.gov (inception to August 2015), and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using Oxford and GRADE methodology. Results. We identified 11 original articles. Twenty-one patients were described, with 13 adult and 8 pediatric. All studies were retrospective. Seizure reduction/control with rTMS occurred in 15 of the 21 patients (71.4%), with 5 (23.8%) and 10 (47.6%) displaying partial and complete responses, respectively. Seizures recurred after rTMS in 73.3% of the patients who had initially responded. All studies were an Oxford level 4, GRADE D level of evidence. Conclusions. Oxford level 4, GRADE D evidence exists to suggest a potential impact on seizure control with the use of rTMS for FSE and FRSE, though durability of the therapy is short-lived. Routine use of rTMS in this context cannot be recommended at this time. Further prospective study of this intervention is warranted. F. A. Zeiler, M. Matuszczak, J. Teitelbaum, L. M. Gillman, and C. J. Kazina Copyright © 2015 F. A. Zeiler et al. All rights reserved. Delays and Factors Related to Cessation of Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus Mon, 10 Aug 2015 11:44:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/591279/ Introduction. This study was designed to identify the delays and factors related to and predicting the cessation of generalized convulsive SE (GCSE). Methods. This retrospective study includes 70 consecutive patients (>16 years) diagnosed with GCSE and treated in the emergency department of a tertiary hospital over 2 years. We defined cessation of SE stepwise using clinical seizure freedom, achievement of burst-suppression, and return of consciousness as endpoints and calculated delays for these cessation markers. In addition 10 treatment delay parameters and 7 prognostic and GCSE episode related factors were defined. Multiple statistical analyses were performed on their relation to cessation markers. Results. Onset-to-second-stage-medication (), onset-to-burst-suppression (), and onset-to-clinical-seizure-freedom () delays correlated with the onset-to-consciousness delay. We detected no correlation between age, epilepsy, STESS, prestatus period, type of SE onset, effect of the first medication, and cessation of SE. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates that rapid administration of second-stage medication and early obtainment of clinical seizure freedom and burst-suppression predict early return of consciousness, an unambiguous marker for the end of SE. We propose that delays in treatment chain may be more significant determinants of SE cessation than the previously established outcome predictors. Thus, streamlining the treatment chain is advocated. Leena Kämppi, Jaakko Ritvanen, Harri Mustonen, and Seppo Soinila Copyright © 2015 Leena Kämppi et al. All rights reserved. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Thu, 16 Jul 2015 11:03:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/746745/ The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon. Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista, Mario Rodríguez-Camacho, Iris E. Martínez-Juárez, and Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo Copyright © 2015 Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista et al. All rights reserved. Choice of Antiepileptic Drugs in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: UAE Experience Wed, 20 May 2015 13:20:35 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2015/184928/ We retrospectively reviewed the electroencephalogram (EEG) reports of patients at our EEG lab from the years 2005–2010 to identify patients referred from the epilepsy clinic, with a confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) by EEG criteria. We sought to report our experience in UAE of how often patients with IGE are placed on nonspecific antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) before being evaluated at an epilepsy referral clinic. 109 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of IGE based on EEG criteria were identified. When initially seen, 32.11% were taking a broad-spectrum (specific) AED only, 25.69% were taking a narrow-spectrum (nonspecific) AED, and 15.59% were placed on various combinations. Of the total patients who were receiving nonspecific AEDs, 35.71% were seizure-free and 64.28% were poorly controlled accounting for “pseudointractability status.” When converted to broad-spectrum (specific) AEDs, 50% became well controlled. Furthermore, 26.6% of patients, who were previously on no AED prior to the clinic visit, became well controlled once placed on specific AED. Taoufik Alsaadi, Haytham Taha, and Fatema Al Hammadi Copyright © 2015 Taoufik Alsaadi et al. All rights reserved. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Mon, 08 Dec 2014 12:11:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/157452/ Autobiographical memory (AM) is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE) and 10 left (LTLE), and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient. Claudia P. Múnera, Carolina Lomlomdjian, Belen Gori, Verónica Terpiluk, Nancy Medel, Patricia Solís, and Silvia Kochen Copyright © 2014 Claudia P. Múnera et al. All rights reserved. The Perception of Family Function by Adolescents with Epilepsy in a Rural Nigerian Community Tue, 25 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/959274/ The family plays a significant role in epilepsy management in sub-Saharan Africa and how this role is perceived by persons with epilepsy could influence epilepsy outcomes. The objective of the study was to assess perception of family function by adolescents with epilepsy (AWE). The sociodemographic and epilepsy characteristics of AWE in a rural Nigerian community were assessed and the Family APGAR tool was used in assessing their perception of satisfaction with family functioning. Adolescents () constituted 26% of the community’s population and 18 (10.5/1000) had epilepsy. The AWE age range was 11–19 years (mean years) with a male preponderance (15, 83.3%). The family was the only source of care. Family dysfunction (Family APGAR Score <7) was indicated by 15 (83.3%) of the AWE. The strongest perception of family function was in adaptability while the weakest was with growth. The indication of family dysfunction was significant () in the older (age 14–19 years) AWE when compared with the younger AWE (11–13 years) in the study. Most of the AWE indicated living in a dysfunctional family setting. The study highlights the need to address the role of the family in the provision of comprehensive epilepsy care. Edwin E. Eseigbe, Folorunsho T. Nuhu, Taiwo L. Sheikh, Sam J. Adama, Patricia Eseigbe, and Okechukwu J. Oguizu Copyright © 2014 Edwin E. Eseigbe et al. All rights reserved. Neurocognitive and Seizure Outcomes of Selective Amygdalohippocampectomy versus Anterior Temporal Lobectomy for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Wed, 01 Oct 2014 07:58:39 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/306382/ Objective. To report our institutional seizure and neuropsychological outcomes for a series of patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) undergoing anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) or selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SelAH) between 2004 and 2011. Methods. A retrospective study of patients with mTLE was conducted. Seizure outcome was reported using time-to-event analysis. Cognitive outcome was reported using the change principal in component factor scores, one each, for intellectual abilities, visuospatial memory, and verbal memory. The Boston Naming Test was used for naming assessment. Language dominant and nondominant resections were compared separately. Student’s -test was used to assess statistical significance. Results. Ninety-six patients (75 ATL, 21 SelAH) were included; fifty-four had complete neuropsychological follow-up. Median follow-up was 40.5 months. There was no statistically significant difference in seizure freedom or any of the neuropsychological outcomes, although there was a trend toward greater postoperative decline in naming in the dominant hemisphere group following ATL. Conclusion. Seizure and neuropsychological outcomes did not differ for the two surgical approaches which is similar to most prior studies. Given the theoretical possibility of SelAH sparing language function in patients with epilepsy secondary to mesial temporal sclerosis and the limited high-quality evidence creating equipoise, a multicenter randomized clinical trial is warranted. Alireza Mansouri, Aria Fallah, Mary Pat McAndrews, Melanie Cohn, Diana Mayor, Danielle Andrade, Peter Carlen, Jose M. del Campo, Peter Tai, Richard A. Wennberg, and Taufik A. Valiante Copyright © 2014 Alireza Mansouri et al. All rights reserved. Highights in the History of Epilepsy: The Last 200 Years Sun, 24 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/582039/ The purpose of this study was to present the evolution of views on epilepsy as a disease and symptom during the 19th and the 20th century. A thorough study of texts, medical books, and reports along with a review of the available literature in PubMed was undertaken. The 19th century is marked by the works of the French medical school and of John Hughlings Jackson who set the research on epilepsy on a solid scientific basis. During the 20th century, the invention of EEG, the advance in neurosurgery, the discovery of antiepileptic drugs, and the delineation of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, were the most significant advances in the field of research in epilepsy. Among the most prestigious physicians connected with epilepsy one can pinpoint the work of Henry Gastaut, Wilder Penfield, and Herbert Jasper. The most recent advances in the field of epilepsy include the development of advanced imaging techniques, the development of microsurgery, and the research on the connection between genetic factors and epileptic seizures. Emmanouil Magiorkinis, Aristidis Diamantis, Kalliopi Sidiropoulou, and Christos Panteliadis Copyright © 2014 Emmanouil Magiorkinis et al. All rights reserved. Both Maternal and Pup Genotype Influence Ultrasonic Vocalizations and Early Developmental Milestones in Tsc2+/− Mice Mon, 04 Aug 2014 12:31:20 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/784137/ Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by tumor growth and neuropsychological symptoms such as autistic behavior, developmental delay, and epilepsy. While research has shed light on the biochemical and genetic etiology of TSC, the pathogenesis of the neurologic and behavioral manifestations remains poorly understood. TSC patients have a greatly increased risk of developmental delay and autism spectrum disorder, rendering the relationship between the two sets of symptoms an extremely pertinent issue for clinicians. We have expanded on previous observations of aberrant vocalizations in Tsc2+/− mice by testing vocalization output and developmental milestones systematically during the early postnatal period. In this study, we have demonstrated that Tsc2 haploinsufficiency in either dams or their pups results in a pattern of developmental delay in sensorimotor milestones and ultrasonic vocalizations. Emily A. Greene-Colozzi, Abbey R. Sadowski, Elyza Chadwick, Peter T. Tsai, and Mustafa Sahin Copyright © 2014 Emily A. Greene-Colozzi et al. All rights reserved. The Peptide Network between Tetanus Toxin and Human Proteins Associated with Epilepsy Sun, 01 Jun 2014 08:09:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/236309/ Sequence matching analyses show that Clostridium tetani neurotoxin shares numerous pentapeptides (68, including multiple occurrences) with 42 human proteins that, when altered, have been associated with epilepsy. Such a peptide sharing is higher than expected, nonstochastic, and involves tetanus toxin-derived epitopes that have been validated as immunopositive in the human host. Of note, an unexpected high level of peptide matching is found in mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 (MK10), a protein selectively expressed in hippocampal areas. On the whole, the data indicate a potential for cross-reactivity between the neurotoxin and specific epilepsy-associated proteins and may help evaluate the potential risk for epilepsy following immune responses induced by tetanus infection. Moreover, this study may contribute to clarifying the etiopathogenesis of the different types of epilepsy. Guglielmo Lucchese, Jean Pierre Spinosa, and Darja Kanduc Copyright © 2014 Guglielmo Lucchese et al. All rights reserved. Caregiver Burden in Epilepsy: Determinants and Impact Tue, 08 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/808421/ Aim. Caregiver burden (CB) in epilepsy constitutes an understudied area. Here we attempt to identify the magnitude of this burden, the factors associated with it, and its impact to caregiver quality of life (QOL). Methods. 48 persons with epilepsy (PWE) underwent video-EEG monitoring and their caregivers completed questionnaires providing demographic, disease-related, psychiatric, cognitive, sleep, QOL, and burden information. Results. On regression analysis, higher number of antiepileptic drugs, poorer patient neuropsychological performance, lower patient QOL score, and lower caregiver education level were associated with higher CB. Time allocated to patient care approximated but did not attain statistical significance. A moderate inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL physical component summary score and a stronger inverse correlation between CB and caregiver QOL mental component summary score were seen. Conclusion. In a selected cohort of PWE undergoing video-EEG monitoring, we identified modest degree of CB, comparable to that reported in the literature for other chronic neurological conditions. It is associated with specific patient and caregiver characteristics and has a negative effect on caregiver QOL. Ioannis Karakis, Andrew J. Cole, Georgia D. Montouris, Marta San Luciano, Kimford J. Meador, and Charitomeni Piperidou Copyright © 2014 Ioannis Karakis et al. All rights reserved. The Syndrome of Absence Status Epilepsy: Review of the Literature Mon, 10 Feb 2014 10:04:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/624309/ The authors review the literature for cases fulfilling the criteria for the proposed idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome (IGE) of absence status epilepsy described by Genton et al. (2008). Difficulties arising in diagnosing such cases are remarked, and possible overlapping with other proposed IGE syndromes is discussed. Leonilda Bilo, Sabina Pappatà, Roberto De Simone, and Roberta Meo Copyright © 2014 Leonilda Bilo et al. All rights reserved. Long-Term Survival and Outcome in Children Admitted to Kilifi District Hospital with Convulsive Status Epilepticus Thu, 30 Jan 2014 13:52:31 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/643747/ Objectives. The incidence of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is high in Africa but the long-term outcome is unknown. We examined the neurocognitive outcome and survival of children treated for CSE in a Kenyan hospital 3 to 4 years after discharge. Methods. The frequency and nature of neurological deficits among this group of children were determined and compared to a control group. The children were screened with the Ten Questions Questionnaire for neurodevelopmental impairment if alive and those that screened positive were invited for further assessment to determine the pattern and extent of their impairment. A verbal autopsy was performed to determine the cause of death in those that died. Results. In the 119 cases followed-up, 9 (8%) died after discharge, with the majority having seizures during their fatal illness. The 110 survivors (median age 5 years) had significantly more neurological impairments on the screening compared to 282 controls (34/110 (30.9%) versus 11/282 (3.9%), OR = 11.0, 95% CI 5.3–22.8). Fifteen percent of the cases had active epilepsy. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the considerable burden of CSE in African children. Strategies to manage children with CSE that are acceptable to the community need to be explored to improve the longer-term outcome. Agnes Prins, Eddie Chengo, Victor Mung'ala Odera, Manish Sadarangani, Claire Seaton, Penny Holding, Greg Fegan, and Charles R. Newton Copyright © 2014 Agnes Prins et al. All rights reserved. The Modified Atkins Diet in Refractory Epilepsy Thu, 30 Jan 2014 10:02:37 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/404202/ The modified Atkins diet is a less restrictive variation of the ketogenic diet. This diet is started on an outpatient basis without a fast, allows unlimited protein and fat, and does not restrict calories or fluids. Recent studies have shown good efficacy and tolerability of this diet in refractory epilepsy. In this review, we discuss the use of the modified Atkins diet in refractory epilepsy. Suvasini Sharma and Puneet Jain Copyright © 2014 Suvasini Sharma and Puneet Jain. All rights reserved. Epilepsy Surgery Series: A Study of 502 Consecutive Patients from a Developing Country Thu, 30 Jan 2014 08:20:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/286801/ Purpose. To review the postoperative seizure outcomes of patients that underwent surgery for epilepsy at King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre (KFSHRC). Methods. A descriptive retrospective study for 502 patients operated on for medically intractable epilepsy between 1998 and 2012. The surgical outcome was measured using the ILAE criteria. Results. The epilepsy surgery outcome for temporal lobe epilepsy surgery (ILAE classes 1, 2, and 3) at 12, 36, and 60 months is 79.6%, 74.2%, and 67%, respectively. The favorable 12- and 36-month outcomes for frontal lobe epilepsy surgery are 62% and 52%, respectively. For both parietal and occipital epilepsy lobe surgeries the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 67%. For multilobar epilepsy surgery, the 12- and 36-month outcomes are 65% and 50%, respectively. The 12- and 36-month outcomes for functional hemispherectomy epilepsy surgery are 64.2% and 63%, respectively. According to histopathology diagnosis, mesiotemporal sclerosis (MTS) and benign CNS tumors had the best favorable outcome after surgery at 1 year (77.27% and 84.3%, resp.,) and 3 years (76% and 75%, resp.,). The least favorable seizure-free outcome after 3 years occurred in cases with dual pathology (66.6%). Thirty-four epilepsy patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scans were surgically treated. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcome of 17 temporal lobe surgeries were (53%) and (47%) seizure-free, respectively. The first- and third-year epilepsy surgery outcomes of 15 extratemporal epilepsy surgeries were (47%) and (33%) seizure-free. Conclusion. The best outcomes are achieved with temporal epilepsy surgery, mesial temporal sclerosis, and benign CNS tumor. The worst outcomes are from multilobar surgery, dual pathology, and normal MRI. Abdulaziz Alsemari, Faisal Al-Otaibi, Salah Baz, Ibrahim Althubaiti, Hisham Aldhalaan, David MacDonald, Tareq Abalkhail, Miguel E. Fiol, Suad Alyamani, Aziza Chedrawi, Frank Leblanc, Andrew Parrent, Donald Maclean, and John Girvin Copyright © 2014 Abdulaziz Alsemari et al. All rights reserved. Adaptive Skills and Somatization in Children with Epilepsy Mon, 27 Jan 2014 06:19:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2014/856735/ Objective. Children with epilepsy are at risk for less than optimum long-term outcomes. The type and severity of their epilepsy may contribute to educational, psychological, and social outcomes. The objective of this study was to determine the relation between somatization and adaptive skills based on seizure type that could impact on those outcomes. Methods. This study examined adaptive functioning and somatization in 87 children with epilepsy using archival data from a tertiary care facility. Results. No significant differences in adaptive skills emerged between groups of children diagnosed with complex partial (CP) as compared to CP-secondary generalized (SG) seizures; however, deficits in adaptive behavior were found for both groups. The number of medications, possibly reflecting the severity of the epilepsy, was highly correlated to adaptive function. Conclusions. Identification of deficits in adaptive behavior may represent an opportunity for tailored prevention and intervention programming for children with epilepsy. Addressing functional deficits may lead to improved outcomes for these children. Nichole Wicker Villarreal, Cynthia A. Riccio, Morris J. Cohen, and Yong Park Copyright © 2014 Nichole Wicker Villarreal et al. All rights reserved. Excessive Daytime Sleepiness and Epilepsy: A Systematic Review Thu, 31 Oct 2013 15:08:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2013/629469/ Background. Sleep complaints are common in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most reported complaints and its impact is still a matter of debate. Objective. Evaluate the relationship between EDS and epilepsy, with emphasis on prevalence, assessment, and causes. Methods. A systematic review on PubMed database in the last 10 years (2002 to 2012). The search returned 53 articles and 34 were considered relevant. After citation analysis, 3 more articles were included. Results. Most studies were cross-sectional and questionnaire based. 14 papers addressed EDS as the primary endpoint. 14 adult and 3 children studies used subjective and objective analysis as methodology. The number of studies increased throughout the decade, with 21 in the last 5 years. Adult studies represent almost three times the number of children studies. EDS prevalence in PWE varies from 10 to 47.5%. Prevalence was higher in developing countries. Conclusion. EDS seems to be related more frequently to undiagnosed sleep disorders than to epilepsy-related factors, and although it affects the quality of life of PWE, it can be improved by treating comorbid primary sleep disorders. Andre S. Giorelli, Pâmela Passos, Thiago Carnaval, and Marleide da Mota Gomes Copyright © 2013 Andre S. Giorelli et al. All rights reserved. Temporal Lobe Resective Surgery for Medically Intractable Epilepsy: A Review of Complications and Side Effects Thu, 31 Oct 2013 14:39:02 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2013/752195/ Object. It is widely accepted that temporal resective surgery represents an efficacious treatment option for patients with epilepsy of temporal origin. The meticulous knowledge of the potential complications, associated with temporal resective procedures, is of paramount importance. In our current study, we attempt to review the pertinent literature for summating the complications of temporal resective procedures for epilepsy. Method. A PubMed search was performed with the following terms: “behavioral,” “cognitive,” “complication,” “deficit,” “disorder,” “epilepsy,” “hemianopia,” “hemianopsia,” “hemorrhage,” “lobectomy,” “medial,” “memory,” “mesial,” “neurobehavioral,” “neurocognitive,” “neuropsychological,” “psychological,” “psychiatric,” “quadranopia,” “quadranopsia,” “resective,” “side effect,” “surgery,” “temporal,” “temporal lobe,” and “visual field.” Results. There were six pediatric, three mixed-population, and eleven adult surgical series examining the incidence rates of procedure-related complications. The reported mortality rates varied between 0% and 3.5%, although the vast majority of the published series reported no mortality. The cumulative morbidity rates ranged between 3.2% and 88%. Conclusions. Temporal resective surgery for epilepsy is a safe treatment modality. The reported morbidity rates demonstrate a wide variation. Accurate detection and frank reporting of any surgical, neurological, cognitive, and/or psychological complications are of paramount importance for maximizing the safety and improving the patients’ overall outcome. Iordanis Georgiadis, Effie Z. Kapsalaki, and Kostas N. Fountas Copyright © 2013 Iordanis Georgiadis et al. All rights reserved. Surgical Treatment of Pediatric Epileptic Encephalopathies Wed, 30 Oct 2013 13:11:12 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2013/720841/ Pediatric epileptiform encephalopathies are a group of neurologically devastating disorders related to uncontrolled ictal and interictal epileptic activity, with a poor prognosis. Despite the number of pharmacological options for treatment of epilepsy, many of these patients are drug resistant. For these patients with uncontrolled epilepsy, motor and/or neuropsychological deterioration is common. To prevent these secondary consequences, surgery is often considered as either a curative or a palliative option. Magnetic resonance imaging to look for epileptic lesions that may be surgically treated is an essential part of the workup for these patients. Many surgical procedures for the treatment of epileptiform encephalopathies have been reported in the literature. In this paper the evidence for these procedures for the treatment of pediatric epileptiform encephalopathies is reviewed. J. Fridley, G. Reddy, D. Curry, and S. Agadi Copyright © 2013 J. Fridley et al. All rights reserved. Sleep and Epilepsy Wed, 23 Oct 2013 08:31:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2013/483248/ Andrea Romigi, E. Bonanni, and M. Maestri Copyright © 2013 Andrea Romigi et al. All rights reserved. Assessing Systems of Care for US Children with Epilepsy/Seizure Disorder Mon, 21 Oct 2013 09:49:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ert/2013/825824/ Background. The proportion of US children with special health care needs (CSHCN) with epilepsy/seizure disorder who receive care in high-quality health service systems was examined. Methodology. We analyzed data for 40,242 CSHCN from the 2009-2010 National Survey of CSHCN and compared CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder to CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder. Measures included attainment rates for 6 federal quality indicators with comparisons conducted using chi square and logistic regression methods. In addition, CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder were compared to CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder on the basis of 14 unmet health care needs. Results. Lower attainment rates for receiving comprehensive care in a medical home and easily accessible community-based services were found for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder versus CSHCN without epilepsy/seizure disorder (medical home: 32% versus 43%; accessible community-based services: 50% versus 66%, resp.) in unadjusted analyses. Lower adjusted odds for these indicators as well as greater unmet need for specialists, dentistry, prescriptions, therapies, and mental health care were also found for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorder. Conclusions. Further efforts are needed to improve attainment of high-quality health care services for CSHCN with epilepsy/seizure disorders. Mary Kay Kenney and Marie Mann Copyright © 2013 Mary Kay Kenney and Marie Mann. All rights reserved.