Journal of Fluids http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Peristaltic Motion of Non-Newtonian Fluid with Heat and Mass Transfer through a Porous Medium in Channel under Uniform Magnetic Field Thu, 10 Apr 2014 09:10:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2014/525769/ This paper is devoted to the study of the peristaltic motion of non-Newtonian fluid with heat and mass transfer through a porous medium in the channel under the effect of magnetic field. A modified Casson non-Newtonian constitutive model is employed for the transport fluid. A perturbation series’ method of solution of the stream function is discussed. The effects of various parameters of interest such as the magnetic parameter, Casson parameter, and permeability parameter on the velocity, pressure rise, temperature, and concentration are discussed and illustrated graphically through a set of figures. Nabil T. M. Eldabe, Bothaina M. Agoor, and Heba Alame Copyright © 2014 Nabil T. M. Eldabe et al. All rights reserved. Enhancement of Impinging Jet Heat Transfer Using Two Parallel Confining Plates Mounted near Rectangular Nozzle Exit Tue, 25 Mar 2014 12:47:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2014/873684/ Impinging jet heat transfer on a target plate was enhanced by using two parallel confining plates mounted between a rectangular nozzle end plate and a jet target plate. The target plate was set equal to 2, 3, 4, and 5 times the jet exit width, , and the gap ratio of two parallel confining plates, , were changed from 2.7 to 8.0 only by impinging length and from 2.7 to 6.7 by . Two confining parallel plates mounted near the jet exit produced swing-type flow under some conditions. As a result, the maximum Nusselt number attained around the stagnation point was augmented by about 50% compared to the one for normal impinging jet without the two parallel plates and then spatial mean Nusselt number was increased by about 40%. Yoshiaki Haneda, Akiko Souma, Hideo Kurasawa, Shouichiro Iio, and Toshihiko Ikeda Copyright © 2014 Yoshiaki Haneda et al. All rights reserved. Double-Diffusive Convection in Presence of Compressible Rivlin-Ericksen Fluid with Fine Dust Tue, 04 Feb 2014 13:30:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2014/714150/ An investigation is made on the effect of suspended particles (fine dust) on double-diffusive convection of a compressible Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid. The perturbation equations are analyzed in terms of normal modes after linearizing the relevant set of equations. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, compressibility, stable solute gradient, and suspended particles is derived. For stationary convection, Rivlin-Ericksen fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. The stable solute gradient compressibility has a stabilizing effect on the system whereas suspended particles hasten the onset of thermosolutal instability. The Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behaviour of various parameters on Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, suspended particles, and stable solute gradient which were not existing in the absence of these parameters. Mahinder Singh and Rajesh Kumar Gupta Copyright © 2014 Mahinder Singh and Rajesh Kumar Gupta. All rights reserved. Hydraulic Analysis of Water Distribution Network Using Shuffled Complex Evolution Thu, 16 Jan 2014 11:16:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2014/979706/ Hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks is an important problem in civil engineering. A widely used approach in steady-state analysis of water distribution networks is the global gradient algorithm (GGA). However, when the GGA is applied to solve these networks, zero flows cause a computation failure. On the other hand, there are different mathematical formulations for hydraulic analysis under pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation. This paper introduces an optimization model for the hydraulic analysis of water distribution networks using a metaheuristic method called shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm. In this method, applying if-then rules in the optimization model is a simple way in handling pressure-driven demand and leakage simulation, and there is no need for an initial solution vector which must be chosen carefully in many other procedures if numerical convergence is to be achieved. The overall results indicate that the proposed method has the capability of handling various pipe networks problems without changing in model or mathematical formulation. Application of SCE in optimization model can lead to accurate solutions in pipes with zero flows. Finally, it can be concluded that the proposed method is a suitable alternative optimizer challenging other methods especially in terms of accuracy. Naser Moosavian and Mohammad Reza Jaefarzadeh Copyright © 2014 Naser Moosavian and Mohammad Reza Jaefarzadeh. All rights reserved. Free Convection Heat and Mass Transfer MHD Flow in a Vertical Porous Channel in the Presence of Chemical Reaction Thu, 12 Dec 2013 08:34:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/297493/ The objective of the present study is to examine the fully developed free convective MHD flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid in a vertical porous channel under influence of asymmetric wall temperature and concentration in the presence of chemical reaction. The heat and mass transfer coupled with diffusion-thermo effect renders the present analysis interesting and curious. The analytical solution by Laplace transform technique of partial differential equations is used to obtain the expressions for the velocity, temperature, and concentration. It is observed that under the influence of dominating mass diffusivity over thermal diffusivity with stronger Lorentz force the velocity is reduced at all points Further, low rate of thermal diffusion delays the attainment of free stream state. Flow of aqueous solution in the presence of heavier species is prone to back flow. R. N. Barik, G. C. Dash, and M. Kar Copyright © 2013 R. N. Barik et al. All rights reserved. On the Stability of a Compressible Axial Flow with an Axial Magnetic Field Tue, 10 Dec 2013 08:09:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/869324/ We consider the stability problem of inviscid compressible axial flows with axial magnetic fields following the work of Dandapat and Gupta (Quarterly of Applied Mathematics, 1975). A numerical study of the stability of some basic flows has been carried out and it is found that an increase in the magnetic field strength has a stabilizing effect on subsonic flows and a destabilizing effect on supersonic flows. An analytical study of the stability problem has also been done in the present paper, but this analytical study is restricted by the approximation and , where is the Mach number and is the imaginary part of the complex phase velocity . A semicircular region depending on the magnetic field parameter and the Mach number is found for subsonic disturbances and as a consequence it is found that sufficiently strong magnetic field stabilizes all subsonic disturbances. Under a weak magnetic field, it is shown that short subsonic disturbances are stable. M. Subbiah and M. S. Anil Iype Copyright © 2013 M. Subbiah and M. S. Anil Iype. All rights reserved. Thermal Jump Effects on Boundary Layer Flow of a Jeffrey Fluid Near the Stagnation Point on a Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Variable Thermal Conductivity Thu, 05 Dec 2013 18:49:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/749271/ A mathematical model will be analyzed in order to study the effects of thermal jump and variable thermal conductivity on flow and heat transfer near the stagnation point on a stretching/shrinking sheet in a Jeffrey fluid. The highly nonlinear partial differential equation of Jeffrey fluid flow along with the energy equation are transformed to an ordinary system using nondimensional transformations. The arising equations are solved for temperature, velocity, shear stress, and heat flux using finite difference method. The effect of the influences parameters is discussed. For nonradiation regular viscous fluid our results are as that by Nazar et al. (2002). M. A. A. Hamad, S. M. AbdEl-Gaied, and W. A. Khan Copyright © 2013 M. A. A. Hamad et al. All rights reserved. Free Convective MHD Flow Past a Vertical Cone with Variable Heat and Mass Flux Mon, 18 Nov 2013 13:56:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/405985/ A numerical study of buoyancy-driven unsteady natural convection boundary layer flow past a vertical cone embedded in a non-Darcian isotropic porous regime with transverse magnetic field applied normal to the surface is considered. The heat and mass flux at the surface of the cone is modeled as a power law according to and , respectively, where denotes the coordinate along the slant face of the cone. Both Darcian drag and Forchheimer quadratic porous impedance are incorporated into the two-dimensional viscous flow model. The transient boundary layer equations are then nondimensionalized and solved by the Crank-Nicolson implicit difference method. The velocity, temperature, and concentration fields have been studied for the effect of Grashof number, Darcy number, Forchheimer number, Prandtl number, surface heat flux power-law exponent (), surface mass flux power-law exponent (), Schmidt number, buoyancy ratio parameter, and semivertical angle of the cone. Present results for selected variables for the purely fluid regime are compared with the published results and are found to be in excellent agreement. The local skin friction, Nusselt number, and Sherwood number are also analyzed graphically. The study finds important applications in geophysical heat transfer, industrial manufacturing processes, and hybrid solar energy systems. J. Prakash, S. Gouse Mohiddin, and S. Vijaya Kumar Varma Copyright © 2013 J. Prakash et al. All rights reserved. CFD Analysis of Energy Separation in Ranque-Hilsch Vortex Tube at Cryogenic Temperature Thu, 14 Nov 2013 09:19:56 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/562027/ Study of the energy separation phenomenon in vortex tube (VT) at cryogenic temperature (temperature range below 123 K) has become important because of the potential application of VT as in-flight air separator in air breathing propulsion. In the present study, a CFD model is used to simulate the energy separation phenomenon in VT with gaseous air at cryogenic temperature as working fluid. Energy separation at cryogenic temperature is found to be considerably less than that obtained at normal atmospheric temperature due to lower values of inlet enthalpy and velocity. Transfer of tangential shear work from inner to outer fluid layers is found to be the cause of energy separation. A parametric sensitivity analysis is carried out in order to optimize the energy separation at cryogenic temperature. Also, rates of energy transfer in the form of sensible heat and shear work in radial and axial directions are calculated to investigate the possible explanation of the variation of the hot and cold outlet temperatures with respect to various geometric and physical input parameters. T. Dutta, K. P. Sinhamahapatra, and S. S. Bandyopadhyay Copyright © 2013 T. Dutta et al. All rights reserved. Slip-Flow and Heat Transfer in a Porous Microchannel Saturated with Power-Law Fluid Thu, 14 Nov 2013 08:16:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/604893/ This study aims to numerically examine the fluid flow and heat transfer in a porous microchannel saturated with power-law fluid. The governing momentum and energy equations are solved by using the finite difference technique. The present study focuses on the slip flow regime, and the flow in porous media is modeled using the modified Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model for power-law fluids. Parametric studies are conducted to examine the effects of Knudsen number, Darcy number, power law index, and inertia parameter. Results are given in terms of skin friction and Nusselt number. It is found that when the Knudsen number and the power law index decrease, the skin friction on the walls decreases. This effect is reduced slowly while the Darcy number decreases until it reaches the Darcy regime. Consequently, with a very low permeability the effect of power law index vanishes. The numerical results indicated also that when the power law index decreases the fully-developed Nusselt number increases considerably especially, in the limit of high permeability, that is, nonDarcy regime. As far as Darcy regime is concerned the effects of the Knudsen number and the power law index of the fully-developed Nusselt number is very little. Yazan Taamneh and Reyad Omari Copyright © 2013 Yazan Taamneh and Reyad Omari. All rights reserved. A Double Diffusive Unsteady MHD Convective Flow Past a Flat Porous Plate Moving through a Binary Mixture with Suction or Injection Sat, 26 Oct 2013 12:59:13 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/935156/ The problem of unsteady magnetohydrodynamic convective flow with radiation and chemical reaction past a flat porous plate moving through a binary mixture in an optically thin environment is considered. The governing boundary layer equations are converted to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and then solved numerically by MATLAB “bvp4c” routine. The velocity, temperature, and concentration profiles are presented graphically for various values of the material parameters. Also a numerical data for the local skin friction coefficient, the local Nusselt number, and local Sherwood number is presented in tabular forms. D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry and A. S. N. Murti Copyright © 2013 D. R. V. S. R. K. Sastry and A. S. N. Murti. All rights reserved. An Exact Analytical Solution of the Strong Shock Wave Problem in Nonideal Magnetogasdynamics Mon, 21 Oct 2013 10:55:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/810206/ We construct the solutions to the strong shock wave problem with generalized geometries in nonideal magnetogasdynamics. Here, it is assumed that the density ahead of the shock front varies according to a power of distance from the source of the disturbance. Also, an analytical expression for the total energy carried by the wave motion in nonideal medium under the influence of magnetic field is derived. S. D. Ram, R. Singh, and L. P. Singh Copyright © 2013 S. D. Ram et al. All rights reserved. Hall Effect on Bénard Convection of Compressible Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium Thu, 10 Oct 2013 15:55:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/910531/ An investigation made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible Walter’s B′ elasticoviscous fluid through porous medium is considered. The analysis is carried out within the framework of linear stability theory and normal mode technique. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and compressibility have postponed the onset of convection through porous medium. Moreover, medium permeability hasten postpone the onset of convection, and magnetic field has duel character on the onset of convection. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection have been obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents found to introduce oscillatory modes, in the absence of these effects the principle of exchange of stabilities is valid. Mahinder Singh and Chander Bhan Mehta Copyright © 2013 Mahinder Singh and Chander Bhan Mehta. All rights reserved. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Growth of Gravitational Interfacial Instability Generated by Two Viscous Fluids of Different Densities Thu, 03 Oct 2013 14:25:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/fluids/2013/532016/ In the geophysical context, there are a wide variety of mechanisms which may lead to the formation of unstable density stratification, leading in turn to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and, more generally, interfacial gravity-driven instabilities, which involves moving boundaries and interfaces. The purpose of this work is to study the level set method and to apply the process to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability experimentally and numerically. With the help of a simple, inexpensive experimental arrangement, the R-T instability has been visualized with moderate accuracy for real fluids. The same physical phenomenon has been investigated numerically to track the interface of two fluids of different densities to observe the gravitational instability with the application of level set method coupled with volume of fraction replacing the Heaviside function. Good agreement between theory and experimental results was found and growth of instability for both of the methods has been plotted. Snehamoy Majumder, Debajit Saha, and Partha Mishra Copyright © 2013 Snehamoy Majumder et al. All rights reserved.