Geography Journal http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2014 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Omitted Variables in the Geographical Treatment of Well-Being and Happiness Thu, 19 Jun 2014 08:56:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2014/150491/ This paper provides a critical engagement with state-of-the-art research from positive psychology and behavioral genetics that directly challenges social geographers’ working hypothesis that people’s well-being and happiness can dramatically be improved by suitably modifying unjust social arrangements and exploitative economic relations. It is intended to generate interest in this neglected body of work in general and awareness of its politically regressive implications in particular. Dragos Simandan Copyright © 2014 Dragos Simandan. All rights reserved. A Suite of Tools for Assessing Thematic Map Accuracy Wed, 11 Jun 2014 11:34:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2014/372349/ Although land use/cover maps are widely used to support management and environmental policies, only some studies have reported their accuracy using sound and complete assessments. Thematic map accuracy assessment is typically achieved by comparing reference sites labeled with the “ground-truth” category to the ones depicted in the land use/cover map. A variety of sampling designs are used to select these references sites. The estimators for accuracy indices and the variance of these estimators depend on the sampling design. However, the tools used to assess accuracy available in the main program packages compute the accuracy indices without taking into account the sampling and give inconsistent estimates. As an alternative, we present free user-friendly tools that enable users beyond the Geographic Information Science Community to compute accuracy indices and estimate corrected areas of given categories with their respective confidence intervals. The tool runs in Dinamica EGO, a free platform for environmental spatial modeling as well as a Q-GIS plugin and a R package. Additionally, a practical application example is described using a case study area in central-west Mexico. Jean-François Mas, Azucena Pérez-Vega, Adrián Ghilardi, Silvia Martínez, Jaime Octavio Loya-Carrillo, and Ernesto Vega Copyright © 2014 Jean-François Mas et al. All rights reserved. A Study on Moyna Basin Water-Logged Areas (India) Using Remote Sensing and GIS Methods and Their Contemporary Economic Significance Sun, 18 May 2014 12:49:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2014/401324/ The prime objective of this paper is to identify and map the water-logged areas within Moyna basin, India, and to explore their contemporary economic significances. The Landsat 5 TM, ASTER data, and topographical sheets have been taken into consideration with field observations. Maps on relief, slope, canal density, embankments, a supervised classification of the study area and then NDVI, NDWI, and modified NDWI or NDMI have been prepared here. At Moyna, the piezometric surface ranges from five to ten metres below the ground level. The percentage of clay particles is high throughout the surface soil. The total rainfall is nearly 1400 mm and most of it happened during the monsoon period. Two well-marked depressions are observed there within the basin and the nearly central one is wide and is clearly identified from the relief map also. Problem of drainage congestion there accelerates the onset of water-logged situation. In general, water-logged areas are not suitable for humans. People once were worried about the water-logged environment due to underwater scenario of low-lying agricultural fields for a certain period, but today local people are taking this environmental condition as an opportunity for fishing activity and thus they are becoming economically benefitted as well. Abhay Sankar Sahu Copyright © 2014 Abhay Sankar Sahu. All rights reserved. Morphometry Governs the Dynamics of a Drainage Basin: Analysis and Implications Wed, 07 May 2014 06:43:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2014/927176/ Mountainous rivers are the most significant source of water supply in the Himalayan provinces of India. The drainage basin dynamics of these rivers are controlled by the tectonomorphic parameters, which include both surface and subsurface characteristics of a basin. To understand the drainage basin dynamics and their usefulness in watershed prioritisation and management in terms of soil erosion studies and groundwater potential assessment and flood hazard risk reduction in mountainous rivers, morphometric analysis of a Himalayan River (Supin River) basin has been taken as a case study. The entire Supin River basin has been subdivided into 27 subwatersheds and 36 morphometric parameters have been calculated under four broad categories: drainage network, basin geometry, drainage texture, and relief characteristics, each of which is further grouped into five different clusters having similar morphometric properties. The various morphometric parameters have been correlated with each other to understand their underlying relationship and control over the basin hydrogeomorphology. The result thus generated provides adequate knowledge base required for decision making during strategic planning and delineation of prioritised hazard management zones in mountainous terrains. Atrayee Biswas, Dipanjan Das Majumdar, and Sayandeep Banerjee Copyright © 2014 Atrayee Biswas et al. All rights reserved. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions of China’s Model Environmental Cities Tue, 18 Mar 2014 09:07:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2014/204745/ This paper identifies three types of model environmental cities in China and examines their levels of energy-related carbon emissions using a bottom-up accounting system. Model environmental cities are identified as those that have been recently awarded official recognition from the central government for their efforts in environmental protection. The findings show that, on average, the Low-Carbon Cities have lower annual carbon emissions, carbon intensities, and per capita emissions than the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities. Compared internationally, the Eco-Garden Cities and the Environmental Protection Cities have per capita emissions that are similar to those of American cities whereas per capita emissions from the Low-Carbon Cities are similar to those of European cities. The result indicates that addressing climate change is not a priority for some model environmental cities. Policy changes are needed to prioritize climate mitigation in these cities, considering that climate change is a cross-cutting environmental issue with wide-ranging impact. Kevin Lo Copyright © 2014 Kevin Lo. All rights reserved. Estimation of Peak Flood Discharge for an Ungauged River: A Case Study of the Kunur River, West Bengal Sat, 28 Dec 2013 14:17:08 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/214140/ Due to unavailability of sufficient discharge data for many rivers, hydrologists have used indirect methods for deriving flood discharge amount, that is, application of channel geometry and hydrological models, for the estimation of peak discharge in the selected ungauged river basin(s) in their research/project works. This paper has studied the estimation of peak flood discharge of the Kunur River Basin, a major tributary of the Ajay River in the lower Gangetic plain. To achieve this objective, field measurements, GIS technique, and several channel geometry equations are adopted. Three important geomorphic based hydrological models—manning’s equation, kinematic wave parameter (KWP), and SCS curve number (CN) method—have been used for computing peak discharge during the flood season, based on daily rainfall data of September, 2000. Peak discharges, calculated by different given models, are 239.44 m3/s, 204.08 m3/s, and 146.52 m3/s, respectively. The hydrograph has demonstrated the sudden increase with heavy rainfall from the 18th to the 22nd of September, 2000. As a result, a havoc flood condition was generated in the confluence zone of Ajay and Kunur Rivers. This hydrograph might be not only successful application for flood forecasting but also for management of the lower Ajay River Basin as well as the downstream area of Kunur Basin. Suvendu Roy and Biswaranjan Mistri Copyright © 2013 Suvendu Roy and Biswaranjan Mistri. All rights reserved. An Evaluation of Data Collected by Middle School and College-Level Students in Stream Channel Geomorphic Assessment Wed, 18 Dec 2013 13:14:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/898164/ This project tested the accuracy and repeatability of geomorphic stream channel assessments conducted by two different middle school classes from the Walt Morey Middle School in Troutdale, OR and college students from Portland State University in Portland, OR. Each group surveyed the same three cross-sections in Fairview Creek, a tributary to the Lower Columbia River, in order to assess stream channel geometry, discharge, composition of the bed material, and water quality. The three student groups were all able to accurately document the stream channel geometry, including stream width and mean depth, indicating that these data can be successfully collected by volunteers of various ages. However, stream velocity obtained using the float method was consistently overestimated leading to a biased calculation of discharge, and the low precision of the measurements did not allow for a correction of the bias. The median particle size of the bed material determined by a pebble count was also overestimated by each group, but the low precision also negated the possibility of correcting the estimate. The stored fine sediment in the bed was underestimated by each group and again with low precision. The temperature, pH, and conductivity measured with a calibrated multimeter were accurate and precise for all groups. Martin D. Lafrenz Copyright © 2013 Martin D. Lafrenz. All rights reserved. Tectonic Control on Drainage Network Evolution in the Upper Narmada Valley: Implication to Neotectonics Wed, 27 Nov 2013 18:52:57 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/325808/ Convergence of the Indian plate towards Eurasia is reflected in neotectonics along several zones throughout the Indian plate. Neotectonics of the upper Narmada river basin following one of the active Son-Narmada Fault (SNF central part) zones in central Peninsular India has been studied through tectonic geomorphometric parameters. The study area is 175 km wide and 400 km long valley and catchment area of upper Narmada river basin in Madhya Pradesh state. High resolution ASTER data indicates neotectonic features like sudden changes in drop of Narmada river floor at two locations around Jabalpur formed by conjugate normal faults. Cross profiles indicate uplift of the entire area by a few hundred meters south of the Son-Narmada south fault. Basin asymmetry parameter indicates northward shifting of the river course from middle of the basin due to uplift of the southern block. Girish Ch. Kothyari and B. K. Rastogi Copyright © 2013 Girish Ch. Kothyari and B. K. Rastogi. All rights reserved. Distribution of Industrial Farms in the United States and Socioeconomic, Health, and Environmental Characteristics of Counties Tue, 13 Aug 2013 15:03:18 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/385893/ The method of producing food animals has changed in the United States over the past century, moving from traditional burns to enclosed structures resembling industrial buildings, where animals are raised in high stocking density (commonly known as “Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations,” CAFOs). The objective to maximize profit has resulted in poor farm management; raised issues of environmental pollution, public health, animal rights, and environmental justice, and had socio-economic impacts. Studies concerning the issues are limited to specific regions and types of CAFOs. In addition, studies on the spatial distribution and temporal changes of CAFO at a country scale are lacking. This study bridges some of the gaps by analyzing the spatial distribution of industrial farms in the United States in 2002 and 2007 and their relationship with vulnerable population and exploring the relationships among the concentrations of farms, socio-economic, health, and environmental characteristics of the counties. A range of spatial statistics tools were applied in this study. The study revealed variations in spatial distribution depending on the type of the CAFOs. The issue of environmental justice was found prevalent depending on the types of industrial farms. Each type of industrial farm was found to interact uniquely with the selected demographic, health, and environmental parameters. S. M. Rafael Harun and Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger Copyright © 2013 S. M. Rafael Harun and Yelena Ogneva-Himmelberger. All rights reserved. Spatial-Temporal Analysis of the Economic and Environmental Coordination Development Degree in Liaoning Province Wed, 10 Jul 2013 13:13:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/195635/ This study selects 20 indices of economic and environmental conditions over 15 years (1996–2010) for 14 cities in Liaoning province, China. We calculate the economic score and environmental score of each city by processing 4200 data points through SPSS 16.0 and establish synthesis functions between the economy and the environment. For the time dimension, we study the temporal evolution of the economic and environmental coordination development degree . Based on Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) techniques and using GeoDa, we calculate Moran's index of local spatial autocorrelation and explore the spatial distribution character of in Liaoning province through a LISA cluster map. As we found in the temporal dimension, the results show that of the 14 cities has been rising for 15 years and that increases year by year, which indicates that the economic and environmental coordination development condition has been improving from disorder to highly coordinated. A smaller gap between economic strength and environmental carrying capacity in Liaoning province exists, which means that economic development and environmental protection remain synchronized. In the spatial dimension, the highly coordinated cities have changed from a scattering to a concentration in the middle-south region of Liaoning province. Poorly coordinated cities are scattered in the northwestern region of Liaoning province. Hui Wang, Fan Liu, Ying Yuan, and Liang Wang Copyright © 2013 Hui Wang et al. All rights reserved. Morphometric Analysis to Infer Hydrological Behaviour of Lidder Watershed, Western Himalaya, India Sun, 07 Apr 2013 17:20:32 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/178021/ West Lidder River, in the Northwest Greater-Himalayan mountain range, is the major source of irrigation and drinking water supplies for the Kashmir Valley with a population of seven million people. The major source of water for the whole Lidder River is snow and icemelt emanating from its two subcatchments East Lidder and West Lidder. Snowmelt significantly contributes to the evolution of drainage patterns in this area. Quantitative morphometry plays a vital role in routing the snowmelt and other hydrological processes. Morphometric analysis of the West Lidder River catchment was carried out using geospatial technique. The outcome revealed that the entire study area has uniform lithology and is structurally permeable. The high drainage density of all subwatersheds indicate more surface runoff. The morphometric analysis also indicates that the area is more prone to weathering due to very-coarse to coarse drainage texture. All the subwatersheds showed dendritic to subdendritic drainage pattern. An immense control of structure on the drainage in some subwatersheds is indicated by their high bifurcation ratios. Circulatory and elongation ratios show that the subwatersheds have elongated to circular shapes. From the integrated analysis of the morphometric parameters, important hydrologic behaviour of 17 subwatersheds could be inferred. Farrukh Altaf, Gowhar Meraj, and Shakil A. Romshoo Copyright © 2013 Farrukh Altaf et al. All rights reserved. Climate Aridity under Changing Conditions and Implications for the Agricultural Sector: Italy as a Case Study Thu, 20 Dec 2012 11:31:19 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/geography/2013/923173/ A comprehensive diachronic analysis (1951–2010) of precipitation and temperature regimes has been carried out at the national and regional scale in Italy to investigate the impact of climate aridity on the agricultural system. Trends in climate aridity have been also analysed using UNEP aridity index which is the ratio between rainfall and potential evapotranspiration on a yearly basis. During the examined time period, and particularly in the most recent years, a gradual reduction in rainfall and growing temperatures have been observed which have further widened the gap between precipitation amounts and water demand in agriculture. Luca Salvati, Marco Zitti, Rosanna Di Bartolomei, and Luigi Perini Copyright © 2013 Luca Salvati et al. All rights reserved.