About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 168361, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/168361
Review Article

The Optimal First-Line Therapy of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Year 2012

1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
3Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
4Department of Health Management, I-Shou University, E-Da Hospital, Kaohsiung County 824, Taiwan
5Department of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
6Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan
7Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan

Received 29 February 2012; Accepted 17 April 2012

Academic Editor: Ping-I Hsu

Copyright © 2012 Chao-Hung Kuo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. P. Malfertheiner, F. Megraud, C. O'Morain et al., “Current concepts in the management of Helicobacter pylori infection: the maastricht III consensus report,” Gut, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 772–781, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. S. Qua, J. Manikam, and K. L. Goh, “Efficacy of 1-week proton pump inhibitor triple therapy as first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regime in Asian patients: is it still effective 10 years on?” Journal of Digestive Diseases, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 244–248, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Sasaki, N. Ogasawara, K. Utsumi et al., “Changes in 12-year first-line eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori based on triple therapy with proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin,” Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. O'Connor, J. P. Gisbert, D. McNamara, and C. O'Morain, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2010,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, supplement 1, pp. 46–52, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. M. Selgrad and P. Malfertheiner, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori,” Current Opinion in Gastroenterology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 565–570, 2011.
  6. H. G. Park, M. K. Jung, J. T. Jung et al., “Randomised clinical trial: a comparative study of 10-day sequential therapy with 7-day standard triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in naïve patients,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 56–65, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. A. O'Connor, J. P. Gisbert, D. McNamara, and C. O'Morain, “Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2011,” Helicobacter, vol. 16, supplement 1, pp. 53–58, 2011.
  8. Y. Gumurdulu, E. Serin, B. Özer et al., “Low eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori with triple 7–14 days and quadriple therapy in Turkey,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 668–671, 2004. View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Bigard, J. C. Delchier, G. Riachi, P. Thibault, and P. Barthelemy, “One-week triple therapy using omeprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia: influence of dosage of omeprazole and clarithromycin,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 383–388, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. S. K. Chuah, F. W. Tsay, P. I. Hsu, and D. C. Wu, “A new look at anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 17, no. 35, pp. 3971–3975, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. D. Y. Graham, G. M. Lew, H. M. Malaty et al., “Factors influencing the eradication of Helicobacter pylori with triple therapy,” Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 2, pp. 493–496, 1992. View at Scopus
  12. M. Abdullahi, B. Annibale, D. Capoccia et al., “The eradication of Helicobacter pylori is affected by body mass index (BMI),” Obesity Surgery, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 1450–1454, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. Suzuki, K. Matsuo, H. Ito et al., “Smoking increases the treatment failure for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 119, no. 3, pp. 217–224, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Y. Graham and L. Fischbach, “Helicobacter pylori treatment in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 8, pp. 1143–1153, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. P. Gisbert, R. Pajares, and J. M. Pajares, “Evolution of Helicobacter pylori therapy from a meta-analytical perspective,” Helicobacter, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 50–58, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. F. Mégraud, “H pylori antibiotic resistance: prevalence, importance, and advances in testing,” Gut, vol. 53, no. 9, pp. 1374–1384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. Y. Graham, H. Lu, and Y. Yamaoka, “Therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection can be improved: sequential therapy and beyond,” Drugs, vol. 68, no. 6, pp. 725–736, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. V. de Francesco, F. Giorgio, C. Hassan et al., “Worldwide H. pylori antibiotic resistance: a systematic review,” Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 409–414, 2010. View at Scopus
  19. E. R. Greenberg, G. L. Anderson, D. R. Morgan et al., “14-day triple, 5-day concomitant, and 10-day sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori infection in seven Latin American sites: a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9790, pp. 507–514, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. M. Fock, P. Katelaris, K. Sugano et al., “Second Asia-Pacific consensus guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1587–1600, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. O'Morain, T. Borody, A. Farley et al., “Efficacy and safety of single-triple capsules of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole and tetracycline, given with omeprazole, for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori: an international multicentre study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 415–420, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. Laine, R. Hunt, H. EI-Zimaity, B. Nguyen, M. Osato, and J. Spénard, “Bismuth-based quadruple therapy using a single capsule of bismuth biskalcitrate, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus omeprazole, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin for eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer patients: a prospective, randomized, multicenter, North American trial,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 98, no. 3, pp. 562–567, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. P. Malfertheiner, F. Bazzoli, J. C. Delchier et al., “Helicobacter pylori eradication with a capsule containing bismuth subcitrate potassium, metronidazole, and tetracycline given with omeprazole versus clarithromycin-based triple therapy: a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, phase 3 trial,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9769, pp. 905–913, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. W. D. Chey and B. C. Y. Wong, “American College of Gastroenterology guideline on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 8, pp. 1808–1825, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. Vaira, A. Zullo, N. Vakil et al., “Sequential therapy versus standard triple-drug therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 556–563, 2007. View at Scopus
  26. L. Gatta, N. Vakil, G. Leandro, F. di Mario, and D. Vaira, “Sequential therapy or triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in adults and children,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 3069–3079, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. I. Hsu, D. C. Wu, J. Y. Wu, and D. Y. Graham, “Is there a benefit to extending the duration of Helicobacter pylori sequential therapy to 14 days?” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 146–152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. Sirimontaporn, D. Thong-Ngam, S. Tumwasorn, and V. Mahachai, “Ten-day sequential therapy of Helicobacter pylori infection in Thailand,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 105, no. 5, pp. 1071–1075, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W. H. Choi, D. I. Park, S. J. Oh et al., “Effectiveness of 10 day-sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in Korea,” The Korean Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 280–284, 2008. View at Scopus
  30. D. C. Wu, P. I. Hsu, J. Y. Wu et al., “Sequential and concomitant therapy with four drugs is equally effective for eradication of H pylori infection,” Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 36–41, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. S. Essa, J. R. Kramer, D. Y. Graham, and G. Treiber, “Meta-analysis: four-drug, three-antibiotic, non-bismuth-containing “concomitant therapy” versus triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 109–118, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Georgopoulos, V. Papastergiou, E. Xirouchakis et al., “Evaluation of a four-drug, three-antibiotic, vonbismuth-containing “concomitant” therapy as first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen in Greece,” Helicobacter, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 49–53, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. P. I. Hsu, D. C. Wu, J. Y. Wu, and D. Y. Graham, “Modified sequential Helicobacter pylori therapy: proton pump inhibitor and amoxicillin for 14 days with clarithromycin and metronidazole added as a quadruple (hybrid) therapy for the final 7 days,” Helicobacter, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 139–145, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. M. Berning, S. Krasz, and S. Miehlke, “Should quinolones come first in Helicobacter pylori therapy?” Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 103–114, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Molina-Infante, B. Perez-Gallardo, M. Fernandez-Bermejo et al., “Clinical trial: clarithromycin vs. levofloxacin in first-line triple and sequential regimens for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1077–1084, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Romano, A. Cuomo, A. G. Gravina et al., “Empirical levofloxacin-containing versus clarithromycin-containing sequential therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised trial,” Gut, vol. 59, no. 11, pp. 1465–1470, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. H. Kuo, H. M. Hu, F. C. Kuo et al., “Efficacy of levofloxacin-based rescue therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection after standard triple therapy: a randomized controlled trial,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 1017–1024, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. W. M. Wong, Q. Gu, K. M. Chu et al., “Lansoprazole, levofloxacin and amoxicillin triple therapy vs. quadruple therapy as second-line treatment of resistant Helicobacter pylori infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 421–427, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. H. C. Cheng, W. L. Chang, W. Y. Chen, H. B. Yang, J. J. Wu, and B. S. Sheu, “Levofloxacin-containing triple therapy to eradicate the persistent H. pylori after a failed conventional triple therapy,” Helicobacter, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 359–363, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. L. W. Chen, R. N. Chien, J. J. Chang, K. M. Fang, and L. C. Chang, “Comparison of the once-daily levofloxacin-containing triple therapy with the twice-daily standard triple therapy for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication: a prospective randomised study,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 64, no. 11, pp. 1530–1534, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. G. Cammarota, A. Martino, G. Pirozzi et al., “High efficacy of 1-week doxycycline- and amoxicillin-based quadruple regimen in a culture-guided, third-line treatment approach for Helicobacter pylori infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 7, pp. 789–795, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. L. M. Best, D. J. M. Haldane, G. S. Bezanson, and S. J. Veldhuyzen van Zanten, “Helicobacter pylori: primary susceptibility to clarithromycin in vitro in Nova Scotia,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 298–300, 1997. View at Scopus
  43. J. Cabrita, M. Oleastro, R. Matos et al., “Features and trends in Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Lisbon area, Portugal (1990–1999),” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 1029–1031, 2000. View at Scopus
  44. J. P. Gisbert and X. Calvet, “Review article: rifabutin in the treatment of refractory Helicobacter pylori infection,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 209–221, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. G. Apseloff, “Severe neutropenia among healthy volunteers given rifabutin in clinical trials,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 591–592, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. Rimbara, L. A. Fischbach, and D. Y. Graham, “Optimal therapy for Helicobacter pylori infections,” Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 79–88, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. L. Fischbach and E. L. Evans, “Meta-analysis: the effect of antibiotic resistance status on the efficacy of triple and quadruple first-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 343–357, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. O'Connor, I. Taneike, A. Nami et al., “Helicobacter pylori resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Ireland,” European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1123–1127, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. L. Chang, B. S. Sheu, H. C. Cheng, Y. J. Yang, H. B. Yang, and J. J. Wu, “Resistance to metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin of Helicobacter pylori before and after clarithromycin-based therapy in Taiwan,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 1230–1235, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. F. C. Y. Cheng, S. K. Lam, and G. B. Ong, “Maximum acid output to graded doses of pentagastrin and its relation to parietal cell mass in Chinese patients with duodenal ulcer,” Gut, vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 827–832, 1977. View at Scopus
  51. C. H. Kuo, S. S. W. Wang, W. H. Hsu et al., “Rabeprazole can overcome the impact of CYP2C19 polymorphism on quadruple therapy,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 265–272, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. T. Kita, Y. Tanigawara, N. Aoyama et al., “CYP2C19 genotype related effect of omeprazole on intragastric pH and antimicrobial stability,” Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 615–621, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. J. M. Kang, N. Kim, D. H. Lee et al., “Effect of the CYP2C19 polymorphism on the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection by 7-day triple therapy with regular proton pump inhibitor dosage,” Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, vol. 23, part 1, no. 8, pp. 1287–1291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Jinda, K. Nakatani, J. Nishioka et al., “Personalized treatment in the eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori,” International Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 255–261, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. Yang, H. L. Wang, H. D. Chern et al., “Role of omeprazole dosage and cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype in patients receiving omeprazole-amoxicillin dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 227–238, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. X. Pan, Y. Li, Y. Qiu et al., “Efficacy and tolerability of first-line triple therapy with levofloxacin and amoxicillin plus esomeprazole or rabeprazole for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection and the effect of CYP2C19 genotype: a 1-week, randomized, open-label study in Chinese adults,” Clinical Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 12, pp. 2003–2011, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. H. Lee, H. Y. Jung, K. D. Choi, H. J. Song, G. H. Lee, and J. H. Kim, “The influence of CYP2C19 polymorphism on eradication of Helicobacter pylori: a prospective randomized study of lansoprazole and rabeprazole,” Gut and Liver, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. Aiba, N. Suzuki, A. M. A. Kabir, A. Takagi, and Y. Koga, “Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model,” American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 93, no. 11, pp. 2097–2101, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. I. V. Pinchuk, P. Bressollier, B. Verneuil et al., “In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the probiotic strain Bacillus subtilis 3 is due to secretion of antibiotics,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 3156–3161, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. B. S. Sheu, J. J. Wu, C. Y. Lo et al., “Impact of supplement with Lactobacillus—and Bifidobacterium—containing yogurt on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1669–1675, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. C. G. Goldman, D. A. Barrado, N. Balcarce et al., “Effect of a probiotic food as an adjuvant to triple therapy for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in children,” Nutrition, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 984–988, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. Y. Wang, S. N. Li, C. S. Liu et al., “Effects of ingesting Lactobacillus- and Bifidobacterium-containing yogurt in subjects with colonized Helicobacter pylori,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 737–741, 2004. View at Scopus
  63. E. Lionetti, V. L. Miniello, S. P. Castellaneta et al., “Lactobacillus reuteri therapy to reduce side-effects during anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment in children: a randomized placebo controlled trial,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1461–1468, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. Lesbros-Pantoflickova, I. Corthesy-Theulaz, L. Blum, et al., “Helicobacter pylori and probiotics,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 137, supplement 3, pp. 812S–818S, 2007.
  65. K. Miki, Y. Urita, F. Ishikawa et al., “Effect of bifidobacterium bifidum fermented milk on Helicobacter pylori and serum pepsinogen levels in humans,” Journal of Dairy Science, vol. 90, no. 6, pp. 2630–2640, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. E. Myllyluoma, L. Veijola, T. Ahlroos et al., “Probiotic supplementation improves tolerance to Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy—a placebo—controlled, double-blind randomized pilot study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1263–1272, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. E. Drouin, “Helicobacter pylori: novel therapies,” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 581–583, 1999. View at Scopus
  68. I. J. Broekaert and W. A. Walker, “Probiotics and chronic disease,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 270–274, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K. Özdil, T. Çalhan, A. Sahin et al., “Levofloxacin based sequential and triple therapy compared with standard plus probiotic combination for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Hepato-Gastroenterology, vol. 58, no. 109, pp. 1148–1152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. E. Lionetti, F. Indrio, L. Pavone, G. Borrelli, L. Cavallo, and R. Francavilla, “Role of probiotics in pediatric patients with Helicobacter pylori infection: a comprehensive review of the literature,” Helicobacter, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. L. V. McFarland, “Systematic review and meta-analysis of saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients,” World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 18, pp. 2202–2222, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. H. Szajewska, A. Horvath, and A. Piwowarczyk, “Meta-analysis: the effects of Saccharomyces boulardii supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during treatment,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 1069–1079, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. Zou, J. Dong, and X. Yu, “Meta-analysis: lactobacillus containing quadruple therapy versus standard triple first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication,” Helicobacter, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 97–107, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. J. L. Tong, Z. H. Ran, J. Shen, C. X. Zhang, and S. D. Xiao, “Meta-analysis: the effect of supplementation with probiotics on eradication rates and adverse events during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 155–168, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. P. Gisbert, A. Pérez-Aisa, M. Castro-Fernández et al., “Helicobacter pylori first-line treatment and rescue option containing levofloxacin in patients allergic to penicillin,” Digestive and Liver Disease, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 287–290, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus