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Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 287825, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/287825
Review Article

Current Concepts on Gastric Carcinoid Tumors

Section of Gastrointestinal Neuroendocrinology, First Department of Propaedeutic Internal Medicine, Laiko Hospital, University of Athens Medical School, Agiou Thoma 17, Goudi, 11527 Athens, Greece

Received 6 July 2012; Revised 31 October 2012; Accepted 19 November 2012

Academic Editor: Marcus Bahra

Copyright © 2012 George C. Nikou and Theodoros P. Angelopoulos. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Gastric carcinoid tumors (GCs) are rare lesions representing less than 10% of carcinoid tumors and less than 1% of all stomach neoplasms. There are three distinct types of gastric carcinoids; type I includes the vast majority (70–85%) of these neoplasms that are closely linked to chronic atrophic gastritis. Type II which accounts for 5–10 %, is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and often occurs in the context of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Type III, finally, represents 15–25% of gastric carcinoids and is characterized by a far more aggressive course. The optimal clinical approach to GCs remains to be elucidated, depending upon type, size, and number of carcinoids. While there is universal agreement about the surgical treatment of type III GCs, current options for type I and II include simple surveillance, endoscopic polypectomy, surgical excision associated with or without surgical antrectomy, or total gastrectomy. Moreover, the introduction of somatostatin analogues could represent another therapeutic option.