Table 2: Metabolic syndrome and gastrointestinal disease.

 ReferenceYearPatients no.Definitions of metabolic syndromeRelative risk (RR) or odds ratios (OR)P value

Colorectal cancer Pelucchi et al. [24]20101378IDF criteriaMen: OR, 2.09
(95% CI, 1.38–3.18)
<0.001
>3 componentsWomen: OR, 1.15
(95% CI, 0.68–1.94)
P = 0.22
Ahmed et al. [25]2006194ATP IIIMen: RR, 1.78
( 95% CI, 1.0–3.6)
 
>3 components or moreWomen: RR, 1.16
( 95% CI, 0.6–2.2)
 
Nonalcholic fatty liver disease Hamaguchi et al. [26]2005816Presence of the metabolic syndromeMen: OR, 4.00
(95% CI, 2.63–6.08)
<0.001
ATP IIIWomen: OR, 11.20
(95% CI, 4.85–25.87)
<0.001
liver fibrosisMarchesini et al. [27]2003304ATP IIIOR, 3.5
(95% CI, 1.1–11.2)
P = 0.032
NASHMarchesini et al. [27]2003304ATP IIIOR, 3.2
(95% CI, 1.2–8.9)
P = 0.26
 Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)Welzel et al. [28]20113649ATP IIIOR, 2.13;
(95% CI = 1.96–2.31)
P < 0.0001
 Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomaWelzel et al. [28]2011743ATP IIIOR, 1.56;
(95% CI = 1.32–1.83)
P < 0.0001